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A Glossary of Publishing Terms

This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears,
who were the inventors of the
pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets,
that enabled modern communication and civil progress.

"I say ... a dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than a giant himself." by Robert Burton
"If I have seen further [than other men,] it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." by Isaac Newton

- A -

AA :
The abbreviation for Author Alteration, which changes are accountable to the editor; also called author correction and client alteration. See change order, insert, sandwich, PE, proofread.

The abbreviation for Audit Bureau of Circulations; being the group formed by advertisers, agencies, and the media to audit the circulation statements of its media members and release this information to advertisers and advertising agencies. See circulation, audience, tracking. (来源:英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

abstract / abstract art :
Art that emphasizes line, color, and nonrepresentational form; also called "non-objective art". Art from which some element has been abstracted. See ASCII art, emoticon.

accent :
Prominence of a syllable, as in its differential volume, stress, pitch, elongation, or a combination thereof, to emphasize a part, word, or phrase; see syllabary, schwa, glide. Also, a mark used to distinguish meaning or to clarify pronunciation, for stress indication (apostrophe or diacritic), for vowel quality (grave, acute, breve, circumflex), or for pitch; see point, tittle, punctuation, floating accent, Unicode. Also, symbolic or derivative notation of assigned values, as with numbers or measurements. Also, a mode of tonal or inflected pronunciation characteristic of or distinctive to the speech of a particular person, group, or locality, a verbal affect; see dialect, idiolect, slide. Also, regularly recurring stress or emphasis in rhythmic verse, as dieresis, macron, anacrusis; see foot, elision, caesura, forced line, verse.

accessibility / disability access :
Materials, publications, and software adapted for use by disabled persons, or for interface with devices that enable use by disabled persons, as provided by supplemental scripting and third-party modes in voluntary compliance with governmental and interest-group guidelines. Website accessibility, as defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is enhanced by tagging all images and tables with descriptive labels, by titling all frames and sources, by using the style sheet command directly on the webpage (instead of external CSS), by using client-side protocols and programs (instead of server based entities), by using relative (instead of absolute) positioning, by making content color independent, and by making navigation consistent. A fundamental concept that web designers and other content providers must understand is: availability is not accessibility. See specialized format, large print, PDF, DAISY, crawl, MSAA, WAI, validation, sign language.

accordian-fold :
An artistic presentation of book contents, usually contained in a slipcase, in which serial pages are printed sequentially on a long strip, and continued on the reverse at the halfway point, then alternately folded to page size. Also known as "z-fold", "s-fold", or concertina-fold. See boustrophedon, French fold, foldout, parallel-fold, wrap-fold.

acid-free paper :
Archival paper that resists discoloration and disintegration due to the absence of caustic chemicals and acidic fibers during manufacture; primarily used for classic reprints and photographic essays. See paper.

acknowledgments / acknowledgments page :
A book page, usually Roman-numeral verso, recognizing authorizations, contributions, citations, constructions, and appreciations; which may include a dedication, masthead, or colophon with the copyright and other legal declarations. The British spelling is "acknowledgements". See title page, credit line, dedication, front matter, disclaimer, specialized format.

Acrobat :
The document exchange software suite from Adobe Systems. Acrobat provides a platform-independent means of creating, viewing, and printing documents. Acrobat can convert an MS-DOS, Windows, Macintosh, or UNIX document into a stable Portable Document Format (*.PDF), which can then be displayed on any other computer with a freeware version of the Acrobat reader. When others view a PDF file or printout, the document will appear in the exact layout as the author intended. This style consistency when transported is its main advantage over other formatters, such as HTML, which can generate unreliable outputs under various circumstances. See PDF, program, software.

acronym :
A word formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of the words in a name or phrase (eg: RADAR, SONAR, LORAN, CARE, MedEvac, YIPpie); being an acrostic, which may have originated as a mnemonic. Compare initialism.

addendum / addenda :
Anything to be added, or a list of additions. Also, an appendix to a book. See back matter.

ad diction :
The fractured syntax and word conversions employed in slogans and catch-phrases to attract attention to products and to persuade patronage; also called "ad speak", "biz buzz", "sales lingo", "commercial speech". Among purists, the corruptions of ad diction are a perversion of proper grammar; but among devotees, they're a vital coinage of a dynamic language. Sample colloquialisms and pleonasms include: bowlarama, check-into, check-over, check-up, cheese burger, close-down, colorwise, continue-on, fade-away, fade-out, flavorwise, fold-up, foodarama, framed-up, head-up, hide-out, jobwise, lose-out, love-in, motorcade, newscast, newswise, no-show, saleswise, scoutorama, showed-up, sit-in, smellorama, talkathon, telethon, up-until, walkathon, win-out, workathon, wraps it up. See puffery, balderdash, pap, vernacular, flackery, advertising.

additive color :
Color produced by light falling onto a surface. The additive primary colors are red, green, and blue. Compare subtractive color, subtractive primary colors; see illustration.

advance :
The furnishing of some payment or goods before an equivalent is received, as an advance on royalties, which will be amortized and is recoupable; see escalation, royalty, production advance, grant. Also, a press release, publicity, or news copy prepared before the event it describes has occurred. Also, anything made, given, or issued ahead of time, as an advance payment or an advance copy (qv).

advance copies :
The first pressrun copies of a new book or magazine sent to the preferred clients of the publisher, to production staff, to content contributors, and other select persons before regular distribution. See samples.

advance order :
Quantity reserved by publisher for wholesalers and retailers prior to production, based upon advertising of reviews; also known as "lay-down" or "pre-publication order".

advertising :
The practice of offering goods or services to the public through paid announcements in the media; which act of mercantile sponsorship supports the commercial publishing of periodicals and other broadcasts. Advertising revenue constitutes less than half the income for the average periodical. To be effective, ads must be noticed [nb: the average American is exposed to approximately 3,000 commercials each day in all media], which makes them inherently irritating. Advertising dicta opts for "more" and "sooner", rather than "just right" and "later". Ads are formulated to: attract Attention, build Interest, create Desire, compel Action (AIDA). Advertising effectiveness is often expressed as a sexual metaphor: "It's not size, but frequency and location that matters most."! References include: "Standard Directory of Advertisers", "Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies" (The Red Book), "Business Publication Advertising Source", "Standard Rate and Data Directory" (SRDS), "Newspaper Advertising Source". The American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) is a membership organization with voluntary conformity to a code of rules and procedures. See echo effect, word of mouth, card, fractional ad, tombstone, island ad, RDA, column inch, double spread, center spread, cover positions, double pyramid, rollout, bill, broadside, poster, one sheet, fly sheet, handbill, collateral, audit, tear sheet, ballyhoo, puffery, make good, reader profile, CPM, jingle, PSA, ad diction, propaganda, disinformation, advertorial, infomercial, pop-up, adware, colophon. [nb: specimen advertising magazines: "Ad Week" and "Advertising Age"; specimen no-ad magazines: "Consumer Reports" and "Ad Busters"] [nb: huckstering was reversed during WWII to embrace patriotic anti-consumerism with specialized advertising, as the slogan: "Use it up. Wear it out. Make it do, or do without!"]

advertising linage :
The number of advertising pages carried by a magazine in any given period, usually includes a perspective on advertising space compared to editorial content, expressed as a ratio or percentage.

advertising specialties :
Items emblazoned with advertising, such as calendars, coffee cups, hats, matchbooks, and pencils. See premium; compare collateral.

advertorial :
A newspaper or magazine advertisement that promotes the sponsor's product in the guise of objective analysis or public information; derived as a blend of advertisement and editorial. To qualify for publication postal permits, advertisements must not appear to be editorial matter, and any ad presentation that may be confused with general interest copy must be labeled. See editorial well, PSA, infomercial, advertising.

adware :
A form of intrusive spyware that covertly monitors online computer use so as to display advertisements and solicitations in the web browser which are related to the user's interest; such adware (advertisement+software) is allegedly a form of tailored "junk mail" delivered electronically. Also, software that has advertising already embedded, requiring the user to "click through" pop-ups and dialog boxes before accessing the primary program or application. See cookie, pop-up, spam, sniffer.

aesthetics / esthetics :
The branch of philosophy analyzing the theories of taste, and the study of beauty in nature and art; derived from "sensory or intuitive perception" (aisthetiks). See tour de force, masterpiece, opus, oeuvre, ars gratia artis, l'art pour l'art, golden proportion.

afflatus :
Creative inspiration or artistic revelation; derived from "emit", as to be breathed upon by divine communication. The slang expression for this sudden insight is "brain fart". See muse, aesthetics, art, artwork, videation. [v: noetic, limen]

A4 paper :
ISO paper size 210mm X 297mm used for letterheads, forms, magazines, catalogs, laser printer and copying machine output. See paper.

afterword :
A closing statement or concluding commentary at the end of a book, treatise, or other publication. Compare foreword; see back matter.

agate :
A five-point (5.142pt) type; or a typeface sized smaller than that used for news text, especially in classified advertisements (14 agate lines = 1 column inch). Compare pearl, ruby; see fractional ad, milline, linage, font, type.

agent-sold subscriptions :
Subscriptions sold to libraries and institutions through outside agencies such as Ebsco and Faxon. On an annual basis, publishers send these agencies brief editorial descriptions plus subscription information which the agencies publish in their catalogs at no cost. Publishers can also pay for larger display ads. Librarians then purchase subscriptions through these catalogs using the agency essentially as a middleman. Many commercial magazines offer 15%-20% subscription discounts in return for the convenience of the agency's services. See subscription.

air :
White space in a layout. See apron, gutter, river.

airbrush :
A mechanical atomizer producing an adjustable spray of paint, used especially for retouching (qv) photographs and other design illustrations.

A contraction of ALGOrithmic Language, being a computer language in which information is expressed in algebraic notation, and according to the rules of Boolean algebra. See Pascal, language.

algorithm :
A set of problem-solving rules, or a finite sequence of executable steps or instructions, as designed for a computer.

alignment :
The position of text lines on a page relative to its defined margins or grid boxes; including centered, flushed, justified, columnar, and text boxes. See leading, solid leading, minus leading, kern, solid, flush, justify, feathering, ragged, straight composition, H&J, indent.

Notation for setting all designated letters, usually a title or heading, in full capitalization; also called "Cap 'n' Cap". See CAP, LC, CAP&LC, OC, small-cap, CAP&SC, C&IC, proofreader's marks.

allocation :
Quantity of a product, such as a brand of paper, that is rationed to distributors and customers until a specified date.

allonym :
An author's assumed name; the fictitious or counterfeit name under which a writing is published, as derived "other + name". Synonymous with pen name, nom de plume, pseudonym, cognomen, anonym, alias, soi-disant, nom de guerre. See samizdatchik, ghostwriter, byline, autograph, plagiarism. [cf: innominate]

allusion :
A passing reference, either direct or implied, without explicit identification or explanation, to a literary passage, work, or character, or to an historical person, place, or event; used to succinctly establish mood or setting, and to concisely convey subtle meaning to the intended audience. [eg: "from pillar to post" alludes to rushing or being tossed from one thing to another (cf: "hither and thither" or "badgered and bothered"), and may derive from architecture, horse racing, tennis, or punishment (from pillory to whipping post)]

alphabet :
Any system of letters or symbols used for writing, which represents speech sounds or language; implicitly entails phoneme, allomorph, syllable, homonym / homograph / homophone, heteronym, doublet, orthoepy, paragoge, apheresis, prothesis, syncope, metathesis, sandhi, haplology, spoonerism, anagram, acrostic, abecedari. See digraph, ligature, logo, diacritic, morpheme, syllabary, elision, punctuation, syntax, vowel, parse, pidgin, type, typology, font, rune, orthography, oxymoron, neologism, dictionary, semantics, semiotics, lexigram, pictography, ideogram, language, rhetorical forms. The earliest dated written material is c4236BC from Egypt. Sumerian pictography ca3500BC became Mesopotamian cuneiform ("wedge shaped") writing, as used by the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and others. The simple Greek alphabet (16 letters by Cadmus, and 4 letters by Palamedes) was introduced from Phoenicia. Alphabets independently invented elsewhere, as Egyptian hieroglyphics ca3,000BC, Minoan Linear-A / Mycenean Linear-B ca1200BC, Indus Valley script (at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa) ca3,000-2,400BC, Chinese (ideogram) seal script ca1,500BC, Mayan script caAD50, Ogham (Irish Ogam/Ogum) alphabetic script caAD400-1000, Irish Gaelic caAD1175, Aztec Kipu script caAD1400.

alpha test :
The experimental testing of an early version of a software product, that may not contain all of the features that are planned for the final version, to discover programming errors and conflicts. Typically, developmental software testing is two tiered prior to completion. The first stage, called alpha testing, is often performed only by users within the organization developing the software. The second stage, called beta testing , generally involves a limited number of external users. Compare beta test, vaporware; see bug, glitch, patch, kludge, debug, tweak.

alt tag :
An alternative HTML attribute that displays the stipulated data, which may be nested or sequenced. Compare title tag; see tag, markup, validation.

amanuensis :
A person employed to transcribe what another person has dictated or written; also known as scribe, scrivener, copyist, secretary. Compare ghostwriter; see writer.

ampersand :
A character or symbol (&) for 'and'; a literal contraction of "and per se and" (the symbol of 'and' by itself stands for 'and'). See notation, punctuation.

anachronism :
To make a wrong time reference in which a person, object, or event is situated out of correct sequence or proper context, most often as an error rather than a literary device. See factoid, poetic license.

analects / analecta :
Passages or pieces selected from the writings of an author or from different authors, as excerpts, abridgements, or condensations; derived from "to gather". See compilation, digest, truncation, ellipsis, bite, snippet.

analog / analogue :
Something having analogy or being analogous to something else, as pertaining to the measurement of continuously variable data by readout displays having incremental slides or dials, instead of numerical digits. Analog computing represents data in continuously variable physical quantities, in contrast to the digital representation of data in discrete units (the binary digits 1 and 0). The digital to analog converter (DAC) is an electronic circuit that converts digital information (eg: from CD or CD-ROM) into analog information (eg: sound / audio signals). The digital to analog conversion translates digital information (1s and 0s) into analog information (eg: sound waves). An analog signal is converted to digital by sampling at regular intervals; the more frequent the samples and the more data recorded, the more closely the digital depiction represents the analog signal. Converting analog signals into digital makes it possible to preserve the data indefinitely and make many copies without qualitative deterioration. See bit, byte, quantum.

anchor :
To fix a graphical object in desktop publishing so that its position, relative to some other object, remains the same during editing or repagination. Also, a significant literary work or an appealing image that's been strategically positioned to draw readers into the publication; see violin piece, feature.

anchor tag :
The HTML attributed tag specifying a link to another location, either on the same or a different document. The anchor tag uses embedded hypertext reference patterns: <A HREF="URL">click</A>; <A HREF="URL#string">click</A>; <A NAME="string">text or image</A>; <A HREF="webpage"><IMG SRC="file">next page</A>; <A HREF="URL" TARGET="_top">go there</A>. See URL, internet address, tag, markup.

animation :
Simulating lifelike movement in images or objects; derived from "give life". Animations can be created with graphics programs, but must then be assembled with construction software specific to the format. See morph, Flash, GIF, SVG, transparent palette, flipbook, cartoon, joystick, kiosk, illustration.

anodized plate :
An electrolytically-coated offset printing plate, so treated as to reduce wear during printing.

anonymous FTP :
The feature of File Transfer Protocol (FTP) software that lets anyone without an account on a host computer log-on using the user identification "anonymous". See FTP, HTTP, TELNET.

The abbreviation for the American National Standards Institute; formerly known as the American standards Association (ASA). See ISO, ASCII.

anthology :
A collection of selected works, often in the same literary form, of the same period, or on the same subject; derived from "gathering of flowers". Also called "album". See compilation.

anticlimax :
An event, statement, conclusion, or resolution that is far less significant, powerful, or striking than expected; a weak, inglorious, or disappointing conclusion. Also, a noticeable decline or a ludicrous descent in power, quality, or dignity, from lofty ideas or expressions to banalities or commonplace remarks. Compare climax; see deus ex machina, kicker, drama, media event. [v: bathos]

antihero :
The protagonist or central character of drama and literature (qqv) who lacks ennobling qualities and traditional virtues.

anti-offset powder :
Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface of coated paper as sheets leave a press. See pounce.

antique finish :
Roughest finish offered on offset paper. See paper coating.

apex / apexes / apices :
The upper junction point in oblique character stems, the meeting of which is less than perpendicular, as in letters A / M / N / W. See font, type, typeface, typography.

The abbreviation for Application Program Interface (or Application Programming Interface). An interface between the operating system and application programs, which includes the way the application programs communicate with the operating system, and the services the operating system makes available to the programs.

apodosis :
The clause expressing the consequence or conclusion in a conditional sentence; derived from "returning", give back. Compare protasis; see rhetorical forms.

apostrophe :
The sign (') used to indicate the omission of one or more letters in a word (whether pronounced or unpronounced), to indicate the possessive case, or to indicate plurals of abbreviations and symbols, which being an eliding mark derived from "turn away"; see swung dash, elision, punctuation, compare quotation marks. Also, a digression in the form of an address to someone not present, or to a personified object or idea; see strophe, soliloquy, verse.

appendix / appendices :
Any supplementary material at the end of a text; derived from "appendage". See back matter, reference marks. end sign.

application :
Computer program used for specific tasks such as word processing, page layout, or editing photographs.

appositive :
The addition or application of a word or phrase to another, such that these usually consecutive expressions bear the same grammatical relation and referent; an adjunct word or phrase used to qualify or explain the preceding expression. See phrase, parts of speech.

appropriation :
The unauthorized use of private or proprietary property, as to expropriate; derived from "to make one's own". See plagiarism, fair use. Also, to set apart for a specific purpose or use, as a budget (qv) allocation. See sweat equity, marketing plan.

apron :
Additional white space allocated in the margins of text and illustrations when forming a foldout. See white space, margin.

aqueous coating :
Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.

archive :
Cache of documents and files saved for possible use in any subsequent design or print jobs; also called "legacy".

argus :
Any observant person or vigilant guardian, such as a meticulous editor. In both senses of the word (ie: a giant with a thousand eyes, a brilliantly marked peacock), an editor is either a writer's best asset, or merely another obstructive pettifogger. When done properly, editing will be invisible, and the editorial staff anonymous. Publishers and writers both owe deserving proofreaders and copyeditors an "Argus Award" for excellence!

array :
An ordered arrangement of data elements in one or more dimensions: a list, a table, or a multidimensional arrangement of items. A vector is a one-dimensional array; a matrix is a two-dimensional array. Multidimensional arrays are used to store tables of data, especially in scientific simulation and mathematical processing. Data items in an array are distinguished by subscripts.

arrow keys :
The keys on the keyboard that are used to move the cursor in the indicated directions (up, down, left, right), and may have other uses in combination with other keys; sometimes called "cursor keys" or "cursor cross". See cursor.

ars gratia artis :
Latin slogan: art for art's sake, or art for its own sake. The artwork in publishing must convey some message, from evoking mood to augmenting text, in justification of its expensive presence. See l'art pour l'art; compare tour de force, masterpiece, aesthetics. [v: aestheticism]

art :
Everything except textual copy, including styles, images, ornaments, in either radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, or asymmetry. See graphics, illustration, clipart, design, font, afflatus, aesthetics, stylish; compare artwork.

art board :
The pre-press layout backing for graphics and type; also known as "paste-up" onto pasteboard. See mechanical, artwork; compare storyboard. [cf: tablature: to mark or score on a board]

art director :
The person responsible for the selection, development, and production of all illustrative and stylistic aspects of a publication, including graphic arts and advertisements, which set the tone and mood for the reader; also called "art editor", as derived from former periodical 'art buyer'. As a visual interpreter, the art director arranges convertible design elements to represent or supplement the textual component. Compare editor.

artifact :
Anything made by humans that's intended for later or repeated use; see semiotics, glyph, ideogram, logogram, alphabet, word, lexigram, syntax, literature, scroll, banderole, incunabula, codex, manuscript, book, periodical. Also, any fragment or remnant of a man-made object belonging to an earlier era [v: archaeology, anthropology, ethnology]. Also, an artificial substance or structure; an unnatural feature. Also, a spurious observation or anomalous result.

art paper :
A smooth paper, obtained by coating one or both sides of the paper with a China clay compound. See book paper, paper, paper coating.

artwork :
The elements that constitute a mechanical (qv) paste-up, as type, proofs, and illustrations. See job order; compare art.

ascender :
The part of a lowercase letter, such as b / d / f / h / k, that rises above x-height (qv). See minuscule, baseline, typeface, font, body size, demon letters.

