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Lecture 3
1. History of the Hebrews : (新约中)希伯来书
I. Canaan(迦南), the promised land:51
P.S.: 迦南(《圣经》故事中称其为上帝赐给以色列人祖先的"应许之地",是巴勒斯坦,叙利亚和黎巴嫩等地的古称)
n The Hebrews (ancestors of the Jews):
n Descendants of wandering tribes of Semites in the Near East, hence, called Hebrews,” which means “wanderers;”
n After much wandering, the Hebrews under Abraham, settled in lower Canaan;
n With the rough and dry climate Palestine proved to be unfit for living ;
n →toward the fertile Nile Delta(三角州)
II. Exodus【圣】《出埃及记》
n In about 1750 B.C. Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos, also Semites. Hebrews enjoyed some prosperity in Egypt.
n The Hyksos were expelled from Egypt, the Hebrews had to pay the price of their kinship:
n They were enslaved
n In about 1250 B.C.  Moses, a new religious leader, determined to lead his people back to Cannan for a better life. This movement back towards Canaan is called the Exodus
n Significance: creating the feeling of national unity for the first time. 
III. The Torah★ ★ ★(律法, 圣经旧约之首五卷)
n Moses’ formulation of laws and establishment of religious principles :
n Ten Commandments
n  → dictated to him by God to the people in the Sinai desert
n Over the centuries the Hebrews developed a whole moral and practical code of living: the Torah
n → The basis of this is found in Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy)
n Moses, however, died before the Hebrews actually reached Canaan. 
VI. The Kings《列王纪》
n The Hebrew settlers ran into trouble with the other peoples who had been living in Canaan, esp. the Philistines
n  Samson led the Hebrews to score victory against the Philistines (来源:英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)
n After Samson's death Saul set up the first royal dynasty of the Hebrews
n Saul was succeeded by his son-in-law David in about 1010 B.C.
n David was succeeded by his son Solomon   in 970 B.C.
V. Collapse of Kingdom
n After Solomon's death the kingdom was divided into two unequal and independent parts - Israel with Samaria as the capital, and Judah(犹大), retaining Jerusalem
n In 721 B.C. Israel was conquered by king of Assyria(亚述)
P.S.: 亚述:亚洲西部底格里河流域北部一帝国和文明古国。公元前 9世纪至7世纪,在它的强盛时期,亚述帝国的疆域从地中海跨越阿拉伯和亚美尼亚地区
n In 586 B.C. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian king, and lots of  Jews were brought to Babylon as captives. This is the famous ”Babylonian captivity”
n It was not until Cyrus the Great of Persia波斯(西南亚国家,现在的伊朗)conquered Babylon in 539 B.C. did the Jews regained some powers → self governance for five hundred years
P.S.: Persia波斯:西南亚一个强大的帝国,公元前 546年后由居鲁士二世建立。到了大流士一世和他儿子色雷斯时期,帝国达到全盛时期 。 公元前 334年亚历山大大帝征服了波斯 。后来的帝国由萨桑王朝建立( 公元 226-637年)
VI. Conquest by the Romans
n In 70 B.C. the Roman emperor Titus took Jerusalem. Following this the Jewish people dispersed and left their land to make a living as best they could in different countries throughout the world. 
2. Judaism and Christianity: Similarities: 51 ★ ★ ★ 
Judaism and Christianity are closely related:
I. Christianity emerged from Judaism, hence there are many concepts and values held in common by Judaism and Christianity (the body of these concepts and values is also called Judeo-Christian tradition ):
Judeo-Christian tradition
n i. Monotheism(一神论): Both religions reject atheism, on the one hand, and polytheism, on the other
n ii. Belief in a Messiah(救世主:犹太人所盼望的复国救主及犹太国王)
n iii. Form of worship: including a priesthood(教士, 僧侣, 神父) concepts of sacred space and sacred time, the idea that worship here on Earth is patterned after worship in Heaven, and the use of the Psalms(圣歌)in community prayer.
n  II. Both originated in Palestine, which led to exchange of ideas over wide areas.