The abbreviation for American Standard Code for Information Interchange; being the worldwide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper- and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, and related data. Each alphanumeric character is represented as a number from 0 to 127, translated into a 7-bit binary code for the computer. ASCII is used by most computers and printers, and because of this, text-only files can be easily transferred between different kinds of computers. ASCII code also includes some control code characters to indicate backspace, line feed, and carriage return, but does not include accents and special letters not used in English. A plain-text ASCII file does not include style formatting such as bold, underline, Italics characters, or centered text. Some ASCII files contain program source code, scripts, or macros written as text. Extended ASCII has additional characters (128-255). Extended ASCII symbols may include foreign language accents, ligatures, math or graphics symbols, and so forth, but are not universal. The ANSI set of extended characters in DOS and Windows is non-standard, and Macintosh allows users to personalize the higher-ASCII definitions. Legitimate filename extensions for ASCII text include: *.TXT, *.ASC, *.DOC. See EBCDIC, Unicode, ANSI, ISO.

ASCII art :
The drawing of pictures and designs on a computer, using only ASCII alphanumeric characters. Using the HTML <PRE> tag, ASCII art can be displayed in text-based media on the web, as an alternative to graphical browsers, where other images cannot be shown. Many e-mail signatures include an ASCII art image. Compare emoticon; see illustration.

A sizes :
ISO paper sizes for standard trim sizes on products that don't involve bleeds or trimming outside the edges. See paper.

The abbreviation for Active Server Page, being a specification (*.ASP) for a dynamically created webpage that utilizes ActiveX scripting (usually VBscript or Jscript code). When a browser requests an ASP page, the web server generates a page with HTML code and sends it back to the browser. Active Server Pages are similar to CGI scripts, but they permit Visual Basic programmers to work with familiar Microsoft tools. See Cold Fusion, web server. Also, the abbreviation for Application Service Provider. Also, the abbreviation for Association of Shareware Professionals, a trade group for shareware authors, who submit programs for virus checking and CD-ROM distribution.

aspect ratio :
The ratio of width to height of a glyph, image, or object. See hint, proportional font, font, typography, typeface.

assisted self-publishing :
An author, wishing to retain copyright and maintain editorial control of their manuscript, may hire a commercial assisted self-publishing house to provide professional services throughout any part of the publishing process. See publishing house, subsidy publisher, self-publishing, vanity press.

asterisk :
A small starlike symbol (*) used in writing and printing as a reference mark (qv), or to indicate omission, ungrammatical usage, doubtful matter, or the like; see ellipsis, notation, end sign. Also, a parameter representing a search string or filename, also called "star" or "splat"; see wildcard.

athenaeum :
An institution for the promotion of literary or scientific learning, which often maintains a free-access reading room or library. See renaissance, enlightenment, literature.

The abbreviation for Adobe Type Manager, being a font utility for Macintosh and Windows platforms that enables a computer to print PostScript fonts and show PostScript screen fonts; see Display PostScript, EPS, font. Also, the abbreviation for Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and referred to as BISDN and Cell Relay, being the SONET standard for a high-bandwidth, low-delay, connection-oriented, packet-like switching and multiplexing technique that uses cells of fixed length (53-byte cells, 5-byte header and 48-byte payload) that are switched throughout a network over virtual circuits. Standardized by the ITU-T in 1988 to create a Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN). Its ability to accommodate multiple types of media (voice, video, data) and high-speed makes it a likely player for full service networks based on ADSL and VDSL. Because of the architecture, ATM has the capability to run from 45 Mbps using a DS3 to 2.5 Gbps using an OC-48. Also, used as chatroom or instant messaging shorthand meaning "At The Moment".

at sign :
A symbol (@) used to mean 'at' or 'at such' in commercial and scientific notation, with limited application in regular text; see notation. Also, a coding sign in computer software; see MIME, internet address, language. Possible derivation from a ligature of Latin 'ad' meaning "to", or the sign for Florentine "amphora", based on trade with these standardized terracotta jars as a unit of weight or volume; also known as "at mark", "at character", "commercial at symbol"; and various agnomens as vortex, whorl, whirlpool, cyclone, twiddle, a-twist, ear, arabesque, curl, snail, worm, monkey tail, elephant trunk, strudel, cinnamon roll, rollmop.

attic :
An enlarged top margin, being white space without header or headpiece. See margin, apron, white space; compare sinkage, horizon line, basement, skyline.

atticism :
Concise and elegant expression, diction, or the like; derived from Attic Greek being the stylistic basis for other dialects or languages [cf: solecism]. See diction, eloquence, elocution, euphemism, rhetorical forms, language.

attribute :
Designates the properties or status of qualified data by assigning a type identifier with one or more values. Attributes can make programs "read only", directories "archive", system files "hidden", or user files "no copy". May be used as a modifier within a tag, as <TAG ATTRIB="X">.

audience :
The persons reached by distribution of a book or magazine, by a radio or television broadcast; a regular public manifesting interest and support for such media, including readers, subscribers, clients, and advertisers. About 88% of Americans purchase one or more publications each month. The best market research is a reader survey. See universe, newsstand, subscription, reader profile, tracking, pass-along, audit, sell-through rate, circulation, mass market, crossover market, niche market.

audit :
An examination of circulation data by an impartial accountant, that verifies distribution and subscription reports from the publisher, as an assurance of audience for advertisers, as so noted in the masthead. Audits are usually performed to warrant higher advertising rates for newsstand periodicals. A "visitor counter" operated by the server, which may also sample periodicity and other statistical factors, will serve as an audit for online e-mag publications.

autograph :
To write one's name in, on, or upon something, especially to sign as a memento; see show-off, signet, logo, brand, indicia. Also, something written in a person's own hand, as a manuscript or letter (qv); see manuscript, script, cursive, paraph.

- B -

backbone :
The primary connectivity mechanism of a hierarchical distributed system. All systems that have connectivity to an intermediate system on the backbone are assured of connectivity to each other. This does not prevent systems from setting up private arrangements with each other to bypass the backbone for reasons of cost, performance, or security. It's a high-speed network that connects several powerful computers. In the U.S., the backbone of the Internet is often considered the SFNet, a government funded link between a handful of supercomputer sites across the nation. See multicast backbone, I2, website, internet.

back formation :
The analogical creation of one word from another word that appears to be a derived or inflected form of the first by dropping the apparent affix or by modification (eg: typewrite, enthuse, kudo, sightsee, sleaze); as distinguished from 'retronym', being formed to identify a former type or class which has since been subcategorized or reclassified (eg: rotary telephone, electric torch, automatic transmission, male nurse). See word, vocabulary, language.

background :
The perceived foundation for depictions of foreground objects and forms; see wallpaper, tessellate, template, overprint, transparent palette. Also, multitasking computers are capable of executing several tasks, or programs, at the same time. In some multitasking systems, the process of primary activity is called the foreground process, and the others are called background processes. The foreground process is the one that accepts input from the keyboard, mouse, or other input device. Background processes cannot accept interactive input from a user, but they can access disk data, up- or download stored data, print ("print spooling") or disseminate documents, and write data to the video display. Background processes generally have a lower priority than foreground processes so that they do not interfere with interactive applications. Even MS-DOS, which is not a multitasking operating system, can perform some specialized tasks, such as printing, in the background. Operating environments, such as Macintosh and Microsoft Windows, provide a more general multitasking environment. See multitasking, TSR, shell, hot-key.

backhand :
Letters angled left, or slanted the opposite of Italics (ITAL) characters; also called "backslant".

backing :
In binding, the process of applying glue to the rounded back of a book prior to affixing a strip of gauzy fabric (ie: crash or super), and followed by a strip of brown-paper liner, before casing-in; also called "back-lining". Mesh and paper backings reinforce the glue, and holds the sewn sections together firmly. Crash may be applied to inexpensive editions without liner, or vice versa. See binding.

back issue :
Any issue of a periodical published prior to the current issue, usually shelved separately in bound volumes or converted to microform (qv); also called "back number". See volume number, periodical.

backlist :
Books published previous to the current season that are still in print. Some backlist books continue to sell in significant numbers years after publication, such as books that are used in classrooms. Others may sit in a warehouse for years, only to start selling again when the writer's reputation grows. And yet others sit in a warehouse until remaindered, sold to the author at/or below cost, or are recycled, or pulped. Many independent publishers have a commitment to keeping their books in print, while commercial publishers pulp books as a regular practice. Traditionally, the strength of a publisher's backlist is the indicator of both editorial and commercial success. The backlist records how well a press has developed a coherent program and philosophy for presenting books and authors to the public cumulatively, and it functions also as a descriptive publishing history of that press. In the past, the backlist served almost as an endowment for a publisher and signing an author was seen as a longterm investment. Today, commercial publishing is putting books out of print at a very fast rate, and their former backlists are often a rich source for independent publishers's rediscoveries of high quality books to reprint. With the advent of e-books and print-on-demand, this editorial strategy may no longer be an option for independent publishers. See frontlist, midlist, deadlist, out of print.

back matter :
Printed ancillary material, positioned at the back of a book, after the body copy, including addendum, appendix, epilogue, envoy, coda, afterword, eulogy, colophon, bibliography, endnote, glossary, index, and other related material. See end sign, pagination, concordance, erratum, corrigenda; compare front matter.

backslash :
A short oblique stroke (\) used in the path of some computer operating systems to mark the hierarchical division between a directory and a subdirectory; as introduced by MS-DOS version 2 as differentiation from switches. See slash, path, parameter, filename, pipe, internet address.

backtrack :
The back-to-back joining of two pages, printed or embossed only on their face, in order to form a single double-sided sheet; see duplex paper, paper. Also, a stochastic search performed by a computer's troubleshooting subroutine.

backup :
Printing on one side of a page that must align correctly with printing on the other side. See page spread.

balance :
The design principle, achieved through the placement of type and graphic elements, that one side of a layout must be given weight equal to the other. See layout, contrast, sequence.

balderdash :
Nonsense writing; senseless or exaggerated talk, as similar to piffle, twaddle, blather, drivel, humbug, flummery, gibberish, inanity, gobbledygook, rigmarole, flapdoodle. See euphemism, puffery, pap, ad diction, pleonasm, boilerplate, vernacular, screed, sleazy, prolixity, Greek type, rhetorical forms, language. [nb: "Jabberwocky", a poem in the book "Through the Looking Glass" by Louis Carroll (1871), coined this term for senseless or nonsense writing] [v: amphigory; cf: billingsgate, hieratic]

balloon :
A bubble of text or encircled copy in an illustration, used especially in cartoons. See caption.

ballpoint :
A pen in which the penpoint is a fine ball bearing that rotates against a supply of semisolid ink in a cartridge; also called "ballpoint pen", and sometimes known as "biro", as a generic extension of the trademarked brandname. See pen, writing instrument. [nb: In 1888, John Loud patented the idea for a rolling ball-bearing tip that dispensed ink from a reservoir by gravity that would be used for marking leather. None of the hundreds of subsequent ballpoint pen patents were successful until the 1935 prototypes by Hungarians Ladislas and Georg Biro; who patented a functional version during June 1943 in Paris that was used by WW2 Allied aircrews. In 1944, the Biro ballpoint was improved with "capillary action" ink flow and a textured ball-bearing for smoother application. Biro ballpoint manufacturing rights were acquired by Eberhard Faber Company and Eversharp Company; but Milton Reynolds copied the Biro ballpoint for successful marketing through "Gimbels" department store in 1945. A French manufacturer of penholders and pen cases, named Marcel Bich, paid Biro a patent royalty and analyzed competing pens. In 1952, the "Ballpoint Bic" (also barrel marked "Biro") was introduced as a better pen at a lower price with substantial advertising by Bich. An independent effort by Patrick J. Frawley Jr, with an improved ink formula from Fran Seech, founded the Frawley Pen Company in 1949 to produce the "PaperMate" ballpoint pen. By the following year, Frawley innovated the "PaperMate" with a retractable penpoint and non-smearing ink.]

ballyhoo :
Blatant and insistent advertising or publicity, as vigorous hawking; a brouhaha, hullabaloo, clamor, hue, outcry, turmoil, or tumult. See advertising, puffery, pap, news; compare crier, balderdash.

band :
A line or separation in the presentation of an image; see drop out. Also, a strip or stripe of color; see illustration. Also, a track or channel, as audio segment or computer memory.

banderole / banderol :
A narrow scroll (qv), usually bearing an inscription. See cartouche, artifact.

bandwidth :
The amount of data that can be sent through a network connection, which is typically expressed in terms of the network speed (eg: 1 Mbps / 1 megabit-per-second). A greater bandwidth indicates the ability to transmit a greater amount of data over a given period of time. When several devices divide the network's data transmission capacity, the resultant "shared bandwidth" speed availability is reduced by the number of devices actively using the network. The logical entities that control the flow of multimedia packets between endpoints are called "bandwidth gates". Also, the range of transmission frequencies a network can use, which is expressed as the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies (ie: Hertz or cycles per second) of a transmission channel. See web server, virtual server, website, internet.

bang :
Printer's, compositor's, and computer programmer's slang for the exclamation point (qv). See interrobang, tittle.

bank :
A lightweight writing paper. See paper.

banner :
A large bold-faced headline, often placed near the top of the page. Also, a prominent band, bar, or streamer of advertising copy. See streamer, screamer, broadside, leaflet, handbill, black space, puffery, copywriter; compare RDA.

barbarian :
A person belonging to a culture different from one's own, usually regarded as primitive or uncivilized due to their ignorance of or nonconformity with classical standards; any outsider or non-native, especially a philistine. Derived from the discordant sound of foreign languages, originally non-Greek and later non-Roman. [v: heathen, jingoism, xenophobia]

bar code / barcode :
A series of contiguous lines, varying in height (as postal codes) or in width (as in product codes), for scanning by optical character readers, with applications to price, inventory, stock or part identification. See coding, UPC, EAN Bookland bar code, EPC, smart tag.

base artwork :
Artwork requiring additional components, such as halftones or line drawings, before the reproduction stage.

baseline :
The reference line upon which x-height and capital letters sit, and below which descenders fall. See cap line, mean line, x-line, x-height, ascender, descender, body size, expanded type, set size, font, typeface, baseline lock. Also, a basic standard or specific value serving as a comparison or control.

baseline lock :
Consistent typographic alignment of all body copy (eg: column, caption, call-out, text box, heading, etc) to the same baseline (qv), regardless of font, point size, or leading; also called "locked to baseline". A baseline lock ties the text to the grid structure, but does not affect illustrations.

basement :
The lower portion or bottom half of the sheet on the front-page of a newspaper (qv); being the area "below the fold" reserved for less important stories. See foot, attic.

The abbreviation for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, being a high-level programming language that uses English words, punctuation marks, and algebraic notation. See language.

basic size :
The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate basis weight (qv) in the U.S. and Canada, irrespective of the wide variety of commercial sizes produced for different types. The standardized basic size of bond/writing paper is 17" X 22", of text/book paper is 25" X 38", of cover stock is 20" X 26", and of Bristol board is 22.5" X 28.5". Compare ISO sizes; see CWT, paper.

basis weight :
In the U.S. and Canada, the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size (qv) [eg: 20# bond = 60# offset]; also called the "ream weight" and "substance weight" (sub wt). In countries using ISO paper sizes, the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper; also called grammage and "ream weight". See CWT, paper.

batch file :
A computer text subroutine that contains operating system commands and parameters for sequential execution; also called "batch program" or "batch processing". Keyword such as CALL and SET, IF and GOTO, PAUSE and CHOICE, FOR and ECHO, supplement the commands, switches, and parameters. Despite the fact that their file extensions make them discrete, a microprocessor (eg: command.com) will always run a [SAME].COM file before a [SAME].EXE file, and both before a [SAME].BAT file; so a batch file with a name already used by another executable file will never run, regardless of its contents. See script, macro.

bathos :
An anticlimax, as insincere sentimentality, or a ludicrous descent from the exalted or lofty to the commonplace. Also, triteness or triviality in style; derived "depth". Compare pathos; see melodrama, comedy, revue, drama.

baud rate :
The unit of measure representing the speed of signaling or data transfer, equal to the number of pulses or bits per second, also called "baud"; eponymous derivation after J.M.E. Baudot. See modem.

The abbreviation for Bulletin Board System, being a computer system equipped with one or more modems that serves as an information and message-passing center for dial-up users. See kiosk, forum, newsgroup, UseNet, honeypot, banner.

bed :
The flat surface in a printing press on which the form of type is laid; compare platen, see press. Also, a foundation, base, underlayment, or fundamental.

belles-lettres :
Literature that is polished, elegant, and often inconsequential in subject or scope. [v: belletristic, billet-doux]

Ben Day / benday :
An eponymous technique used in photoengraving to produce shading, texture, or tone by means of a patterned screen. See illustration. [cf: Zipatone]

benefactor :
A person who makes a bequest or endowment, as to an institution or non-profit organization; a philanthropic patron of the arts who funds, wholly or in part, some literary magazines and small presses. Also known as a "sponsor" or "backer". See business angel, white knight, grant, venture capital, entrepreneurship, budget.

bento storage / bento container :
A data storage and specification method developed by Apple Computer in 1993 for the efficient grouping of several types of data (eg: audio-video, database, graphics, publication, text) on a related topic into a single resource capsule or container, which can be moved as a unit. The term refers to a compartmentalized lunchbox (Japanese "bento"). See RAM, ROM, flash memory.

Benton pantograph :
A mechanical tracing device developed by Morris Fuller Benton which could modify a letterform design for optical scaling considerations. Many different adjustments on various design parameters (ie: stroke width, x-height, advance width, ascender height, cap height, etc) could be automatically "dialed in" during the tracing procedure. See pantograph, hint.

BeOS :
The Be Operating System was designed by Jean-Louis Gasse of Be Incorporated for interface with Intel Pentium and PowerPC chips in microcomputers. The operating system has complete multithreading, a 64-bit file system, object-oriented design, native internet appliance (BeIA) services, and Unicode-compliancy. BeOS is the first new operating system with a graphical user interface (GUI) design since 1986; and it is currently the only operating system with a graphical user interface which can run on both Intel/IBM PC-compatible and Macintosh hardware. Be Inc. was purchased in mid-2001 by Palm Computing, the pioneering manufacturer of handheld Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) products. See program, software.

bestseller :
A book that, among those of its class, sells very well at any given time, as any impressive or influential work with popular appeal and financial success; also called "blockbuster". See instant book, book. [nb: "The worth of a book is to be measured by what you can carry away from it." by James Bryce]

beta test :
The final test of a computer product prior to commercial release. The beta version is normally sent to test sites outside the company for real-world exposure. After debugging the beta test results, the final product will be manufactured and released to the general public. Compare alpha test, vaporware; see patch, glitch, kludge, debug, tweak.

Bezier curve / B倆ier curve :
A mathematically formulated curve made from a line that is set-up to connect two anchor or end-points, with the line shape influenced by the torquing of intermediate tangent or control points. In computer drawing programs, curves are made by moving on-screen "handles" to adjust the curve's shape. A Bezier curve so formed will automatically scale proportionately. The similarity of this process to a mechanical spline warrants it also being called "Bezier spline"; eponymous derivation after French mathematician Pierre B倆ier. See vector graphics.

BF :
Abbreviation for "set in boldface type"; see proofreader's marks. [nb: the SGML "bold" tag was replaced in HTML by "strong"]

bible paper :
Very thin, opaque paper used for products such as bibles and dictionaries; also called "India paper". See paper.

bibliography :
A complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle, as authorship, subject, or printer. Also, a list of source materials that are used or consulted in the preparation of a work, or that are referred to in the text. Also, the discipline that deals with the physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other printed matter. See book categorization, back matter, reference marks.

bibliopole :
A bookseller, especially a dealer in used or rare books, with a bibliophilic, bibliomaniacal, and bibliolatristic clientele; also called "bibliopolist", as derived from "book + agent".

bildungsroman :
A novel dealing with the education and development of its protagonist; see literature.

bill :
A written or printed public notice or advertisement; see handbill, leaflet, fly sheet, broadside, poster, advertising. Also, any written statement of particulars, as of legislation, transactions, or the like. Also, the program or schedule of an entertainment or production to be presented, as a "playbill" or other menu.

Acronym for Berkeley Internet Name Daemon; being an open-source domain name server conversion. See DNS, domain name.

bindery :
A place where printed matter is bound; a binding shop, bibliopegy. See bookbindery, trim, finish, post-press.

bind-in :
An attachment or enclosure, as a supplement or advertisement, that is secured into the publication's binding, usually for later removal; also called "stitch-in". See blow-in card.

binding :
The method and/or mechanism by which the contents and covers of a publication are stabilized and secured; see quarter binding, half binding, three-quarter binding, perfect binding, burst binding, lay-flat bind, spiral-bound, coil binding, comb binding, paperback, case binding, hardcover, split edition, saddle-stitch binding, side-stitch binding, screw-and-post bind, fan, selective binding, spine, headband, guard, backing, crash; compare quire, gather, imposition, nested, fold lines, signature, sheet, flyleaf, loose-leaf, end sheet, endpaper, tip, fascicle, overhang, cut flush, cover paper, accordian-fold, concertina-fold, boustrophedon, jacket, volume, trade edition, cameo binding, treasure binding, bindery, bookbindery, nipping, bookbinder's press.

binding edge :
The inside edge of the magazine page, containing the fold and the stitches.

bit :
A single, basic unit of computer information, valued at either 0 or 1, to signal binary alternatives; as derived from "binary + digit". Compare pixel, analog, quantum; see byte.

bitbucket / bit-bucket :
Alliterative slang for the hypothetical location where software is discarded, as a trash can or recycle bin; also called "digital disposal". See boneyard, waste. [nb: "dump" as a data download or place of storage is an inappropriate substitute for this reference]

bite :
A short excerpt, fragment, clip, or bit; as a visual bite from film, or word bites from poems. Compare sound-bite; see ear, snippet, blurb, squib, filler, paragraph, call-out, box, sidebar, epigraph, contents. Also, the amount of margin or border required for a gripper edge (qv).

bitload / bit load :
The delay or confinement of data download, as a bandwidth bottleneck on the "worldwide wait", usually caused by excessive file size and superfluous graphics. Ordinary webpages should be no larger than 150KB, and no single image larger than 50KB. The use of partitions and thumbnails will alleviate transfer overloading. See website.

bitmap / bit-map :
Computer image consisting of pixels or halftone dots. See bitmap graphics.

bitmap graphics / bit-map graphics :
A way of displaying images on a computer screen in which each picture is represented as an array of little squares called pixels. Each pixel is stored in a specific location in memory, and corresponds to one or more bits. The number of bits per pixel determines the number of colors or shades of gray that can be displayed. Bitmap graphics can be created and edited in paint programs or photo editing programs, and can be stored in a number of file formats. Depending on file format, bitmap graphics can sometimes be imported into word processing, page layout, or spreadsheet programs, or incorporated in World Wide Web pages. Bitmapped graphics are not compressed for storage, and are the same as raster format. The bitmap graphics format was developed by Microsoft. See vector graphics, graphics, illustration.

black letter :
A heavy-faced type, in a style like that of the earliest printed books, and of early European hand lettering; also called text and Gothic. See typeface.

black patch :
Material used to mask the window area on a negative image of the artwork prior to stripping-in a halftone. See illustration.

black point :
Reference point, defining the darkest area in an image. See illustration; compare white point.

black space :
The designation for rules and borders, banners and headings, regardless of ink color or decorative density; also called "black matter". Compare white space, gray space; see fillet, tool line, ornament.

blad :
An advanced book information promotional, which usually includes the book's cover, the jacket flap copy, the table of contents, the book's specifications, the book's publication date, with some sample pages placed inside the cover. These are excellent promotional previews for expensive four-color books, and can be sent well ahead of distribution. See advance, press kit.

blade :
A straight edge used for applying or spreading ink during screen printing; see squeegee, serigraphy. Also, a cutting edge used to divide sheets and trim pages; see guillotine cutter.

blade coating :
Method of coating paper that ensures a relatively thick covering and level surface, as compared to film coating; also called "knife coating". Gloss, dull, and matte papers are blade coated. See paper coating.

blank :
Blank pages, as unmarked by printing; see flyleaf. Also, to stamp, press, punch, or cut out of flat stock, as with a die; see emboss.

blanket :
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that receives the inked image from the plate, and transfers it to the surface to be printed by the impression cylinder. See doubling.

blanket cylinder :
The cylinder by which the inked litho plate transfers the image to the paper. The cylinder is covered with a rubber blanket (qv), which prevents contact wear of the litho plate from the paper and impression cylinder.

blanket sheet :
An oversized sheet of newsprint for broadsides and newsletters; derived from "large coverage", figuratively applied in the same manner as 'blanket proposal'. See sheet.

blank verse :
In prosody, unrhymed verse. In English, the term usually means unrhymed iambic pentameter. In classical prosody, rhyme was not used at all; with the introduction of rhyme in the Middle Ages, blank verse disappeared. It was reintroduced in the 16th century, and in England became the standard medium of dramatic poetry, and frequently of epic poetry. Shakespeare's plays, for example, are written mostly in blank verse. Compare free verse; see verse.

bleed :
Printing that extends beyond the crop marks, or runs-off the edges of a page in one or more directions; this process requires printing on larger paper and trimming to size.

blend :
To intermingle smoothly and inseparably, as with colors. Also, a word made by putting together parts of other words (eg: motel, guesstimate, advertorial, insinuendo); compare clip, contraction, compound, glide [v: agglutination]. Also, a sequence or cluster of two or more consonant sounds within a syllable.

blind emboss :
A raised impression made without using ink or foil. See emboss.

block-in :
To sketch the primary motif or main areas of an image prior to the design. See line drawing, scamp, sketch, thumbnail.

block print :
A design printed by means of one or more blocks of wood or metal; also known as "woodcut" or "woodblock", but formally called xylography. Relief printing originated in Third Century China, and later evolved into movable type in both China and Korea. See chiaroscuro, scratchboard, foundry type, hot type, letterpress.

blog :
An online diary or journal, usually on a limited subject (eg: quotes, technology, diet, lifestyle, politics, war, etc) with contributed e-mails and related links; also known as "weblog", as derived from "web+log". Originating with the "What's New?" section of Mosaic, now includes "Gardian Unlimited", "Drudge Report", "Radio UserLand", and others. "Bloggers" contribute to the "blogisphere" by "blogging" ... an informal and ephemeral knowledge management database. Although some blogs are autonomous domains, the typical blog is a publicly-accessible webpage on a host net. Compare chatroom, instant messaging, webcast, zine, thread, UseNet, newsgroup, forum.

blow-in cards :
Subscription devices, usually standard size postcards, which are either inserted or bound into a magazine. The card/envelope should have a business reply mechanism and should allow individuals to charge-or be billed for-the subscription. Magazines that do not have the capacity to invoice should select envelopes which allow for the easy return of personal checks. Blow-ins/bind-ins are used predominantly to convert single-copy buyers into subscribers, since a subscription list is a better predictor of quantity; but promotional sales often have very low renewal rates. Although the rate of return is very low for blow-ins/bind-ins, any subscribers garnered by this low cost recruitment are considered to be surplus when compared to the extremely high cost of direct mail solicitation (often not recouped until after three years of subscription). See reply coupon, courtesy envelope, self-mailer, premium.

blow-up :
Slang for an enlargement, most frequently of a graphic image or photograph. See graphics, illustration.

blue law :
Any prohibitive or puritanical law regulating personal conduct or forbids public acts, especially on the Sabbath or other holy days; such as the Communication Decency Act and Comstock laws. See censorship, expurgate, curiosa, pornography. [cf: blue movie]

blueline :
A generic term for pre-press proofs made from a variety of materials having similar appearances, where all colors show as blue images on white paper; such proofs may also be called white print, blueprint, brownline, position proof, silverprint, Dylux, and VanDyke. This printer's mock-up is used to detect errors and make corrections. See proof.

blue-pencil :
To alter, edit, or delete with (or as if with) a blue colored pencil. See red-pencil, proofread.

blurb :
A brief advertisement, notice, endorsement, or excerpted review, as on a book jacket, expressing praise or approbation; coined by F.G. Burgess (ca1910), and also called "cover blurb" or "advance endorsement". See cover lines, banner, teaser, hook, plug, puffery, snippet, call-out, bite, balderdash.

board paper :
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover, or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays, and postcards; also called "paperboard" or "board". See paper.

body copy :
The contents of the main section of the document, article, or book; compare body text, see gray space, back matter. Also, the principal typeface used throughout the majority of the publication, excluding heads and subheads; see type, font. [nb: coloring text can be an effective stylistic motif, as long as the copy is clear and readable; but coloring individual words and phrases in the body copy (rather than using font attributes) will probably not register accurately when printed, so will detract from the design intent]

body language :
Nonverbal communication through the use of postures, poses, facial expressions, gestures, and other subconscious or unconscious expressions; formally known as "kinesics". See mannerism, sign language, language.

body size :
The standard unit of type size, normally given in points; being the height of the type measured from the top of the tallest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender. See ascender, descender, x-height, baseline, cap line, minuscule, set size, expanded type, font, typeface.

body stock :
Category of paper used in writing, printing, and photocopying on which the text or main part of a publication is produced, as compared to cover stock. Also called "communication paper" and writing paper. See paper.

body text :
The typed or typeset portion of a page, excluding any headings. Compare body copy; see gray space.

boilerplate :
Syndicated or ready-to-print copy, used especially by weekly newspapers with limited staff. Also, any trite or hackneyed writing. Also, phrases used typically and repeatedly, as in correspondence. Also, the detailed standard wording of a contract, warranty, license, or the like. [nb: Slang allusions to such prate, twaddle, or claptrap are often represented by buzzwords, "blah-blah", flapdoodle, "yaddah-yaddah", "yak-yak", yackety-yack, in lieu of 'and so forth' or 'et cetera'; see notation; compare bunkum @ pap.]

bombproof :
To check and test a print job until it is impeccable; a project without error, flaw, or fault. See proofread, dummy, pre-press, proof.

bond paper :
A superior variety of paper, usually with a high cotton fiber content of 50gsm or more, used especially for stationery; also called "bond" and "business paper". The surface of bond is harder than writing paper, so printing is sharper and clearer. See rag, dual-purpose bond paper, paper.

boneyard :
A collection point or storage place for reusable equipment, props, or devices; as distinguished from a "junkyard" where items are discarded, instead of reused or recycled. See bitbucket, waste.

book :
A long written work, usually printed on sheets of paper bound within covers; see codex, scroll, regional book, bestseller, instant book. Also, the general classification for papers (basic size 25" X 38") used to print books and other textual matter. Also, the industry term for 'magazine' (qv). Also, one of the larger subdivisions of a literary work, usually containing chapters and sections, and contained in one or more volumes (qv). Also, the text, script, or libretto of a play or opera; see opus. [nb: religious materials dominated publishing until 1900, when surpassed by secular productions]

bookbinder's press :
A device for securing the materials to be bound together, and for exerting pressure upon those materials during processing. See nipping, binding.

bookbindery :
An establishment for housing machines and supplies utilized in the binding tradecraft; bibliopegy. See bindery, trim, finish, post-press.

book categorization :
Any bibliographic catalog method or organization system, including classification by: title, author, subject, provenance, edition (ie: binding, reprint), date (ie: copyright, acquisition), publisher, condition (eg: new/used, read/unread), size (ie: width, height, page count), color, etc. Formal categorization of books began with book press or chest numbers. Alphabetization was developed during the Medieval era as a method of categorization within encyclopedias and dictionaries. Libraries and bibliopoles have also used Dewey decimal, LCN, ISBN, and UPC notations. See frontlist, midlist, backlist, deadlist, out of print.

book fair :
A periodic exposition of publications held at an appointed place, in which different exhibitors participate, often with the purpose of buying or selling as an adjunct to market familiarization and related entertainments. The Frankfort Book Fair has attracted bibliopoles and bibliophiles since the Medieval era. Derivation related to festival, feast.

booklet :
A little book, especially one with paper covers. See pamphlet, chapbook, magazine, journal, monograph, brochure, catalog, collateral.

book paper :
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising, and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper) and coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper). See lightweight paper, paper, paper coating.

bookplate :
A label bearing the owner's name and often a design, for pasting on the front endpaper of a book. See ex libris.

book press :
A large upright case, closet, or cupboard for holding books and other printed matter; also called a "bookcase" or "book chest". See scriptorium, bookstand.

book review :
The section of a magazine or newspaper devoted to the critical analysis of particular books, especially those newly published. References include: "literary Market Place" (LMP), "National Index of Book Publishers". See feature.

bookstand :
A support with a slanted top, for holding an open book at a slight angle, so as to improve textual accessibility; also known as "bookrest", "lectern", "book easel", "podium", "bookrack", or "bookstall". In Medieval libraries, where volumes were commonly chained to their stowage shelf or chest, and where artificial illumination was a hazard to both the collection and the readers, bringing the book nearer to some natural light was crucial; so pivoting podiums, rotating lecterns, and revolving book wheels were devised as essential furniture. See book press, carrel, scriptorium, kiosk.

bookworm / book-worm :
A slang expression for a person whose appetite for reading is voracious, or who prefers reading over most other activities. Also, the larva of a moth or beetle, especially the booklouse, which feeds on books and other printed materials, damaging them by boring small holes through their leaves and bindings.

Boolean algebra :
A system of symbolic logic dealing with the relationship of sets, which is the basis of logic gates and expressions in computers; eponymous derivation after English mathematician George Boole.

Boolean operators :
Any logical operation in which each of the operands and the result take one of two values (eg: "true" / "false"; "circuit on" / "circuit off"); most commonly used in parameter and search expressions. Boolean operators include: AND, NOT, OR, XOR, NEAR, BUT NOT.

border :
A continuous decorative design or line surrounding the page matter or page inset (call-out). See margin, rule, Oxford rule, black space, ornament.

bourgeois :
An 8.5 point type; see font, type.

boustrophedon :
An artistic presentation, either contained in a slipcase or portfolio, in which the page layout wanders like "oxen turning while plowing"; also called "snake" layout. Derived from the ancient practice of reading lines of text in alternating directions. In page layout, rows are separated, but pages are accordian folded in a continuous set. See accordian-fold, concertina-fold, foldout. [cf: Moon Type punctaform]

bowl :
The partially- or completely-curved closed portions of a character, as b / d / e / g / o / p / q. See ear, finial, type, typeface, font, typography.

box :
A section of text marked-off by rules or white space, and presented separately from the body copy or main text, also called "text box"; see call-out, sidebar, bite, ear, inset, mortise, grid box. Also, in graphical user interfaces (GUI), any enclosed area, resembling a window pane on the monitor, such as dialog, alert, or pop-up boxes; however, these boxes cannot generally be moved or resized, even when interactive. Also, slang for a computer or a workstation.

brand / branding :
A mark or impression labeling kind, grade, or make; often synonymous with imprint, signet, or trademark for product consistency and reliability. May be represented as "co-branding" when endorsements or alliances engender dual marketing. Also, a euphemism for attribution or ownership, as a byline, credit line, or show-off; see work for hire.

Abbreviation for Business Reply Card / Envelope; a pre-addressed, prepaid, first-class mailing device that statistically improves the rates of return for renewals, direct mail, and other direct response marketing efforts. The BRE permit may be acquired through the postal service.

breve :
A cup-shaped mark (shallow u) over a vowel to show that it is short, or to indicate a specific pronunciation; see vowel, accent, diacritic. Also, this same mark used to indicate a short or unstressed syllable in prosody; compare macron, see foot. [v: pyrrhic]

brevier :
A 7.6 point type; see font, type.

bricks and clicks / bricks 'n' clicks :
Slang for publishing in both tangible and electronic modes; production in both traditional forms (eg: paper, film, etc) and in cyberspace or ethernet realms.

brightness :
The measure (by densitometer) of light reflected from paper. See illustration.

brilliant :
A 3.5 point type; see font, type.

Bristol board :
A fine smooth pasteboard that is sometimes glazed. See paper.

Bristol paper :
General term referring to paper six points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders, and displays. See paper.

British quotation :
The logical placement of quotation marks; such that when a complete sentence is quoted within another sentence, it retains its original punctuation. This convention was formerly standard in American usage until newspapers "simplified" the style to save space; but has been retained in literary and scholarly writing. [cf: singular / plural verbs with collective nouns] See Oxford comma, punctuation, stylebook.

broadcast :
To disseminate or spread widely; as to transmit programmed radio or television performances or presentations; derived from "spread + throw", with related coinage 'telecast' ("far + throw") and 'newscast'. People prefer media which reinforces their opinions and conclusions, selecting media by its application to lifestyle, education, entertainment, or career (v: narrowcast). The fact that something is printed or broadcast is sufficient to reassure people's suspicions. Compelled to choose only one medium, most people prefer the passive audiovisual reception of television over the strictures of print; and believe that broadcast news is more unbiased than printed news, even if the text is identical. See medium, webcast, multicast backbone, VSAT, communique, documentary, bully pulpit, commentator, mannerism, dramatis personae, infomercial, wasteland. [nb: the internet has probably influenced public trust, because anything printed was once considered indisputable; but the "unbiased" attribution to the impermanent broadcast media (often owned and operated by the same corporations that publish print) probably has more to do with plastic reportage and absent comparisons]

broadside :
Any printed advertising circular; also called a broadsheet or flier. Originally, a sheet of paper printed on one side only, as for posting or distribution; a virulent form of which was known as the "Black-letter Broadside Ballad". See leaflet, handbill, banner, poster, blanket sheet, panel, news book.

brochure :
A pamphlet or leaflet; derived from "to stitch" a book. See booklet, chapbook, monograph, catalog, collateral.

broke :
Trimmings, defective sheets, and other unprinted paper collected at the mill and from converters and printers. Broke is preconsumer waste that mills recycle back into pulp.

broken carton :
A container, such as a carton of paper or books, from which some of the contents have been sold; also called "less carton".

bromide :
A photographic print made on bromide paper. Also, a trite image, platitudinous saying, or boring person.

bronzing :
A printing effect produced by dusting wet ink with a metallic powder. See paper coating.

browser :
A computer program (such as Explorer, Netscape, Mozilla, Lynx, Cello, Opera, Kermit, or Mosaic) that enables the user to view webpages or other data sets. Web browsers communicate with Web servers via the TCP/IP protocol. The browser sends HTTP/FTP requests to the server, which responds with HTML pages and possibly additional programs in the form of ActiveX controls or Java applets. See frames, validation, website, web server.