2. Judaism and Christianity: Differences:  ★ ★ ★
i. Notion of God: oneness vs trinitarianismL[基督教]三位一体论, 三位一体之教理)
n By the notion of monotheism, Judaism’s idea is that there is one God, and God is completely. The Christian notion is that God is a trinity, made up of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit.
ii. The Messiah (David vs Jesus)
n Jews believe that the messiah is a descendant of King David who will one day usher in a messianic era of peace and prosperity for Israel and all the nations of the world. The traditional Jewish understanding of the messiah is fully human, born of human parents, without any supernatural element.
n Christians hold Jesus to be the messiah foretold in the Hebrew Bible. He is believed to be the son of God in a literal sense, fully human, and simultaneously divine, fully God. In this view, Jesus the messiah is the son of God who offers salvation to all humans.
iii. Sin and Original Sin
n Sin is the Christian idea that people make mistakes or offenses against God. Original sin is the Christian idea that a newborn baby has guilt for sin before taking any action to offend God
n Jews have no concept of Original Sin, and do not accept it, for Judaism teaches that humans are born morally neutral (But Judaism affirms that people are born with a tendency towards goodness).
IV. Salvation(超度,赎罪) and attaining an afterlife
n Judaism believes that sins can be atoned for through repentance
n Most forms of Christianity teach that one can only be saved through the acceptance of Jesus as a saviour, and that repentance accomplishes nothing without belief in Jesus .
n Read for more differences than have been mentioned.
3. the Bible:52 ★
n I. The Bible is made up of the Old Testament and the New Testament.
n The Old Testament is about God and the laws of God, while the latter about the doctrines of Jesus Christ.
n The word “testament” means “agreement” or “covenant”, namely, the agreement between God and Man.
The Old Testament
n I. The Pentateuch:52★
n      Genesis (《创世记》)
n      Exodus(《出埃及》)
n      Leviticus (《利未记》)
n      Numbers (《民数记》)
n      Deuteronomy (《申命记》)
i. Genesis: 53
n God created the world in six days
n →the Sabbath day (the seventh day)
n Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden
n →relationship between man & woman
n → Mr. Right: attitudes of marriage?
n Eve and Adam were tempted to eat the forbidden fruit by the serpent
n God became angry and drove them out of the Paradise.
n God’s anger:
n → When God created man in His image, man is already like God. If man eats the fruit and thus has knowledge of good and evil he will be exactly the same as God.
ii. Noah’s Ark: 56
n Men became increasingly corrupt
n For the knowledge of evil had been passed on by Adam and Eve
n God decided to put an end to mankind, with the exception of Noah.
n Noah’s descendant Abraham
n He and his people were chosen by Yahweh, who promised them the land of Canaan
iii. Ten Commandments:61十诫
n Monotheism:
n “Thou shalt have none other gods before me.”
n “Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing …thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God…”
n Moralistic concern:
n “Honour thy father and thy mother…”
n “Thou shalt not kill.”
n “Neither shalt thou commit adultery(通奸).”
n “Neither shalt thou steal.”
4. Rise & Spread of Christianity基督教:73
n I. Early Christianity
n Early Christians’ notion of divine creation, their concern for God and salvation all stemmed from Judaism of the Hebrews. But Christianity based itself on two forceful beliefs which separate it from all other religions:
n i. Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and God sent him to earth to live as humans live, suffer as humans suffer, and die to redeem(赎回, 挽回)mankind.
n ii. By faith in Jesus, the only begotten son of God, one may attain salvation and eternal life.
Location of Jesus’ Birth
n Mary the virgin was engaged to Joseph the carpenter in Nazareth (巴勒斯坦地区北部古城--拿撒勒), but she was impregnated with the Holy spirit and  gave birth to God’s son Jesus (in a stable of an inn in Bethlehem).
Miracles of Jesus:
n power over nature, power over disease, and even power over death
Death of Jesus:
n  Jewish leaders wanted to kill Jesus on the charge of blasphemy, and had Jesus arrested. A Roman governor named Pilate tried Jesus. He wanted to release Jesus. But when the Jews threatened to riot, Pilate condemned Jesus to death on a cross.
Resurrection: 复苏
n On the third day after Jesus died, Jesus rose from the tomb.  He later appeared to many believers, commanding them to teach and baptize others.
The Sermon(说教, 布道)on the Mount
n Jesus delivered his most famous sermon on a mountain. In it, Jesus taught his listeners to:
n • Love your enemies.
n • Do not judge others.
n • Trust God.
n • Don't be anxious about tomorrow.
n • Do unto others as you would have them do unto you (The "golden rule").
A Summary on Jesus
n While  the Christian doctrine(教条)holds Jesus is the son of God, the fact may be that he is the founder of the new faith, teaching a way of life and faith grounded in a long-established prophetic tradition of Judaism.
n He emphasized the love and mercy of God, the love and brotherhood of men of good will, the unimportance of worldly wealth and power, and the comfort and promise of redemption and happiness in a blessed hereafter.
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