B sizes :
ISO paper sizes about 18 percent bigger than A sizes for printing large items such as charts, maps and posters. See paper.

budget :
An itemized estimate of expected income and anticipated expenses for a given period of planned future operations. Items for publishing include: pre-press / prep, printing, post-press / finishing, distribution, solicitation, commissions, salaries, device fees, utility charges, facility lease payments, loan interest payments. Pre-launch financing is the sum spent to test the market's receptivity, and is not recoverable; but launch financing can expect a return for investors after five or more years of successful publication. See venture capital, entrepreneurship, benefactor, marketing plan, sweat equity, appropriation.

bug :
A defect, error, or imperfection, as in computer software. See crash, debug.

bulk :
Thickness of paper relative to its basis weight.

bulking dummy :
A dummy (qv) assembled from the actual paper specified for a printing job; also known as a "rough".

bullet :
A heavy dot or distinctive mark used for calling attention to particular sections of text; as derived from "ball". This design element is often used to setoff listed items ("bullet list"); and such a graphical element automatically highlights the items in an Unordered List (<UL>) configured as an HTML tag. See ornament, dingbat, guillemet, disc, fist, hanging, page marker, font, typeface.

bullpen :
Any crowded or temporary quarters, as the shared commons of a newsroom.

bully pulpit :
The use of an official office or social position to exhort a preferred course or extol a favored perspective, a partisan sermon; such as a newspaper that bullyrags a topic. See news, broadcast, webcast, narrowcast, journalism, disinformation, factoid, counterfactual.

burn :
To expose a printing plate to light. See double burn, gamma, film, illustration.

burnisher :
A friction tool, sometimes spring-loaded to ensure consistent pressure, for making something smooth or lustrous; derived from "polish". Print will not smudge after burnishing. See slur, mezzotint, dry transfer.

burst :
To separate the sheets of a multipart copy, as to distribute or collate; compare jog. Also, to transmit a packet of encoded or compressed data as a unitary signal element; also known as "pulse" or "squirt".

burst binding :
To bind by forcing glue into notches or crenelations along the spines of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover; also called "burst perfect bind", "notch bind", and "slotted bind". See binding.

bus :
A set of linear hardware circuits under the control of the microprocessor that are used to transfer data among the components of a computer system, which are rated by transfer bits, and are usually expandable. See USB, computer, hardware. [v: ISA, API, EISA, Micro Channel Architecture, IRQ]

business angel :
Slang for private or institutional investors of venture capital, which funding enables high potential businesses with limited security to launch; also called "backer" or "pigeon". The start-ups encumbered by such a debt load are called "captives". If the schedule of incremental disbursements is interrupted due to underachievement or other increased risks, the investment or investor may be known as a "fallen angel", "plucked pigeon", or "dead pigeon". See benefactor, white knight, entrepreneurship, venture, budget.

byline :
The attribution line printed below a book title or story heading that cites the author's name; such attribution may alternatively appear on deck or at the conclusion. See credit line, caption, deck, brand, show-off, autograph, allonym, ghostwriter, plagiarism.

byplay :
A peripheral action or speech simultaneously conducted with the primary or major proceedings, such as performances carried-on outside the central focus of the stage or film. See sidebar, runner, factoid, counterfactual; compare cause celebre.

byte :
A unit of computer memory usually consisting of eight adjacent bits; see nybble; compare analog, quantum. [v: kilobyte/KB, megabyte/MB, gigabyte/GB, terabyte/TB, petabyte/PB, exabyte/EB, zettabyte/ZB, yottabyte/YB; cf: umpteen]

- C -

C / C++ :
A powerful high-level computer programming language suited for creating operating systems and complex applications. Designed by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the 1970s, the C language was developed to allow UNIX to run on a variety of computers. C is becoming popular as an alternative to assembly language for some uses, and can be compiled into machine language for almost all computers. An object-oriented version of C, called C++, was created by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in 1986. In the C language, "C++" means "add 1 to C". C++ is the basis of the Java language. See Objective C, language.

cacography :
Bad handwriting. Also, poor spelling. Compare orthography, neologism. [nb: "Those people spell best who do not know how to spell." by Benjamin Franklin (as cited in Noah Webster's first dictionary); "I don't have much respect for the intelligence of anyone who can think of only one way to spell a word." by Andrew "Old Hickory" Jackson]

The abbreviation for Computer Assisted Drafting / Drawing, being a graphics program for creating orthographic views. See graphics.

calender :
To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacture. See machine glazed, paper coating.

California job case :
Storage container for foundry type (qv), subdivided into 89 compartments arranged by frequency of use. See type case.

caliper :
Thickness of paper or other substrata expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns), or pages per centimeter (ppc). See paper.

calligraphy :
The art of beautiful penmanship or fancy writing; a script of high aesthetic value produced chiefly by brush, as prized in Arabic, Indian, Chinese, and Japanese writing. See swash, paraph, stress variant, writing instruments.

call-out :
An excerpt or quotation extracted ("called-out") from a story or essay, and prominently displayed, as a banner or text box, to attract a reader's attention to a significant or salient point in the composition; also known as pull-quote, "pull-line", or "call-up". See blurb, squib, snippet, teaser, sidebar, side note, box, epigraph, bite, ear, mortise, byplay, counterfactual, factoid.

cameo :
A special effect typeface in which the characters are tone reversed. See reverse, outline, knockout, cutout; compare drop out, silhouette.

cameo binding :
A style of bookbinding, also called "plaquette binding", popular in Italy during the Sixteenth Century, in which the center of the boards forming the cover was relief stamped in imitation of a coin or medallion, and was sometimes embellished with ink or foil. Such a centerpiece has been combined with cornerpiece ornamentations. See cartouche, binding.

camera-ready copy :
Mechanicals, photographs, and artworks that are fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used; also called "photo-ready copy" and "final paste-up".

C&IC / C&1C :
Notation for setting the first letter of each word in capital (qv) or uppercase type. See down style, heading, ALL CAPS, CAP&SC, proofreader's marks; compare U&LC, CAP&LC, LC.

Abbreviation for "capitalize lowercase letter"; see ALL CAPS, CAP&:SC, proofreader's marks, compare U&LC, CAP&LC.

Notation to set designated letters in CAPitals followed by LowerCase letters. See CAP, ALL CAPS, LC, proofreader's marks.

Notation to set designated letters in CAPitals followed by Small-Capitals. See CAP, ALL CAPS, C&IC, OC, small-cap, proofreader's marks.

capital :
A capitalized letter or uppercase type; also called "head letter". See CAP, majuscule, uncial, LC, OC, small-cap, initial, drop-cap, rubric, ALL CAPS, C&IC, down style.

cap line :
An imaginary line at the top of capital letters; with the distance from the cap line to the baseline being the cap size. See body size.

caption :
A title or explanation for an illustration, as in a magazine; see balloon, credit line, underline, byline. Also, a title or heading, as of a chapter or page; see heading, catchline. Also, a title or other words projected onto a movie or television screen; compare crawl, zipper sign, ticker tape. Also, an HTML tag that entitles with a heading. Term derived from "seize" or capture.

captive printer :
Department of an agency, association, or business that does printing for a parent organization; also called "in-house printer" and "in-plant printer".

carbon black :
Any of various finely divided forms of amorphous carbon, used in pigments, in rubber products, and as clarifying or filtering agents. See pigment, ink, dye.

card :
A small framed business advertisement, similar to a calling card, bearing minimal information, arranged in columns or clusters at the back of magazines or newspapers; existing as a listing or announcement of the existence of a particular establishment with its location or contact information. See tombstone, fractional ad, advertising.

cardboard :
A thin, stiff pasteboard, used for signs and boxes. Compare chipboard.

caret :
A mark (^) made in written or printed matter to show the place where something is to be inserted; derived from "there is lacking / wanting". See notation, proofreader's marks.

carload :
A selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere between 20,000 and 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45,454 kilos), depending upon which mill or merchant uses the term; which is abbreviated CL.

carrel :
A cubicle, alcove, cell, chamber, stall, compartment, or other enclosure, often containing a desk, partitioned for private study in a library. See scriptorium, bookstand.

carry-over / carry-over line :
The line of editorial notation, inserted at the resumption point or arrival destination of an interrupted presentation to which the reader has been directed. See jump line, jump head, jump article, read through, sequence; compare continue line, page marker, end sign.

carton :
A selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight. See broken carton, paper.

cartoon :
A drawing symbolizing, satirizing, or caricaturing some action, subject, or person; including "comic strip" and "animated cartoon". Also, a preliminary pictorial design, as for a fresco or frieze; or a template for tapestry or embroidery. See morph, animation, illustration. [nb: single comics first appeared in American newspapers during the 1870s; first comic strip was "Katzenjammer Kids" by Rudolph Dirks (1897); "A. Mutt" (later "Mutt and Jeff") by H.C. "Bud" Fisher was first six-day-a-week strip (1907); first underground comic ("comix") was "Zap" by Robert Crumb (1967)]

cartouche / cartouch :
A rounded panel, often containing an inscription, decoration, or coat of arms. Also, an ornamental frame with decorative elements in the shape of a scroll, appearing in the corner of a map around an inscription giving the map's title or subject, name of cartographer, scale, and other descriptive information. Also, an oblong figure, as on ancient monuments, enclosing the name of a sovereign. See inscription, banderole, epigram.

cartridge :
A thick general-purpose paper used for printing, drawing, and wrapping. See paper.

case :
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a casebound book.

case binding :
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic, or leather; also called "cloth bound", "edition bound", and "hard bound". See binding.

cast-coated paper :
High-gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet. See paper coating.

cast off :
A calculation of finished size based on a determination of text, illustration, and margin space laid-out for typesetting. Compare over-set; see trim, crop, edit, grid, layout, spread, pre-press.

catalog / catalogue :
Any list or record, usually arranged systematically with descriptive materials, and sometimes included in another source or subsumed by a more extensive resource; see brochure, pamphlet, booklet, journal, monograph, gazette, program. Also, the listed contents of a library, arranged according to any of various systems; see book categorization.

catalog paper :
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and magazines. See paper.

catastasis :
The part of a drama, preceding the catastrophe, in which the action is at its height, being the climax of a play; derived from "settle", state or stand. See drama.

catastrophe :
The point in a drama following the climax and introducing the conclusion. Compare denouement, kicker; see deus ex machina, drama.

catchline :
A temporary headline for identification on the top of a galley proof. See heading, caption, galley proof.

catch-phrase / catchphrase :
A phrase that attracts or is meant to attract attention. See put to bed, catchword, pap, jingle, ad diction, slogan, slang, trigger term.

catchword :
An effective or attractive word or phrase made memorable by frequent repetition; see catch-phrase, slogan, ad diction, pap, jingle, trigger term. Also, a word printed at the top of a page in a reference book to indicate the first or last entry on that page; also called "guideword" or headword (qv), not keyword (qv).

cause celebre / cause c俵奲re :
Any genuine or synthetic controversy that attracts great public attention, as an infamous deed or a notorious scandal; literally derived from "famous case". See papier-mache, flackery, slander, factoid, counterfactual, disinformation; compare byplay.

cc / c.c. :
Abbreviation for copy/copies, as derived from "carbon copy", referring to the former practice of interleaving sheets of carbon paper between blank pages to mechanically reproduce the original, which was a process fraught with potential errors and image degradation; to reduce errors and increase productivity, special "copy set" combinations of lightweight paper with attached carbon paper were manufactured for government and business use. See copy, flimsy, onionskin, manifold, NCR paper. Also, abbreviation for 'chapters'.

The abbreviation for Charged Coupled Device, such as a camera or scanner that uses arrays of photocells to capture images.

CD :
The abbreviation for Compact Disc, being a small optical disc (@ 120mm/dia, c1982 by Sony) on which music, data, or images are digitally recorded for playback (spin-rate: 1X = 150KB/s). A "read-only memory" attributed compact disc (CD-ROM) can store a large amount of digitized data. Writeable compact disc (CD-R) technology for archival media is considered more durable than magnetic storage, but unlike CD-ROM, no single standard exists for uniformity and compatibility. The CD-R optical disk is also known as "write once, read many" (WORM), but this niche market technology can only be read by the same type of drive that originally wrote them. Disc capacity has been increased by conversion to DVD format (@120mm/dia, 1X = 1350KB/s, c1996), and will be greatly expanded when the laser spectrum shifts from red to blue, which allows increased density. See analog, COLD, e-pub, disc.

CE :
The abbreviation for copyeditor; see copyedit, proofread.

censorship :
The power to or the act of censoring, as exercised through religious office or governmental agency, by examining literature, dramatic performances, public speeches, and other published or broadcast matter for the purpose of suppressing or deleting parts deemed objectionable on moral, political, military, or other grounds. The most notable roster of excluded materials was the Catholic "Index of Prohibited Books" begun by Pope Leo X, which was discontinued in 1966 [cf: Protestant Index Expurgatorius]; but the void has been more than filled by secular arbiters from university panels and library committees, where judgements are made without benefit of popular law or substantive ethics. Discrimination based upon "political correctness" is only the latest spasm of doctrinaire scrutiny by the Orwellian "thought police", since everything from children's books and religious texts to seditious and salacious materials have been banned in the "Land of the Free", with international prohibitions varying upon revised policies. The media industry guidelines regulating the "sex and violence" ratings are a form of voluntary censorship which, like official suppression [v: Comstock], tends to stimulate prurient interest and increase profitability. Derived from the Roman official charged with the enforcement of public manners and morals, being required "to give one's opinion, recommendation, or assessment". See imprimatur, propaganda, disinformation, samizdat, trigger term, advertising, PSA, recension, expurgate, expose, curiosa, pornography, copyright, freedom of speech, freedom of information, intellectual freedom, euphemism, intelligentsia. [v: auto-da-fe/auto-da-f? nihil obstat]

center spread :
The facing pages in the exact center of a magazine, which is a desirable spot for advertisers because of its high visibility; a form of double spread (qv). See cover positions, crossover.

cento :
A piece of writing, especially a poem, composed wholly of quotations from the works of other authors, with a meaning or message different from the original. Also, anything composed of incongruous parts, as a conglomeration. Derived from "patchwork quilt". See pastiche, compilation.

caesura :
A break or pause in a line of verse, marked in scansion by a double vertical line; see meter, prosody, verse, truncation, elision. Also, any hiatus or interruption; see interlude.

The abbreviation for Cold Fusion Markup Language (qv); see markup.

CGI script :
The abbreviation for Common Gateway Interface script, being a small program written in a language such as PERL, Tcl, C or C++ that functions as the connection between HTML webpages and other programs on a Web server. For example, a CGI would allow search data entered on a Web page to be sent to the database management system (DBMS) for lookup. It would also format the results of that search as an HTML page and send it back to the user. The CGI script resides in the server, and obtains the data from the user via environment variables that the Web server makes available to it. CGI scripts have been the initial mechanism used to make websites interact with databases and other applications. However, as the Web has evolved, server processing methods have been developed that are more efficient and easier to program. For example, Microsoft promotes its Active Server Pages (ASPs) for its Windows Web servers, and Sun/Netscape nurtures its Java roots with JavaServer Pages (JSPs) and servlets. See browser, web server, language.

The abbreviation for Computer Graphics Metafile, being a file format (*.CGM) designed by several standards organizations, and formally ratified by ANSI. It is designed for exchanging graphics files between applications, in both vector and raster formats, and is widely supported by a variety of software and hardware products. See metafile, graphics, illustration.

chalking :
A powdering effect on the surface of paper after the ink has failed to dry satisfactorily due to a fault in printing. See paper coating.

change order :
Alternate term for alteration; see AA, insert, sandwich, PE, proofread.

chapbook :
A small book or pamphlet, usually between 24-32 pages, of tales, ballads, tracts, or poems; as derived from chapman (peddler, tradesman) + book. See booklet, magazine, tabloid, newsletter, gazette, pamphlet, journal, monograph, compilation.

character count :
As the initial stage in typeset calculations, the number of characters (ie: letters, figures, signs, or spaces) in a line, paragraph, or other piece of copy; also called "unit count". See copyfit, linage.

character map :
An interactive keyboard layout in Windows that shows the characters available for each typeface in uppercase, lowercase, and with option keys. The equivalent utility for Macintosh is Key Caps. Supporting the array is actually a block of memory addresses that correspond to character spaces on the display screen; with each memory allocation containing the description of the character shown in that space. See charset, font, type.

character string :
A sequence of characters manipulated as a group; sometimes a concatenation of terms in a special computer language. Depending on the system, a character string will be set off distinctively, or enclosed by single or double quotation marks; and is distinguished from a name by its length and reference variability. See SNOBOL, thread.

charset :
The contraction for "character set", being a group of related alphabetic, numeric, symbolic, and other characters, including control codes. See character map, ASCII, EBCDIC, Unicode, ANSI, ISO.

chase :
An adjustable rectangular frame into which composed type is secured or locked for printing or platemaking; derived from "enclosed space", case. See furniture, quoin, reglet, galley.

chatroom :
An interactive online forum featuring real-time conversations among participants on a specific topic, which communications may be monitored (read like a BBS) by subscribing observers. See IRC, newsgroup, instant messaging, blog, thread, listserve, UseNet.

cheater bar :
Using vacant space on an imposed sheet, prints compensatory ink to balance the difference between a solid and a knockout, so uneven ink distribution will not distort the image with streaks or build-ups; also called "take-away bar" or "ghosting bar". Compare color control bar, eye markers; see color shift, color cast, scum, ghosting.

chiaroscuro :
The distribution of light and shade in a picture; as the use of deep variations in shadow, and subtle gradations of light, for general dramatic effect, and to enhance the delineation of character. Also, a woodcut print in which the colors are produced by the use of different blocks with different colors. Derived from "light + dark"; see illustration.

chiasmus :
Word order reversal in two otherwise parallel phrases, as syntactic reversal or ideational exchange, also known as "convertible statement" or "reversible raincoat sentence" (eg: "The two most engaging powers of an author are to make new things familiar, and familiar things new." or "Your manuscript is both good and original; but the part that is good is not original, and the part that is original is not good."); derivation related to physiological cross-over (ie: optic chiasm). See rhetorical forms.

chip :
A tiny slice of semiconducting material on which a transistor or an integrated circuit is formed; also called "microchip". A transistor is a compact solid-state device consisting of a semiconductor with three or more electrodes, performing the primary functions of an electron tube: amplification, switching, and detection, while using less power. The integrated circuit pattern is transferred to the microchip by photolithography. The first transistor -- a tiny slab of germanium, some bits of gold foil, a paper clip, and some pieces of plastic -- was invented at Bell Laboratories in 1947 by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize for Physics. The transistor led to the invention of the integrated circuit in 1958, and of the minicomputer in 1960. See silicon, ROM, disc, hardware, computer.

chipboard :
A thin, stiff sheet material, such as non-corrugated cardboard, made from wastepaper; see paper. Also, a type of board made from compressed waste wood bound together with synthetic resin.

choke :
Technique of slightly decreasing or reducing the size of an image to create an outline or hairline trap; also called "shrink" and "skinny". See spread, register.

chrestomathy :
A collection of selected literary passages, often from a single author, and usually from a foreign language; as derived from "useful + learn". See compilation.

chroma :
The strength or purity of a color, as compared to neutral gray, or its freedom from white or gray; also called "depth", "intensity", "purity", and "saturation". Also, the intensity of hue. Compare hue, value; see gray scale, brightness, solid, illustration.

The abbreviation for Commission International de l'Eclairage, being the organization that developed color standards used in PostScript and other software.

cinematography :
The art or technique of motion-picture photography; derived from "moving/motion + image". See film, photography, illustration. [v: phi phenomenon]

cinema verite / cin俶a v俽it?:
A documentary filmaking technique which records actual persons and events without scripting or directorial intervention; derived "motion[-picture] + truth". See storyboard, film, documentary.

circulation :
Usually a periodical's total paid readership; a combination of individual, institutional, and agent-sold subscriptions plus average single-copy sales. Those copies actually sold, not the total sent to distributors. Test marketing can be done with limited circulation in a prospective area or among potential subscribers. See single-copy sales, draw, renewal rate, conversion, soft offer, audience, tracking, testing, ABC, controlled circulation.

classic :
An author or literary work of the first rank, especially one of demonstrably enduring quality, as fundamental, traditional, or definitive. See literature, immortals, copyright.

clause :
Any group of words containing a subject and predicate. An independent syntactic construction may constitute a whole simple sentence. A dependent clause marked by a subordinate conjunction forms part of another syntactic construction. Any number of dependent or independent clauses may be connected in an expressive series; restricted only by clarity of meaning and stylistic guidelines. Compare phrase; see parts of speech. Also, a distinct article, section, or provision in a contract, will, treaty, or other formal written document; derived from "conclusion".

clean color :
A subjective term meaning vivid or pure; see illustration.

cliche / clich?:
A trite style, stereotyped form, or hackneyed plot, as unimaginative character development in literature or drama; see rhetorical forms. Also, a stereotype or electrotype printing plate. or a reproduction made by such a manner; derived from onomatopoetic imitation of such a plate pressing against the matrix.

climax :
A decisive moment or culmination in a dramatic or literary work that is of maximum intensity or is a major turning point in a plot; also known as catastasis. Compare catastrophe, denouement, anticlimax, kicker; see drama.

clip :
A shortened word or phrase made by dropping one or more syllables. Compare blend, contraction, compound. [v: agglutination]

clipart :
Public domain drawings and pictures intended to be copied into printed material; also called "stock art". See graphics.

Clipper / Clipper chip :
A tamper-resistant encryption chip for all telecommunication devices, as designed by the National Security Agency for conformity with the Escrow Encryption Standard (EES) and implementing the Skipjack encryption algorithm. The Clipper chip was intended to establish a single uniform encryption standard, with the federal government holding a master key for unscrambling any criminal transmissions; but protests from the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the American Civil Liberties Union, and other interested groups prevented its inauguration. Although the export of encryption software and other technology is restricted, the federal government continues to promote "Clipper 2" and "Clipper 3" plans for anti-terrorism and other surveillance. See escrow key, key, PGP, password, trap door, steganography.

The abbreviation for Cyan Magenta Yellow blacK, being the four standard inks for printing. Four-color printing requires color separations for each of these standard inks. See swatchbook, PMS, process colors, illustration.

coated paper :
Chemically treated paper providing a glossy or matte finish that's used to enhance brightness; also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper, and slick paper. Compare uncoated paper; see book paper, paper coating.

The abbreviation for COmmon Business Oriented Language, being a high-level computer language suited for writing programs that process large data files and generate reports. Invented during the second generation of computers, it was designed by the CODASYL Committee in 1960 to meet the needs of business, and is the most widely used programming language. It has a natural language style, which makes it easy for a programmer who did not write the original program to make corrections and changes. See language.

cobweb-site :
Slang for an "old" or "antique" website, with the implication of dusty and moth-eaten. This word blend ignores the origin of "coppeweb" (poisonous spider), and its "network of intrigue", with its secondary meaning of confusion. Compare feature-shock; see website.

cocked-up initial :
An initial letter, usually printed at the beginning of the first paragraph of a chapter, which projects above the line of type on which it appears. Compare drop-cap; see initial, small-cap, rubric, swash, majuscule.

cockle finish :
A slightly wrinkled or puckered surface on bond paper. See paper coating.

coda :
A concluding section, especially one serving as a summation of the preceding themes or formal passages; anything that serves as a conclusion or summation. Such a summary may be marked by the Greek letter "sigma" (E / ? to denote its occurrence. See back matter; compare incipit.

codex :
A manuscript volume, usually of an ancient classic or a book of statutes, as contrasted with a scroll. See spine, incunabula, headword, artifact.

coding / key coding / source coding :
The practice of assigning alpha-numeric codes which allows you to identify the source of a new subscription or renewal. There are no set rules about how to set up source codes, but the logical assignment of place and date on the reply coupon of solicitation tends to work best. Once devised, the code should remain consistent; but special designators can be added to trace particular lists or test offers. See direct mail package, reply coupon, bar code, EAN Bookland bar code, tracking, testing, white mail.

coeval :
Being coincident, simultaneous, or contemporaneous; of the same age or equal duration. Compare dual edition, byplay, rollout, tear sheet, samples, crawl, news, editorial, magazine, stylish, stone age, hotkey, TSR, SAMI, SMIL, multitasking, gang, duplex, frontlist, midlist, backlist, artifact, codex, incunabula, scroll, colloquialism, vernacular.

coil binding :
Spiral-bound (qv) by colored plastic, which can be matched to ink or dye for cover stock. See binding.

An acronym for Computer Output to Laser Disc, as in the storage of data on optical disc (eg: CD-ROM). Storing large quantities of data onto laser disk, as opposed to microfiche or microfilm, enables computer search access of this information, and more readily distributes information to users. COLD avoids the duplication and protection costs incurred with physical documents or film. Compare Cold Fusion.

Cold Fusion :
A server-side scripting product created by Allaire Corporation of Cambridge Mass, that includes a server and a development toolset, which is designed to integrate databases and webpages. Cold Fusion webpages include tags written in Cold Fusion Markup Language (CFML) that simplifies integration with databases, and avoids the use of more complex languages (ie: C++) to create translating programs. Users enter parameters on a webpage and the server queries the database for specifics, with the result presented in HTML. See ASP, web server.

cold-set web :
Web press without a drying oven, thus unable to print on coated paper; also called "non-heat-set web" and "open web". See press.

cold type :
Type set without the direct use of molten metal castings, as by phototypesetter or Imagesetter; also called "flat type". The distinction is oriented to the prevailing or final process, rather than exclusion; as 'scanned relief' is "cold type", but 'photo engraved' is "hot type". Compare hot type, foundry type; see reproduction proof, font, type.

collage :
A technique of composing a work of art by pasting on a surface, or splicing a graphical sequence, various materials or subjects not normally associated with one another. This combination of seemingly disparate elements or images does not form a unified whole, or represent a singular statement. Derived from "glue" together; also known as "papier coll?. Compare montage; see pastiche, illustration. [v: assemblage]

collate :
To gather or arrange pages in their proper sequence; derived from "bring together". Also, to verify the arrangement of gathered sheets, their number and order, for a volume or book, as a means of determining its completeness before binding. Also, to critically compare texts. See burst.

collateral :
Printed pieces, such as newsletters and brochures, that support and supplement display or broadcast advertising.

collective mark :
A trademark or service mark (qqv) used by a cooperative; see product mark.

colloquialism :
Casual, familiar, or informal writing and speech, as in a conversational style; derived from "conversation / talk", in common with colloquium. See slang, vernacular, orality, language, sociolinguistics. [nb: colloquialisms are always current, but vernacular or vulgate may be historical]

collotype :
A mechanized representative process used for printing black or color posters and transparencies, as lately revived from its 1880 - 1914 popularity era. Patented in France (1855) as "Photocollography", then modified as "Phototypy" (1865) and as "Albertypy" (1868), this process used photosensitive substances, not as agents in making plates for printing, but to serve directly as the effective surface of such plates. Also called the "collotype process", it was neglected until recently.

colon / cola :
The sign (:) used to mark a major division in a sentence to indicate that what follows is an elaboration, summation, interpretation, deduction, or conclusion of what precedes. Also, the sign used to separate grouped numerals, as in time, date, ratio, and proportion. Also, one of the members or sections of a rhythmical period, consisting of a sequence of from two to six feet united under a principal ictus or beat. See foot, period, punctuation.

colophon :
The distinctive emblem or signet of a publisher or printer, used as an identifying device on their works; see imprint, autograph. Also, an inscription at the end of a book or manuscript giving its title, author, date, and other particulars of production. Because early books were published by the collaboration of separate skillcrafts, the original colophon was also a form of advertising. Derived [1615-25] from summit, finishing touch. See masthead, back matter.

color balance :
Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the colors of the original scene or photograph. See illustration.

color break :
In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one link color stops and another begins. See illustration.

color build :
To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new color; also known as a "build", "tint build", or overlay. Compare knockout; see illustration.

color cast :
Unwanted color affecting an entire image; see cheater bar, illustration.

color control bar :
A strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Compare eye markers, cheater bar; see illustration.

color correct :
To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors. See tweak, illustration.

color curves :
Instructions in software that allow users to change or correct colors; also called HLS or HVS tables. See illustration.

color gamut :
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device or process. See illustration.

color gradient :
The rate of change of a tonal variable in the direction of maximum alteration. See blend, airbrush.

color map :
A grid or other display of all the colors available in a computer program; also called a "color palette".

color matching system :
System of numbered ink swatches that facilitates communication about color. See illustration.

color model :
A way of categorizing and describing the almost infinite array of colors found in nature. See illustration.

color sequence :
The order in which inks are printed. With process colors, the sheetfed sequence is often black first, then magenta, cyan, and yellow last. The web sequence is often cyan, magenta, yellow, with black either first or last. Also called "laydown sequence" and "rotation". See illustration.

color shift :
Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities, or dot gain. See cheater bar, illustration.

color specification :
The technique of using a camera, scanner, or computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four separated halftone negatives. Also, the film, proof or printed product resulting from color separation. See illustration.

column inch :
An area measurement used to calculate the cost of display advertising in magazines and newspapers; consisting of one column wide by one inch high. Advertising placed in outside columns or near section fronts usually cost more than inside or back listed displays. See fractional ad, PCI, advertising.

column rule :
A light vertical rule used to separate balanced or parallel arrangements of columns of text. The width of the standard newspaper column is thirteen picas (6 pica = 1 inch). The margin that the rule bisects between columns is white space (qv). See rule, newspaper, straight composition.

comb binding :
A practical and inexpensive method of binding similar to spiral binding, using a flexible plastic "comb" with "teeth" through the rectangular holes at the edge of the paper, allowing the book to open flat. The spine of comb bindings may be screen printed with title, author, and imprint, similar to other books. Also called "GBC" or "clamshell" binding. See binding.

comedy / comedia :
A literary form designed to amuse by use of wit, humor, criticism, or ridicule; derived from "revel" (komos). Comedy is usually identified as a dramatic form, but the term also applies to nondramatic works. Often distinguished from tragedy, which tries to evoke profound emotions from the audience; but Aristotle distinguishes characters that are figures from daily life in everyday situations as comedic. Comedy includes scenes of farce, satire, burlesque, harlequinade, or sociopolitical invective, with or without musical accompaniment; as represented by tragicomic, romantic comedy, miracle plays, comedy of manners, com俤ie larmoyante, com俤ie ballet, and theatre of the absurd. See bathos, melodrama, drama, revue, literature, muse.

comma :
The sign (,) used as a punctuation mark for indicating phrases or clauses in a sentence, for separating words or list items, for identifying levels of data, for distinguishing types of bibliographic information, for delineating numeric groups, and for specifying decimal points in numeric notation (Europe). Compare Oxford comma, period, semicolon; see punctuation.

command line :
A string of text in the command language, which is executed by the command interpreter; also called "command-line interface". Commands are usually typed at the keyboard or chosen from a menu so that performance instructions can be interpreted by the operating system for the computer and its programs. The command interpreter (eg: "command.com" in MS-DOS) is responsible for loading applications and directing the flow of information between applications. In OS/2 and MS-DOS, the command interpreter also handles simple functions. A command-driven system, using a special command language, is considered more difficult to learn and use than graphical user interfaces. However, command-based systems are usually programmable; which gives them flexibility unavailable in graphics-based systems that do not have a programming interface. See shell, string; compare GUI. [nb: a maxim for the "command line dependent personality" is C:\FORMAT life |MORE !]

commentator :
Anyone who makes a series of comments, explanations, or annotations, such as editor, journalist, narrator, moderator, or "infotainer". Also, a compiler of facts or events, as recording secretary or documentary archivist. See dialogue, critic, news, documentary.

commercial match :
The acceptable difference between the color on a sample of ink or paper, or the color on a proof, and the color achieved on a press. See ink roll-out, illustration.

commercial printer :
Printer producing a wide range of products, such as brochures, posters, booklets, stationary and business forms. Also called "job printer" because each job is different.

commercial register :
The informal trade policy recognizing that acceptable quality allows a slight variation of register throughout the press run.

commodity :
Refers to paper or printing produced quickly and in high volumes, so therefore relatively inexpensive.

communique / communiqu?:
An official bulletin or announcement, especially a general communication to the press or public. See broadcast, advance, news release, publicist, blad, press kit.

compilation :
To assemble or combine materials into a single work, as to collect selections into an assemblage, aggregation, or m俵ange; derived from "to steal from another writer". See anthology, miscellany, garland, news book, cento, pastiche, chrestomathy, digest, analects, journal, chapbook, magazine, umbrella, oeuvre, collage, montage, literature. [v: omnium-gatherum]

comp letter :
A sales or promotion letter bound onto or into a magazine that is sent without charge to investors, clients, reviewers, and other complimentary recipients. See comps.

compose :
To typeset copy. See compositor, typesetter, typographer.

composing stick :
A portable, adjustable, usually metal tray that the compositor holds in one hand while placing type into it gathered with the other hand; also known as "type stick" or "compositor's stick". See knee, galley.

composite proof :
A proof of halftones and separations in position with graphics and type. See proof.

composition :
The arrangement of type, graphics, and other elements onto a page in preparation for printing. Also, the act or process of producing a short essay or literary work. Also, the organization or grouping of the different parts of a work of art so as to achieve a unified whole; an holistic aggregate. Also, the process of forming compound words, which are joined without alteration; see solid.

compositor :
A person who sets the type or text for printing; derived from component. See compose, typographer, typesetter.

compound / compound word :
A word composed of two or more words that are otherwise unaltered (eg: moonflower, rainstorm, newspaper, stylebook); also called "portmanteau word". Compare blend, clip, glide, contraction; see solid, word, vocabulary, language. [v: agglutination] [nb: some compounds are subtly distinct or altered in meaning from their separated forms; see Confusing Words]

comprehensive dummy :
Simulation of a printed piece, complete with actual type, graphics, and colors; may be abbreviated "comp", also called "editor's book". See dummy, F&G, Greek type.

comps :
Individuals who regularly receive a publication free of charge, such as reviewers, funders, and board members. The practice of sending tear sheets (qv) to advertisers has been replaced by comps, primarily for manpower reasons. See comp letter, controlled circulation, desk copy.

computer :
The development of computers began in the late 1940s with huge mainframes that used vacuum tube technology. The second generation of computers were built with discrete transistors, from the mid-1950s through the mid-1960s. Third-generation computers were built using integrated circuits after the mid-1960s; during this time period, minicomputers were developed. The fourth generation of computers are the microcomputers which use large-scale integration or very large-scale integration. In 1973, the Xerox Corporation Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) built the first desktop computer, called the "Alto", that implemented a bitmapping process and utilized a mouse pointer. The fifth generation of computers, beginning in the late 1990s, uses quantum mechanics, and are expected to extend and expand the application of artificial intelligence (AI). See quantum, IAS, ENIAC, MANIAC, Mark 1, stone age, hardware, bus, SSI, chip, disc, markup, database, file system, software, program, platform, interface, analog, cybernetics, language.

concertina-fold :
A pleated folding method of alternates or opposites, so neighboring pages are contiguous and sequential; also known as "z-fold", "s-fold", or accordian-fold (qv). See boustrophedon, French fold, foldout, parallel-fold, wrap-fold.

concordance :
An alphabetical index of subjects or topics, as a "syntopican". Also, an alphabetical index of the principal words or phrases of a book, with a reference to the passage in which each occurs (eg: a concordance to the Bible). Compare contents; see index, back matter.

condensed type :
A typeface style in which the characters have an elongated appearance. See type.

condition :
To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom; also called "cure", "mature", and "season". See paper.

C1 / C2 / C3 / C4 :
Reference for cover positions (qv); variously interpreted as the quadrants comprising the front cover, the principal cover pages from front to back, or the prime cover pages from front and back to inside. Other designations may also exist.

C1S / C2S :
Abbreviations for Coated one Side and Coated two Sides; also denoted "C/1/S" and "C/2/S". Paper coated on one side is often used for book covers, posters, signs, and menus. Stock coated only on one side may still be printed on both sides, just like uncoated paper and paper coated on both sides. See calender, machine glazed, paper coating.

conflict :
In literature and drama (qqv), the clash of actions, emotions, objectives, or philosophies that inhibit or divert the agonists, either protagonist or antagonist; including innerpersonal, intrapersonal, interpersonal, extrapersonal, antisocial, cross-cultural, extrasocial, and mystical. The opposition, formally known as "agon", may be a contest or dilemma involving contradictory motivations, adversarial enmity, natural force, or inexorable fate. See pathos, tragedy. [v: nemesis]

console :
The control unit of a mechanical, electrical, or electronic system, such as the input and monitor of a computer; derived from "bracket" or support. See pointer, keyboard, screen.

consonant :
A speech sound produced by occluding, diverting, or obstructing the flow of air from the lungs. Also, a letter or other symbol representing a consonant sound. Compare vowel; see phoneme, morpheme, onomatopoeia, rhetorical forms.

constant :
Elements in a periodical that do not change from issue to issue, such as nameplate, standing head, body type, masthead, editorial well; also called "canned format". See template, grid, formula, sine qua non.

constituent :
A linguistic element considered as part of a construction. See morpheme, syntax, parts of speech. [v: immediate constituent, ultimate constituent]

container tag :
Paired coding affecting the encapsulated contents that requires both elements (ie: on / off, enable / disable, activate / deactivate) to be present for the sequence to be recognized. HTML will ignore unknown or incorrect codes, but SGML and XML will fail. These parameters often "contain" style or format attributes, which are enabled within the tag boundaries. See slash, tag, HTML tag, markup.

content provider :
Jargon for a contributor, being someone who supplies material to a publication, and may assist in formulating its presentation, especially for e-mags and webcasts. See zine.

contents :
The subjects or topics covered in a publication, usually subdivided into chapters, sections, departments, or books, and referenced by page; also called "table of contents", and abbreviated "TOC". Also, the material or substance presented by topical categories. The contents page in a book is always recto; but the contents page of a periodical is often verso, with the opposite recto page usually being prime advertising display space. The contents, being a service page in a periodical, normally includes: heading, date, volume number, logo, subheads, titles, bylines, page number (or other form of navigation), deck/bite/abstract/teaser, images, cover credit, website address, and website contents. The contents for periodicals has expanded to two or three pages so feature and department titles could include decks or abstracts as teasers, supplemental images for the material, and a website contents within the print contents. If the corrigenda does not appear on the editorial page or with the masthead, it may be placed on the contents page. See pagination, editorial well, feature, sidebar, advance, front matter; compare ladder, masthead, colophon, concordance.

continue line :
The line of editorial notation, inserted whenever the content of a presentation is interrupted, which directs the reader to the resumption point. See read through, jump line, jump head, jump article, sequence; compare carry-over, page marker, end sign.

continuous tone :
Artwork which may entail the full spectrum of tonal gradations, from dark to light; abbreviated "contone". In order to print graduated artwork on an offset press, continuous tone images must be converted into halftones. See illustration.

contraction :
A shortened form of a word (eg: intel) or group of words (eg: milpers), or a compound created by shortings (eg: ampersand). In speech, often considered informal or colloquial; and in written English, the excised portions or omitted letters are replaced by an apostrophe (eg: isn't, they're, e'er, etc). Compare blend, clip, compound. [v: haplography, paronym, agglutination]

contract proof :
Any proof that the customer approves as final. See pleasing colors.

contranym :
A word with inherently opposite meanings (eg: cleave, enjoin, sanguine, dike, moot, alibi, custom, mistress); sometimes spelled "contronym" and also called "antagonym". See oxymoron, homonym, heteronym, vocabulary. [see Confusing Words]

contrast :
The relative difference between light and dark areas of an image; the degree of compressed tonal range in an image toward highlights and shadows. Contrast can be adjusted by changing the exposure or by using filters (eg: color correcting filter). Also, opposition or juxtaposition of different forms, lines, or colors in a work of art; a distinguishing difference. See illustration. Also, the design principle that important elements are given emphasis or dominance on a page, by use of size, color, texture, or placement, compared to less important ones. See layout, balance, sequence.

control character :
A computer character, such as control (CTRL) or alternate (ALT), assigned keyboard values or functions when combined in appropriate sequences within operating systems or applications; including: exit (break / CTRL+C), stop (interrupt / CTRL+D), end (terminate / CTRL+Z). See hot-key, end sign, subroutine, macro, script, batch file, TSR, shell.

controlled circulation :
The practice of sending complimentary copies of a magazine, usually trade, literary, or other subsidized periodicals, to specific subscribers, whose selection is based upon their job title or position. See comps.

conversion :
Has several meanings including: the first time renewal of a new, paid subscription and the reformation of a database for use with new software or at a new fulfillment house.

conversion rate :
Usually the percentage of first-time subscribers who renew for a second year/term. Also describes a discounted rate offered to potential first-time renewers who initially subscribed at a reduced rate. (nb: a conversion rate is normally offered to "soften the blow" of stepping up from a discounted to a full-price rate). See renewal rate.

converter :
A business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes, and displays. Also, any device that changes impulses from one form to another, such as analog to digital. Also, translation software that changes data from one format into another, for access or interpretation.

cookie :
A set of data that a website server gives to a browser the first time the user visits the website, and is updated with each return visit. An HTTP cookie is a packet of information which an HTTP server sends to a World Wide Web browser, to be sent back by the browser every time it reconnects with that server. HTTP cookies can be used to identify registered users. The remote server saves the information the cookie contains about the user, and the user's browser does the same, as a text file stored in the browser system folder. Depending on the type of cookie used and the browser's settings, the browser may accept or not accept the cookie, and may save the cookie for either a short time or a long time. Web servers can use cookies to keep track of how often and when a user has visited, and what sort of information was sought on their site. They can even use cookies to pass that information on to other web servers, such as advertisement servers. Cookies are usually transmitted by JavaScript or CGI Script. On the positive side, cookies can be used to store the user's own web site configuration, to remember items placed in an online store's "shopping cart", or to store account and password information for subscription sites. Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the browser software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to disk if their expire time has not been reached. For maximum privacy, allow return of cookies to trusted sites only. A "kill cookie" batch file is an executable script that removes cookies from the computer's browser; or an "amnesia" program can scour the various temporary and history dumps on a computer for better security. See audience, circulation, tracking, sniffer, adware, spyware.

co-op ad :
An advertisement paid for by several different sources. Can refer to a group ad from several different publishers, a group ad placed by a distributor on behalf of several publishers, or an ad bought jointly by a reading venue and a publisher. See co-op money, hook, banner, broadside, teaser.

co-op money :
A fee requested by a reading venue to pay for publicity of a reading (eg: advertisements in local newspapers, newsletters, or posters. Co-op money also refers to fees charged publishers for inclusion in a retailer's promotional efforts (ie: special displays, catalogs, newsletters, etc). Based on a percentage of net sales from a specified period (ie: the previous 12 months), some publishers set aside "co-op pools" from which retailers can request support for new initiatives. See co-op ad, flackery.

copula :
A verb (ie: be, seem, look, etc) that serves as a connecting link or establishes an identity between subject and complement [v: "subjective complement"]; also called "linking verb". See parts of speech. Also, the connecting link between the subject and predicate of a proposition. [v: "zero copula"]

copy :
Matter intended to be reproduced in printed form; derived from "abundant", copious. Also, the text of a story, advertisement, commercial, or the like. Also, any one of the various examples or specimens of the same publication. Also, an imitation, reproduction, or transcript of an original; compare replica, near frame.

copyboy :
A newspaper office employee who delivers copy and runs errands; a novice who gains valuable experience and perspective on publishing by observing writers, editors and printers. See deskman, stringer, journalism, news. [nb: both Henry Grunwald and Andrew Heiskell are 'bottom to top' success stories at "Time"; while both Harold Ross ("New Yorker") and John H. Johnson ("Ebony" / "Jet") are profound success stories despite being "unqualified"]

copy desk :
The desk at which copy (qv) is edited and prepared for printing, especially in a newspaper or magazine office. See slot, rim, fishbowl, deskman, copyedit, copywriter.

copyedit :
Copyediting is a blanket term that describes several different levels of textual editing that happen before the text is typeset: mechanical, style, and substantive. Substantive editing, or major changes to the author's wording and organization, is generally carried out by the editor. A copyeditor generally does mechanical editing -- corrections to grammar, punctuation, and spelling. The copyeditor also makes sure that the text conforms to the house style, that is, the particular publisher's stylistic guidelines resolve all options on usage. The copyeditor is also known as a "subeditor". See proofread, stylebook, strike-through, rewrite.

copyfit / copyfitting :
The process of varying the spacing of letters and words, or of adjusting the size of type and lines to make copy fit within a defined area of the page; see tracking, kern, leading, rag, RIP, tweak. Also, the composition of topical work confined to a word or line limit for complete expression (ie: character or unit count), as opposed to submissions of inconsistent length; compare copyedit, copywriter.

copyright :
The exclusive ownership of a literary, musical, or artistic work, and the protected right to make use of such a tangible work for a specified period of time; including the right to: (1) reproduce the copyrighted work; (2) prepare derivative works; (3) distribute copies of the work by sale or otherwise; (4) with respect to certain artistic works, perform the work publicly; and (5) display the work publicly. An author is the party who actually creates the work, that is, the person who translates the motive or idea into some fixed or tangible expression that's entitled to copyright protection. Such work is owned by the artist from the moment of creation until these rights are assigned or transferred; except for work for hire, which is owned by the employer or commissioner. Author ownership is contingent upon copyrightable subject matter, which is able to be independently assigned. Authors of joint work hold undivided interests in it, despite any differences in each co-author's contribution, if their intent at the time of creation was joint. To create joint work, each author must intend that respective contributions be merged into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole; so collaboration alone is insufficient to create joint works. Each author is co-owner of joint work and has the right to use or license use of the work, subject to accounting to other co-owners for any profits. Anyone who assists in the creation of a work, whether as patron, employer, or contributor of suggestions and refinements, has the opportunity to share in the profits produced by the work through appropriate contractual arrangements. Declaration must include: copyright symbol or abbreviation, first year of publication, and name of copyright holder. Denotation includes the word "copyright", the abbreviation "copr", or the "C" in a circle symbol. Copyright protection generally extends beyond literary work's strictly textual form to its nonliteral components; but any substantial similarity should be determined by filtering out unprotected aspects of allegedly infringed end-products. Defendant's copying of copyrighted work may be established for copyright infringement claim either by direct evidence, or by showing that defendant had access to copyrighted work, and that defendant's work is substantially similar to copyrightable material. The merger doctrine's underlying principle is that when the essential expression of an idea is greatly limited or severely restricted, then the idea and its expression are inseparable, and copyright is no bar to reproducing that expression. In order not to confer a monopoly of the idea upon the copyright owner, that when specific information, even though previously included in copyrighted material, is the only and essential means of expressing a given idea or accomplishing a given task, its later use by another will not amount to infringement, so such expression should not be protected. Generally, information or concepts are not subject to legal protection, except where information is gathered and arranged at some cost and sold as a commodity on the market, it then acquires the same protection of other intellectual property. Ideas and styles (eg: catch-phrase, title, voice, celebrity, etc) are not protected by copyright. In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work. The primary objective of copyright is not to reward the labor of authors, since substantial effort alone cannot confer copyright status on an otherwise uncopyrightable work. Federal copyright preemption does not apply to state law claims for unfair competition based on breach of confidential relationship, breach of fiduciary duty, and violation of trade secrets. See subsidiary rights, volume rights, fair use, public domain, specialized format, disclaimer, digital watermark, plagiarism, non-disclosure agreement, work for hire. [nb: A "parenthetic c" {(c)} is sometimes used to denote copyright, but this symbol is invalid, since the letter must be completely encircled ("©"); therefore, the "copr" abreviation would be a better option for anyone unable to insert the correct sign.]

copywriter :
A writer of advertising or publicity copy. See space writer, deskman, rim, slot, copyedit, linage, broadside, hook, banner, co-op ad, flackery, teaser.

cornerpiece :
In bookbinding of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, an ornamental design such as an arabesque, stamped on the corners of a book cover, usually to match a centerpiece of similar design; see cameo binding, die, emboss, binding. Also, refers to decorative metal corners attached to the binding of a book. In modern usage, a temporary guard, made of some hard material, attached to the corners of a book to protect against damage in shipping. Also, refers to an ornament or flourish printed or drawn by hand at the corner of a border around a section of printed or handwritten text; see cartouche, ornament.

corner snipe :
A corner motif, sometimes called a "nabisco", containing an important notice for the reader; usually designed to contrast with other cover material, and often placed in the upper-left quadrant for greatest visibility. Compare skyline, cover line, dog-ear, snipe; see shoulder note, cartouche, cornerpiece.

corrigenda :
A list of errors together with their corrections inserted into a publication. See tip, contents. [nb: an error with its correction is either corrigendum or erratum, while multiple errors are errata; the list of corrections for one or more errors is corrigenda]

corrugated board :
Board made by sandwiching fluted kraft paper between sheets of paper or cardboard, as used for making boxes. See paper.

counterfactual :
To respond or reply to a fact; to rebutt or refute so as to thwart or nullify the opposition. See bully pulpit, propaganda, disinformation, journalism, sleazy, flackery, byplay, sidebar, call-out, pull-quote, text box, box; compare factoid.

counterword :
A word diluted by improper usage; a word that has come to be used with much less specific meanings than it had originally, such as swell, awful, terrific, awesome, boss, or cool. Compare slang, polysemy, vernacular.

courtesy envelope :
A pre-addressed, unpaid return envelope, usually with a "place stamp here" box included on upper right-hand corner. Normally used to encourage the return of invoices.

cover :
The exterior wrap, jacket, or case of a publication. In addition to its utility, the primary purposes of a cover are: to identify the publication, evoke a response from the viewer, and market the dated material in a timely manner. See cover paper, self-cover, cover positions, face, RDA, cover line, corner snipe, tip-on.

cover credit :
Commendable acknowledgement of the contributor or source of the front page illustration for a periodical, which may include the identification of props or background; usually cited with a replica or related thumbnail on the table of contents. See credit line, underline, contents, caption, near frame.

cover lines :
The brief announcements or blurbs displayed on the cover of a periodical, as adjuncts of headlines and illustrations, as enticements for readers to search inside the publication for the full account; also called "sell lines" on newsstand issues. The features cited by cover lines usually appear at the beginning of the table of contents (qv). See teaser, blurb, corner snipe, skyline, jump article.

cover paper / cover stock :
Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders, and covers of paperback books. See binding, cut flush, overhang, separate cover, C1S, jacket, tip-on, paper; compare self-cover.

cover positions :
The premium-priced display or advertising space in a magazine. The front cover is usually not "for sale", but often features new or noteworthy commercial items in the guise of news. The prominent cover positions are: inside front, inside back, and outside back cover. See double spread, contents, corner snipe.

cover price :
The publisher's suggested retail price, so marked on the dust jacket or encrypted in the bar code; as with any commodity, the actual purchase price is extenuated by demand and other market conditions.

The abbreviation for Cost Per thousand [Roman numeral: M]; a dollar amount used by advertisers to evaluate the relative cost of various media within a designated demographic criterion. It is achieved by dividing the audience of a broadcast or the circulation of a publication by its unit cost (ie: per minute, by column inch). See reader profile, universe.

CP/M :
Abbreviation for Control Program / Microprocessor (Monitor). Created by Digital Research Corporation, CP/M was one of the first operating systems for personal computers, based on Intel microprocessors. CP/M was a popular operating system for 8080- / Z80- / 8086- / 8088- / Z8000- / 68000-based computers. Although CP/M is now obsolete, DRI has enhanced the product line with Concurrent CP/M and MP/M (qv) for multitasking. See program.

cracker :
An unauthorized person who breaks into a computer system to access protected data or to wreck operations. Also, to illegally break the copy protection or data encryption used on commercial software. Probably derived from "break in" or "break down", but may be perversely related to 'wild' (crackers) or 'crazy' (cracked) and to 'extreme' or 'unusual' (cracking). See hacker, phreak, script kiddie, turist, software, virus.

cracking :
Where the color, pattern, or design distorts at the fold or score line of printed matter. See grain direction, cross grain, with the grain, grain long / short paper.

An acronym for the elements comprising bad design: Contrast / Repetition / Alignment / Proximity. Contrast is often the most important visual attraction on a page. If the page elements (eg: type, color, size, line thickness, shape, space, etc) are not the same, then make them very different, instead of making them similar. Repetition helps develop the organization and strengthens the unity of a page. Repeating visual elements (eg: color, shape, texture, spatial relationships, line thickness, sizes, etc) develops the design. Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page; which creates a consistent and sophisticated alignment. Related items should be grouped, because their proximity reinforces their information, and their visual unity reduces clutter. See designing on press, Occam's Razor, stylish, graphic design, design.

crash :
In bookbinding, a narrow strip of loosely woven muslin or gauze glued to the back of a book after the sections have been sewn, to help hold them together. In some editions, a brown-paper layer is glued over this mesh fabric backing for extra strength. Also called "super" or "mull"; as derived from coarse or irregular plain-weave fabric. Compare guard; see backing, binding. Also, anything characterized by an intensive effort, as to deal with an emergency, meet a deadline, devise a plan, or achieve a goal (eg: a crash relief program). Also, in computer operations or data processing, a slang term for an unanticipated hardware shutdown or software lockup, such breakdowns usually being due to a system malfunction or user error; see glitch, bug.

crawl :
A display of continuously running text, such as weather alerts or news announcements, typically appearing at the bottom of a television screen, so as not to interrupt normal programming with non-emergency broadcasts. The scrolling rate of the text for "closed caption" reading by deaf TV viewers is usually faster than general audience displays. Recurrent text or looped content can be programmed for encapsulated display on webpages using animation software, such as Flash (qv). See text box, caption, zipper sign, ticker tape, box, insert, SAMI, specialized format, accessibility.

crawler :
A computer program that retrieves online documents and the references linked to them, and may also perform indexing; also called spider (qv) or "web crawler". [nb: "web crawler" is generic, but "WebCrawler" is proprietary] See search engine.

credit line :
A line of text acknowledging the source or origin of published or exhibited material. See byline, caption, underline, cover credit, brand, plagiarism.

creep :
The phenomenon of middle pages in a folded signature extending slightly beyond the outer pages; also called "feathering", "outpush", "push out", and "thrust". See shingling.

creole :
A syntactic pidgin that has become the native language of a distinct subculture or discrete speech community; derived from "to bring up", create, native (criollo). A pidgin evolves into a creole when it acquires syntax (eg: Krio, Island Carib, Cajun, Pochismo, Spanglish, Franglais, Yinglish, Anglicism). See pig Latin, pidgin, lingua franca, jargon, vernacular, polyglot, language. [v: calque, bilingualism]

crier :
A person who makes public announcements on behalf of officials; and by extension, a person who earned a living by publicly speaking news and stories. The crier and herald have evolved from the gossip monger and tattler to the newsreader and newscaster, the moderator and commentator. See news, disinformation, muckraker, yellow journalism; compare ballyhoo.

crippled :
A demonstration version of a program or other software that has one or more critical features disabled; also known as "demo". Many software companies freely distribute crippled versions of their applications, as an enticement for the user to buy the full featured version.

critic :
A person who evaluates, analyzes, judges or critiques literary and artistic works, dramatic and musical performances, as for a newspaper feature; also known as reviewer, commentator, judge, evaluator, animadverter, analyst, arbiter, authority, expert, censor. See snipe. [nb: "Those who can, do; those who can't, teach or preach." paraphrase of George Bernard Shaw; "The critic has to educate the public; the artist has to educate the critic." by Oscar Wilde; "Nature, when she invented, manufactured, and patented her authors, contrived to make critics out of the chips that were left." by Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr]

crop :
To trim (ie: photograph, page) or cut to size; to shave, pare.

crop marks :
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced; also called "cut marks" and "tic marks".

crossbar :
A horizontal line or stripe. See stroke, stem, ligature, type, typeface, typography.

cross format :
A software application that is convertible to more than one code or language. Compare cross platform.

cross grain :
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used. Also called "across the grain" and "against the grain". Compare with the grain, grain direction, grain long / short paper; see cracking, paper.

cross head :
A subheading set in the body of the text, used to break the copy into sections that are more easily readable. See subhead, heading.

cross market :
A producer publishing in multiple media, usually complementary, but with the result that a customer will learn about a book on radio or a magazine on the web, and will then select the older format for purchase or subscription. Compare crossover market.

crossover :
Type of art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page; also called "bridge" and "gutter jump". See spread, illustration.

crossover market :
A medium or genre which appeals to a clientele beyond the typical profiles of social grouping or cultural classification; being a transitional or expanding category. See audience, reader profile, universe, circulation; compare niche market, mass market, cross market.

cross platform :
A software application that can run under more than one operating system. Compare cross format. [nb: 'cross platform' is not "platform independent"]

crunch :
To extensively manipulate, condense, calculate, or process data (ie: words as "file crunching" or numbers as "number crunching"), especially by computer. See database.

C shell :
A command line interpreter shell and script language for UNIX; also known as "Csh". See shell.

C sizes :
ISO paper sizes with correct dimensions to make folders and envelopes for products trimmed to A sizes. See paper.

The abbreviation for Cascading Style Sheets; a stylesheet mechanism that has been specifically developed for webpage designers and users. Stylesheets describe how documents are presented on screens, in print, and even in spoken voice. Stylesheets allow the user to change the appearance of hundreds of Web pages by changing just one file. A stylesheet is made up of rules that tell a browser how to present a document. Numerous properties may be defined for an element; each property is given a value. Examples are font properties, color and background properties, text properties, box properties, classification properties, and units. The term cascading refers to the fact that more than one stylesheet can be used on the same document, with different levels of importance. Stylesheet markup is contained within <brackets> or {braces}; and style formatting may be integral or external (*.CSS). Although CSS2 protocols exist, the W3C has only approved CSS Level 1 for integration. There are differences between CSS and XSL (Extensible Style Language). Both languages can be used with XML, but only CSS can be used with HTML. XSL, however, is a transformation language, and can be used to transform XML data into HTML/CSS documents on a web server.

curiosa :
Books, pamphlets, playing cards, and other publications dealing with unusual (eg: fantasia, phantasmagoria, surrealism, exotica) or pornographic subjects; derived from "inquisitive". [nb: "[Respectability is] the cloak under which fools conceal their stupidity." by W. Somerset Maugham]

cursive :
A style of typeface simulating the flowing strokes in the joined letters and characters of handwriting. Any typeset material designed to resemble handwriting. See micrographia, script, calligraphy, font, type; compare minuscule, uncial.

cursor :
The movable symbol on a computer screen that shows where the user is working, whether typing text, drawing lines, or moving design elements. The cursor can be moved with the arrow keys or a mouse. It usually appears in text programs as a blinking dash, rectangle, or arrowhead. In graphics programs, the cursor is often called a pointer, and can take many different shapes, such as a hand, device (cross-hairs or I-beam), or tool (brush or pencil). See pointer, insertion point, prompt.

customer service representative :
The employee of a printer who coordinates projects, and is responsible for keeping the customers informed of progress; abbreviated CSR.

cut flush :
The technique of trimming a book after the cover has been attached to the pages, so that the cover does not protrude beyond the body; also called "flush cover". Compare overhang; see cover paper, self-cover, binding, crop, trim, finish, post-press.

cutoff :
The circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, and therefore, the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper. See trim, crop.

cutout :
A halftone silhouette with the background masked or omitted. See reverse, knockout, cameo; compare drop out.

cut sizes :
Paper sizes used with office machines and small sheet-fed presses. See paper.

The abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100 + WT=weight. See paper.

cybernetics :
The use of servomechanical or electromechanical control systems that regulate and coordinate the work of other machines, as based upon the analogy of computerized robots simulating organic human processes; derived from "helmsman" or "steersman", as introduced by Norbert Wiener in 1948. See analog, quantum, computer, interface.

cylinder press :
A printing press in which a flat bed holding the printing form moves against a rotating cylinder that carries the paper; also called "flat-bed press". The steam-powered cylinder press was invented in 1812 by Friedrich Koenig / Konig. Compare rotary press; see press.

- D -

dagger :
A printer's mark used especially for notational references or footnotes, including a double-dagger mark as second reference; also called "obelisk". See notation, reference marks.

The abbreviation for Dissertation Abstracts International; which is a database that provides indexing and abstracting of doctoral dissertations and master's theses, submitted at universities in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and other European countries since 1861 (dissertations abstracted since 1980, and theses since 1988) in all academic disciplines. DAI is available in print, on CD-ROM, and online directly from the publisher, Bell & Howell Information and Learning, or online from Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) FirstSearch, updated monthly. See thesis, monograph, gray literature. [nb: proceedings and transactions are indexed (since 1993) in the PapersFirst database, and conference papers are indexed (since 1993) in the ProceedingsFirst database, both accessed through FirstSearch]

The acronym for Digital Audio-based Information SYstem, which is the ANSI/NISO standard for digital audio texts ("talking books"), as used by disabled persons. This XML specification enables text-based navigation to the level of chapters, page numbers, and paragraphs by computer software or specialized playback devices. The electronic text in the DAISY file can be output to the reader by audio clips, screen magnification, synthetic speech, refreshable braille, or printouts in either print or braille. The DAISY file is fingerprinted with a digital watermark (qv) to prevent piracy and protect copyright. See specialized format, accessibility, steganography.

dandy roll :
Wire-mesh drum on a papermaking machine that presses watermarks and surface patterns into paper while it is still saturated; derived from fine or excellent. See paper coating.

dash :
A mark or sign (-) used variously in printed or written matter, especially to note a break, pause, or hesitation, to begin and end parenthetic text, to indicate omission of letters or words, to substitute for certain uses of the colon, and to separate elements of a sentence or series of sentences, as a question from its answer. In printing, a dash may be configured one en long (half length) or one em long (full length). Compare hyphen, swung dash; see em, mutton, en, nuts, punctuation.

database :
A collection of organized information or related data on one or more subjects, especially one in electronic form that can be accessed and manipulated by specialized computer software. A flat file database has only one table, and a fielded database is composed of data in fields, rather than a fulltext database, which is a collection of text files and documents. A Relational DataBase has tables which are interrelated and interactive, with automatic updating and new table generation; with administration by a Relational DataBase Management System (RDBMS). A DataBase Management System (DBMS) uses a complex set of programs to store and retrieve data organized in fields, records, and files, while also monitoring system security; examples of DBMS include Oracle, Sybase, Datacom, mySQL, Lotus Approach, Microsoft Access, and Filemaker. DataBase 1 (DB1) and DataBase 2 (DB2) are also DBMSs for PC, OS/2, HP, and Sun computers. A computer in a local area network that maintains a database and performs searches for client computers is called a database server (DBS). Database interface among different formats is enabled by interoperable and open connectivity, so intersystem data can be shared. See SQL, program, markup, quantum, videotex, language, software.

dateline :
The attribution line placed at the beginning of a news story that gives the date and place of origin for the dispatch. Also, the publication date (qv) cited in the running head / foot of a periodical. See header, footer, foot and folio line, folio.

The abbreviation for Document Composition Facility Generalized Markup Language, being an IBM precursor to SGML. See markup.

The abbreviation for Desktop Color Separation, a format of four PostScript files for a color image. See illustration.

deadline :
The time limit by which something must be submitted or finished; as a publication being "put to bed". See publication date, morgue day.

deadlist :
Any book which is out of print, but may be revised or reprinted in a new edition (with a new ISBN) by the publisher at some future time to sustain copyright as a marketing strategy. See out of print, backlist, midlist, frontlist.

deadman / deadman's switch :
A control or switch that triggers activation of an illegally planted subroutine to damage data or processing whenever a safety or inhibition is interrupted, released, or removed; usually fabricated as the secondary element in serious computer sabotage. See Trojan Horse, virus, worm, malware, trapdoor.

dead storage :
The indefinite or perpetual storage of data, files, or the like. Compare RAM, ROM, flash memory.

deboss :
To incise or depress an image into paper so that it lays below the surface. Compare emboss; see stamp, finish, paper coating.

debug :
To detect defects and errors in computer software, and remedy them; also called "bugfix". See bug, glitch, crash, patch, kludge, beta test, tweak, GIGO, RTDM, FAQ, help.

deck :
The subhead, lead-in, summary/abstract, and any other pretext copy (including byline) that is placed at the beginning or top of a story, additional to the heading or headline; compare strap, kicker, contents. Also, one unit or part of a headline set in either a single typeface size and style, or set in a shaded or colored band.

deckle :
A board or platform, fitted under part of the wire (qv) in a papermaking machine (fourdrinier), for supporting the pulp (furnish) stack before it is sufficiently formed to support itself on the wire.

deckle edge :
The irregular or ragged edge of handmade paper, often used for ornamental effect in books and stationery; now usually produced artificially on machine-made paper with an untrimmed effect. Also known as "feather edge".

dedication :
An attributive inscription or ceremonial ascription to a person or cause, usually appearing on a separate page or with the acknowledgments in a book. See front matter, autograph. [nb: although a dedication may be "in memoriam", a literary eulogy (qv) is most appropriately contained with the back matter]

deferred income :
The amount paid in advance by subscribers for issues not yet served. By law, a publisher owes this amount and must return it if requested or if the magazine ceases publication before all the issues are served.

degauss :
To demagnetize electrical equipment, such as recorders or players, and to erase magnetic media, such as audio or video tapes, by means of a charged electromagnetic field, in preparation for re-use or rerecording, or for guaranteed destruction of confidential records. See format. [nb: magnetic data stored in electronic media for computerized access does not disappear when "erased" or "deleted" (DEL), and will only be irretrievable when over-written by new data and/or 'unconditionally' formatted (FORMAT/U) after being "deleted"]

The extensible MS-DOS version of EMACS (qv), an open-source distribution since 1992. See text editor.

demand printing / on-demand printing :
Producing a specific quantity of documents or books as ordered by the author or publisher. Most printers set minimum runs at 200 - 500 pieces, but the unit price does not diminish with increased quantity. Demand printing is usually performed by ink-jet or xerography, in either simplex or duplex. Compare quick printing, short run; see reprography, press.

demon letters :
Letters which are easily confused when viewed in reverse as type. The expression, "mind your p's and q's", meaning to pay close attention to details, has been widely attributed to a dictum to watch the tavern tally of pints and quarts; but actually derives from the disassembly of set type by a novice or printer's devil, since the reversed letters are easily confused ... which also applies to letters 'b' and 'd'. See ascender, descender, printer's pi, printer's devil.

demy :
Any of various sizes of paper, 16 x 21 inches (41 x 53 cm), as used in the U.S. for drawing and writing. Derived from "demi" for half, meaning middle-sized.

denouement / d俷ouement :
The final resolution of aliterary or dramatic plot (qv), or the resolution of a doubtful series of occurrences; derived from "untie the knot". Compare climax, catastrophe, kicker; see deus ex machina, drama.

densitometer :
Device used to measure light reflected or transmitted from paper or film. A transmittal densitometer is used directly on transparent colors, and a reflective densitometer is used indirectly on opaque colors. See zeroing.

density :
Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed ink. Also, regarding color, the relative ability of a color to either absorb light reflected from it, or block light passing through it. Usually denoted as lines-per-inch, pixels-per-inch, dots-per-inch, or spots-per-inch (invisible). See Dmax / Dmin, opacity, illustration.

dentation :
Alteration of the edges of a digital image so as to improve blending with the background. See graphics, illustration, tweak; compare hint.

department :
Regular columns compiled by staff, and recurring features composed by stringers or freelancers, that appear in successive issues of a newspaper, newsletter, journal, or magazine. The style of departments, as well as sectional placement, should distinguish them from feature stories. Departments are usually laid-out with advertising; while features are separated from ads (full pages of each). Compare feature; see umbrella, editorial well, periodical.

deprecated tag :
A markup tag rendered obsolete by technological advances or programming changes. Deprecated tags, such as <LAYER> and <MENU>, are no longer developed or supported; but older documents may still retain or utilize them. In most cases, a tag becomes deprecated only when a new construction can do the same thing more simply, efficiently, or powerfully. The subtraction of obsolete codes is formally performed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Term derived from "beg relief"; but is widely confused with 'depreciated', which is derived from "undervalued". See slash, tag, HTML tag, markup.

descender :
The part of a lowercase letter, such as g / j / p / q / y, that goes below the body. See x-height, minuscule, baseline, font, body size, typeface, demon letters.

desideratum / desiderata :
A form of self-indulgent writing, as a diary, journal, or "wish book" of musings and yearnings; derived from "desire" (require + heaven). Compare thesis, opus.

design :
To skillfully intervene in generative events so as to achieve a desired result. Also, an organized outline or detailed scheme for the form and structure of something to be executed, as a plan, sketch, pattern, or motif. Media designers should always plan work as the final product will be viewed (eg: spread, link), identify a single or primary focal point, work from the inside outwards (ie: push dead zones or white space toward margins), and cluster related images. A captivating design will make the initial sale of a publication, but the content will attract a recurring audience that buys repeatedly. See graphic design, typography, golden proportion.

designing on press :
Printer's expression for the most inefficient method of project development and the most expensive means of product alteration. The necessity for reprinting is almost always due to the customer neglecting the proofs, not requesting samples, and not performing a press check. Some errors can be adjusted with spot / fifth color or varnish runs, but most "stop press" problems require entirely new setups. See design, CRAP, proof, recall, stylish, tweak, Occam's Razor, DTP, e-pub, web publishing.

desk copy :
A new book or revised edition provided to teachers by publishers on speculation. If the book is assigned to students for a class, the sample copy, also called an "inspection copy", will be free of charge; but is otherwise billed for purchase or return. Compare comps.

deskman :
A journalist or copywriter who prepares stories, features, and other copy from information provided by reporters on the scene or in the field. See copyboy, stringer, journalism, news, rim, slot, copy desk.

desktop :
Made to fit or be used on top of a desk or table, such as a desktop mini- / microcomputer; term coined by Paul Brainard when Aldus introduced "PageMaker" software in 1985 for Macintosh and 1986 for IBM-PC. See DTP.

deus ex machina :
Any artificial device or improbable technique used to resolve the difficulties of a plot. In ancient Greek and Roman drama, the introduction of a god into the entanglements of a play as a remedy or resolution; derived from the practice of mechanically lowering the statue of a god onto the stage. See catastrophe, denouement, anticlimax, kicker, drama.

device independent colors :
Hues identified by wavelength or by their place in systems, such as those developed by CIE, which colors can be described and specified regardless of how they are reproduced. See illustration.

Dewey decimal system :
A library classification system, devised by William T. Harris and adapted by Melvil Dewey in 1873, using three-digit numerals for major divisions and numerals following a decimal point for subdivisions; also called Dewey decimal classification. See LCN, ISBN, UPC, book categorization.

diacritic / diacritical mark :
A mark, point, or sign, such as a cedilla, tilde, circumflex, breve, dieresis/diaeresis (umlaut), macron, ogonek, hacek / caron, eth / edh, or thorn, added or attached to a letter or character, as to distinguish it from another of similar form, to give it a particular phonetic value, or to indicate stress. See point, tittle, punctuation, accent, floating accent, schwa, syllabary, Unicode. [nb: with the exception of the apostrophe, American and English braille use only one universal sign to denote the use of any diacritical marks; so blind readers will receive more accurate information from electronic text in synthetic speech, but this is not an option for deaf-blind readers]

dialect :
A language variation, distinguished by its phonology, affect, grammar, and vocabulary, and by its geographic or social usage. Compare idiolect; see accent, digraph, phoneme, slide, vernacular, language, sociolinguistics. [v: bidialectalism]

dialogue / dialog :
A conversational exchange between two or more characters in a literary or filmic work, including repartee, raillery, discourse, and interrogation, also known as "duologue"; as distinguished from monologue, narration, and byplay. See commentator, critic, drama, novel. [nb: "A good film script should be able to do completely without dialogue." by David Mamet]

diamond :
A 4.5 point type; see font, type.

diction :
The style of speaking or writing, as depicted by grammatical and verbal choices; including the accent, inflection, intonation, word-color, and speech-sound (enunciation) quality manifested by a mode of expression. See elocution, atticism, idiolect, key, catch-phrase, pap, slogan, rhetorical forms, language. [v: suppletion]

dictionary :
Initiated by printers (ca1520; first English dictionary c1603) to standardize spelling, dictionaries have ranged from prescriptive to descriptive, orthodox to heterodox, idiosyncratic to conventional. Defined as a book containing a selection of words from a language, usually arranged alphabetically, with information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, parts of speech, style and usage guidelines, and so forth, expressed in either the same or another language; also known as lexicon, lexis, glossary, gloss, vocabulary, concordance, wordbook, wordlist, wordstock. See exception dictionary, vocabulary, thesaurus, gloss, word, punctuation, diacritic, syllabary, orthography, neologism, language, syntax, alphabet, stylebook, bible paper. [nb: "Words -- so innocent and powerless as they are, as standing in a dictionary, how potent for good and evil they become in the hands of one who knows how to combine them." by Nathaniel Hawthorne]

die :
Any of various devices for cutting or forming material in a press or other machine. The longevity of dies depends upon the durability of die material used (plastic, magnesium, copper, brass, steel) before a replacement must be manufactured. See blank, emboss, deboss, engrave, rule, stamp, matrix.

die cut :
To consistently cut regular and irregular shapes by using a die. Low cuts and perforations are made by impressing onto a steel rule; high cuts are pressed by a "cookie-cutter". See kiss die cut.

die strike :
A sample or specimen impression by any available die on the specified foil or paper. See tail-in; compare proof.

differential pricing :
The widespread practice of marketing the same product to different customers at different prices, such as"introductory offer", "student rate", or "discount sale". The most notable variations in publication pricing include charter, library, and overseas subscriptions. Compare comps; see soft offer, subscription.

digest :
A summary collection or compendium, as of literary, legal, or scientific matter, especially when classified or condensed. See compilation, analects.

digital plate :
A plate burned from a computer file, instead of film. See illustration.

digital watermark :
A scattered bit pattern inserted into an electronic product, such as graphical image or digital audio files, that's intended to identify copyright data to protect intellectual property against piracy. Derived from the practice of distinctively marking stationery to identify the manufacturer, these scattered bit marks are undetectable (except by special software that seeks noise), and are normally resistant to ordinary file changes, such as reductions from lossy compression algorithms. This type of bit marking is also known as "digital fingerprinting", especially when registration or serial numbers are encoded. See steganography, key, DAISY; compare show-off, logo, watermark.

digitizing tablet :
An input device that enables drawings or tracings to be translated into a computer graphic. A screen display is compiled from image signals sent by the electronic tablet and puck or stylus. The tablet contains electronics that enable it to detect movement of the cursor or pen, and translate the movements into digital patterns stored by the computer. Each point on the digitizing tablet represents a fixed point on the display screen; which differs from mouse movements relative to the current cursor position. The static nature of digitizing tablets makes them particularly effective for tracing drawings. Most modern digitizing tablets also support a mouse emulation mode, which permits the pen or cursor to act like a mouse. Digitizing tablets are also called digitizers, graphics tablets, touch tablets, or simply tablets. Compare plotter.

digraph :
A pair of letters representing a single or sliding speech sound (diphthong), as ea in meat, th in path, or ae in aesthetics; also called "conjoint". See kern, ligature, logo, phoneme, alphabet.

dime novel :
A melodramatic or sensational novel, usually produced in a tawdry paperback edition, especially of the period c1850 to c1920. See potboiler, yellow journalism, novel.

dingbat :
A piece of type, or group of special type characters, used ornamentally as separaters, borders, or decorations; also called "printer's flowers". A computerized dingbat font is commonly called a "wingding". See bullet, ornament, typeface, Pi fonts, font, notation, hanging, page marker.

direct mail package :
In commercial magazine publishing this refers to a direct marketing effort designed to solicit new readers and is normally comprised of a number of components including but not limited to: a brochure outlining editorial highlights and the offer and terms ("4 issues at our special half-price rate of $15"); a letter, usually from the editor-in-chief or publisher, which is typically 2-4 pages, anecdotal, inclusive ("We're writing to you because we know you care about literature"), and persuasive; an order form which must include a source code, offer and terms, coupon, methods of payment, return address, additional postage information (ie: add $20 for airmail), etc; an outer envelope (generally with a window, so the label on your order form can show through) often with teaser copy; and a business reply envelope. See coding, BRE, reply coupon.

disc / disk :
Any thin, flat, circular plate or object, especially media so configured for storing electronic data; as derived from dish or "discus". The various media types include: compact disc, floppy diskette, Floptical disk, Winchester disk, harddrive disk. Also, the default bullet designated for marking an unordered list construction.

disclaimer :
A statement of disavowal or repudiation, posted by the author and/or publisher on the acknowledgments page of a publication, as a pro forma legality and public notice restricting liability for the material contents. Since its omission evinces a lack of "due diligence", and its inclusion is always deemed "inadequate" or "insufficient", many authors have crafted witty or sarcastic disclaimers to their work. Also known as "caveat lector" for a reader caution, warning, or alert; as "let the reader beware". See front matter, copyright.

disinformation :
False and misleading information publicly disseminated to the international news media, or secretly released by a government to rival intelligence agencies; as derived from Russian "dezinformatsiya", to misinform. Given the journalistic slant on news stories, differentiating between disinformation and a prejudiced agenda, where facts are sliced and diced or mixed and matched, can be daunting. See bully pulpit, censorship, factoid, counterfactual, propaganda; compare samizdat. [nb: neither 'bias' nor 'epithet' have a specific pro or con value inherently defined]

Display PostScript :
A version of PostScript used to display files on screen. The NeXT computer uses Display PostScript. See font, illustration.

display type :
Type larger than 14-points; see drop-cap, rubric, swash, majuscule, typeface; compare large print.

distributor :
A company hired by a publisher to make the publisher's books available to the trade (ie: bookstores and wholesalers), often taking the place of a sales and fulfillment department for the publisher. Like a wholesaler (whose responsibility is to the stores and libraries it serves), a distributor takes and fills orders, but also (theoretically) creates a demand for titles by using sales representatives. In this respect, a distributor's primary responsibility is to the publisher. Distributors either have staff sales representatives or commissioned sales reps that travel to bookstore accounts to sell publications. Distributors also sell to larger accounts, such as chain bookstores and wholesalers. Distributors charge a percentage of sales revenues for their services; the general range is 20% to 40% of net sales (ie: after discounts given to bookstores). They may demand other charges, such as fees for catalog listing, trade show display, return processing, warehousing, and shipping/handling. They may offer marketing services (for a higher percentage or a fee). Payment terms can be as long as 120 days. Distributors often ask for some kind of exclusivity in sales territory. You can often work out a deal where you are allowed to sell directly to Small Press Distribution, however. If there is a certain type of venue that you feel can be better reached by someone else (comic book stores, gift stores, etc), by all means negotiate the freedom to sell to those directly in your contract. See audience, audit, wholesaler.

dithering :
The illusion of new colors and shades created by varying the patterns of dots; including adaptive dithering, diffusion dithering, Floyd-Steinberg dithering. The more dither patterns that a device or program supports, the more shades of gray it can represent. In computer graphics, dithering is the attempt to simulate tones or to approximate hues which have been specified in the design, but do not exist in the output device, with the usual result being an irregular and inaccurate depiction. Background colors are often blotched or mottled, and the effect is incompatible with transparent images. In printing, dithering is usually called halftoning, and the shades of gray generated are called halftones. [nb: dithering differs from gray scaling: in gray scaling, each individual dot can have a different shade of gray; in dithering, different shades of gray are produced by varying the patterns of black and white dots, but there are no gray dots at all.] See stochastic screening, pixelated, web pox, illustration.

Dmax / Dmin :
The points of maximum / minimum density in an image, or the density range that a device can capture. See illustration.

The abbreviation for Domain Name Server / Service / System, being the distributed name/address mechanism used on the Internet. A database system that translates an IP address into a domain name by transposing alphabetic and numeric characters. This directory list conversion is "resolved" by a co-processor on the server. See domain name.

docket :
The form used to specify the production schedule of a print job, and the necessary materials or processes; also called "job ticket", "production order", and "work order".

doctor blade :
Flexible metal strip on a gravure press (qv) that controls the thickness of ink by skimming or shaving the excess.

documentary :
Anything pertaining to, consisting of, or derived from documents, such as an accurate depiction of an actual event, era, or life story without fictional elements; sometimes designated "docudrama" or "infotainment" when emotional content is emphasized. See cinema verite, news, broadcast.

dog-ear / dogear :
A triangular fold, as place marking the corner of a page in a book or magazine, or a mishandling defect, especially a dimple or pucker made during improper cross-folding. A dog-ear indentation, also called a "gusset", can run wrinkles into a page of copy, or cause a sheet to misalign. "Dog-eared" is generally synonymous with wretched and deplorable. See French fold, signature, ear; compare corner snipe.

doggerel :
Doggerel verse, being crude, comic, or burlesque, and being loose or irregular in measure; especially a poorly written or lesser form of verse (qv). Doggerel is the poetic equivalent of "dog Latin". See jingle, jabberwocky, pap.

domain name :
The alphabetic form used to identify and locate a unique entity on the internet from its translated numeric address. Domain names are resolved into valid IP attributes by database nodes called Domain Name Server / Service / System (DNS). A "fully qualified domain name" (FQDN) contains its domain name, hostname (ie: server, network), classification (ie: net, com, org, edu, gov, mil, int), and protocol type (eg: http, ftp); subdomains or subdirectories may be indicated by suffix extensions. If no country code is specified in the path, then the domain is located in the USA. Due to internet expansion, additional top level domain (TLD) name extensions were approved for registration by ICANN through InterNIC on 16 Nov 2000; including: biz, info, coop, name, aero, museum, pro. Country codes adapted for alternative worldwide TLD registrations include: bz (Belize [British Honduras]), cc (Cocos / Keeling Islands), tv (Tuvalu [Ellice Islands]), ws (Western Samoa). See URL, internet address, IP, TCP/IP, homepage, web server.

Abbreviation for Disk Operating System, being the most common computer operating system worldwide, including MS-DOS, PC-DOS, DR-DOS, Apple DOS, Amiga DOS, Novell DOS, and BOS versions. Initial versions were a simplified form of CP/M, and later acquired characteristics from minicomputer systems without reconfiguring from 16- to 32-bit processing. The operating system was designed to "boot" into the computer from an external disk called by a small subroutine permanently resident in memory, but later became an internal program. DOS does not support multiple users, and multitasking (qv) is constrained. The early versions of Windows (3.X - 98) were built on DOS, and DOS-based programs will run in NT and OS/2. Although DOS has not been upgraded, and is deemed inadequate for graphical environments, a DOS prompt can still be emulated as a DOS box (qv). An OpenDOS extension from Caldera and Lineo has built upon the Intel architecture to form a true multitasking version of Digital Research - Disk Operating System (DR-DOS). See command line, multitasking, shell, TSR, DOS box, program.

DOS box :
A DOS-compatible mode emulated within a graphical environment; a simulated or virtual command line window enabled by a graphical operating system for DOS applications.

dot area :
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print; also called "screen percentage". See illustration.

dot gain :
The phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on both coated and uncoated paper than they are on films or plates, resulting in a loss of detail; also called "fan-out". See illustration.

dot-matrix :
The formation of characters and graphics with dots from a multiple-pin matrix, such as a computer printer. Originally an impact system, similar to ribbon-fed "strike-on" devices like typewriters, but thermal and electro-erosion systems have also been used. See Epson emulation.

dots-per-inch :
A measure of resolution for input devices, such as scanners, and for output devices, such as imagesetters and laser printers; abbreviated dpi, and sometimes called "dot pitch". See screen ruling, density.

double black duotone :
Duotone printed from two halftones, one exposed for highlights, and the other exposed for midtones and shadows. See illustration.

double burn :
To burn a plate twice to different negatives or files, and thus create a composite image from double exposure. See illustration.

double entendre :
A word or expression that can be used ambiguously, or to imply more than one sense or meaning, especially when one interpretation is risqu? See pun, rhetorical forms, word.

double pica :
Approximately a twenty-one point type; see font, type.

double pyramid :
Advertising arranged on a page, or on facing pages, that forms a space or well (qv) to receive editorial copy.

double spread :
Advertising copy extending across two facing pages, which unifies opposing pages by eliminating the gutter; also called "double truck". See center spread, crossover, page spread, spread.

doubling :
A printing flaw created by a slight bounce of the blanket against the paper.

down style :
A headline with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized. See C&IC, U&LC, heading.

draft-quality / draft quality :
A relatively high-speed but low-grade print output mode available on most office machine and desktop printers for the production of working materials that do not require higher resolution characters or images, with a consequent saving of ink; also called "draft-mode". Compare near-letter-quality, letter-quality.

drama :
A prose or verse composition, presenting a story in dialogue (qv) and action that involves circumstantial conflict (qv) or contrast of characters, intended to be performed in subdivided scenes or acts on stage or film; derived from "consequential act". See play, catastrophe, climax, catastasis, epitasis, protasis, denouement, anticlimax, deus ex machina, pathos, tragedy, melodrama, bathos, revue, comedy, pantomime, interlude, script, dramatis personae, opus, recast, muse, broadcast, writer.

dramatis personae :
A listing of the characters preceding the text of a play or novel; also called "cast of characters". See protasis, drama, play, novel, series, broadcast.

dramaturgy :
The art, craft, or techniques of dramatic composition, as practiced by a playwright, scriptwriter, or screenwriter. See drama, play, wright, writer.

draw :
Caused to move in a particular direction, as paper forced out of alignment by cutting; see trim, crop, guillotine cutter. Also, refers to the number of copies taken by your distributor(s), which usually sells fewer copies than are ordered; so a "draw" should not be figured in your paid circulation tally. See sell-through rate, circulation.

drawdown :
Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substance specified for a job, usually to test the accuracy of spot or fifth color formulation; also called "pulldown" or "roll-out". Compare eye markers.

drawing program :
A software program used for drawing illustrations. Illustration programs store images in vector graphics format. Examples are Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand, and CorelDRAW. See CAD, vector graphics, graphics.

drop-cap :
The enlarged and indented initial capital letter of a composition, such that its top is level with the first line of the first paragraph, and subsequent lines are flush with the outline of the stylized initial capital letter; also called "drop initial", "inset letter", or "sunken initial". See small-cap, initial, rubric, swash, majuscule.

drop out :
Halftone dots or fine lines absent or eliminated from highlights by overexposure during camera work, as the lost copy "dropped out". Compare knockout, cutout, reverse; see band, illustration.

dry transfer :
Finished characters, symbols, or drawings (such as "Letraset") that can be applied to the paste-up or artwork by rubbing them off the back of the transfer sheet with a burnisher. This technique is categorized as 'cold type'. See illustration.

dry-trap :
To print over dry ink in multiple pressruns, as contrasted with wet-trap. See trap, illustration.

The abbreviation for Digital Satellite System, a network of satellites that broadcast digital data. An example of a DSS is "DirecTV", which broadcasts digital television signals. DSS is expected to become more important as television entertainment and computer information converge into a single medium. See VSAT, broadcast.

The abbreviation for Document Type Definition; being a way of describing the structure of an XML or SGML document and how the document relates to other objects. See XSD, HTML, meta tag, markup. [nb: In general, good document structure systems are usually more obvious than good data structure systems. Content tends to cross the formal boundary between document structure and data structure, especially when it's made convertible into different media. The encoding standards for print to e-text conversion, including prose, playscript, poetry, and scholarly commentary, have been ascertained by the "Text Encoding Institute"; and their compilations are accessible at <http://www.uic.edu/orgs/tei>.]

The abbreviation for DeskTop Publishing, by use of small sized but high-capacity computers running specialized publishing software, the creation, development, layout, editing, and printing can be performed in whole or in part from a single workstation; see desktop, e-pub, web publishing, webcast, text editor, word processor. Also, the abbreviation for Direct To Press / Plate, for electronic files compiled without film or stripping, and represented by digital proofs, with the approved data streaming into publication from the computer; see e-pub, proof, pipeline, designing on press.

dual edition :
A split edition (qv). Also, any publication presented simultaneously in more than one format, such as a CD-ROM packaged with a reference work, or a print magazine augmented by its online electronic version.

dual-purpose bond paper :
Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper. See paper.

dull finish :
A flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper, that is slightly smoother than matte; also called "suede" and "velvet". See paper coating.

dummy :
Sheets folded and made-up to show the size, shape, sequence, and style of a contemplated piece of printing; a prototype, mock-up, model, representation, simulation. Also known as bulking dummy and comprehensive dummy (qqv). See hand sample, F&G, bombproof, take-off, Greek type.

dummy text :
See Greek type.

duodecimo :
A book size of about 5 x 7 inches (13 x 19 cm), determined by printing on sheets folded to form 12 leaves or 24 pages; symbol: 12mo. Also called twelvemo. See sheet.

duotone :
A black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original. See double black duotone, illustration.

duplex :
To print on both sides of a sheet from a dedicated peripheral or a networked device, as in the remote queuing of corporate or institutional documents; compare perfect, simplex, see xerography, reprography, demand printing, quick printing. Also, a telecommunications system permitting transfer in both directions at the same time (bidirectional simultaneity); compare simplex. Also, a computer network permitting data transfers in both directions at the same time, usually on paired / coaxial cables or on subdivided bandwidth frequencies; a "half-duplex" connection transmits data alternately in either direction.

duplex paper :
Thick paper made by pasting together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors; also called "double-faced paper" and "two-tone paper". Compare backtrack, cc, copy; see paper.

duplicator :
An offset press of limited features, size, and capacity, made for quick printing of lower quality images.

dye :
A coloring material or matter, pigment. Also, a liquid containing coloring matter, for imparting a particular hue, color, or stain to various substances. Compare ink, toner; see illustration.

dye transfer :
A photographic color print, using special coated papers to produce a full color image, that can serve as an inexpensive proof. See illustration.

Dylux :
Brand name for photographic paper used to make blueline proofs, which is often used as alternative term for a proof (qv).

dynamic range :
The practical limit of a scanner or press to capture or reproduce an image. Compare density, gray levels; see illustration.

- E -

EAN Bookland bar code :
The electronic scanning lines printed on the back cover or book jacket encoded with the ISBN and retail price. See bar code, UPC, coding.

ear :
A small box in the upper corner of the front page of a newspaper, containing a slogan, epigraph, homily, weather forecast, snippet, or other squib; compare call-out. Also, a small serif-like stroke extending from the body of a letter, as on a bowl (re: lowercase "g") or on a stem (re: lowercase "r"); see finial, kern, serif, crossbar, stem, typeface, font, typography.

easel :
A stand or frame for supporting or displaying graphic artwork at an angle; compare showcase. Also, a mounting frame, with adjustable masks to control borders, for printing photographic enlargements.

The acronym for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code; being a standard method of assigning binary (numeric) values to alphabetic, numeric, punctuation, and transmission-control characters. EBCDIC is analogous to the ASCII coding scheme, but differs in using 8-bits, thus allowing 256 possible characters (in contrast to the 128 characters of the 7-bit system). See ASCII, Unicode.

echo effect :
The condition where one form of promotion augments other marketing or enhances other merchandising. See word of mouth, advertising.

edit :
To collect, prepare, and arrange materials for publication; includes substantive revision as well as stylistic copyediting. See redact, blue- / red-pencil, proofread, copyedit, recension, pore, rewrite, cast off, over-set, stylebook, privilege.

edition :
A version, or one of a series of printings, as of a book or newspaper; each issued at a different time and differing from another by alterations and additions; see polyglot. Also, the format in which a literary work is published; see vulgate. Also, the entire number of impressions or copies of a publication printed from one set of type at one time.

editor :
The person who supervises the content of a newspaper, magazine, journal, or other periodical; and in some cases, the person who is also responsible for its publication. Also, a person who prepares the works of authors for publication. An editor may be responsible for selecting material included in an anthology or collection, and for preparing copy for the printer, including the annotation of the text, verification of the accuracy of facts and bibliographic citations, and the addition of an introduction and notices. Periodicals and multi-volume reference books often have a general editor who supervises the work of an editorial staff. In larger publishing houses, the editing process may be divided into separate functions, with a different person in charge of each: acquisition editor - recommends works to the publisher; author's editor - assists the author in preparing the work for acceptance; manuscript editor - assists the author in organizing and shaping the accepted work; contributing editor - writes regular feature, advises on management, lends prestige; copyeditor - perfects details of grammar and style, fact checks; managing editor - coordinates resources required for publication, develops the publication schedule; production editor - oversees the transition from editorial process to production (printing, binding, distribution). Also, a device for editing film, tape, computer files; see text editor, DTP, word processor.

editorial :
A brief essay on a current political, social, or cultural issue that is clearly and explicitly expressed as the position of the publication or the opinion of the management. The editorial page, normally located at the end of the news section of a newspaper, usually includes syndicated columns, letters to the editor, and political cartoons. Editorials in news magazines normally appear at the beginning, before letters to the editor and feature articles. A British editorial is called a "leader". Compare think piece, Op-Ed. [v: ex parte Lambdin Milligan 1866]

editorial well :
The regular and recurring departments in a periodical; the mainstay sections of a publication, as distinguished from its feature stories, which are usually listed apart in the table of contents. Editorial matter (departments) are usually laid-out with advertising; while features are separated from ads (full pages of each). Compare feature well, advertorial.

The abbreviation for Enhanced Graphics Adapter, being a graphics standard for microcomputers which can be added or built into a system to give sharper characters and improved color with the correct display device. Standard EGA resolution is 640 by 350 dots in any 16 out of 64 colors. See screen, illustration.

Egyptian type :
A typeface style having square-serifs and a nearly uniform thickness of strokes; also known as "slab- serif". See type, type family, font.

eight sheet :
A poster measuring 60 x 80 inches (153 x 203cm), and traditionally composed of eight individual sheets. Compare octavo; see sheet.

elegy :
A mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poem, especially a lament for the dead; derived from "lament". Any poem or song of melancholy or solemn contemplation that's written in elegiac meter, being couplets of alternating hexameter and pentameter lines since the lyric poetry of ancient Greece and Rome. A formal poem lamenting the death of a particular person, or in contemplation of mortality. See poetry, verse, foot, rhetorical forms, eulogy, obituary.

elision :
The omission of a vowel, consonant, or syllable in pronunciation; such as in verse, the omission of a vowel at the end of one word when the next word begins with a vowel. Also, any act or instance of eliding or omitting something. Compare ellipsis; see accent, foot, caesura.

elite :
A 10-point type widely used in typewriters and having 12 characters to the inch. Compare pica; see typeface, font.

ellipsis / ellipses :
The omission of one or more words from a title, phrase, sentence, or other construction; which omission is represented by a set of three dots (...), asterisks (***), or dashes (---). Grammatical ellipsis is characterized by an extreme economy of expression in speech or writing, which can be ambiguous, cryptic, or obscure. [nb: When an ellipsis ends a sentence, the terminal period (fourth dot) concludes the sentence, and is not part of the ellipsis.] Compare elision, end sign; see punctuation, stylebook.

elliptical sentence :
An economical or condensed expression that represents a complete statement or command (eg: Indeed. / Been there. Done that. / Enough on that subject. / Now, to proceed to your next point.); and is therefore concluded by a period. Elliptical expressions often occur as answers to questions or as transitional phrases. Unlike an elliptical expression, a "sentence fragment" is a word, phrase, or clause that is incomplete; and should either be joined with other elements to form a complete sentence, or punctuated as a fragment (v: ellipses). See phrase, clause, sentence, period, punctuation, parts of speech, stylebook.

elocution :
The study and practice of the styles of public speaking, and of reading aloud. See eloquence, diction, atticism, rhetorical forms; compare euphemism, puffery.

eloquence :
The ability to aptly and fluently use language, as in eloquent speech or writing. See atticism, euphemism.

em :
A square unit with edges equal to the point size of the selected font; derived from the letter 'M', which was originally as wide as the type size. See en, mutton, dash. [nb: the em square measure is both height and width, while the en measure is full height but half the width of em; both pica and point are linear measures, with pica of line length, and point of line height]

Contraction of Editing MACroS, being a screen editor from GNU used for writing programs on UNIX and other systems (eg: VMS, MS-DOS / Windows, OS/2, etc). This freeware text editor is portable and extensible, which means that not only can the source code be modified and copied, but all aspects of the program can be customized for any environment or preference (including key bindings, fonts, colors, buffers, windows, frames, menus, and the like). EMACS actually identifies a family of text editors; from the original TECO (Tape Editor and COrrector / Text Editor and COrrector) through Gosling Emacs (commercial UniPress Emacs) to GNU EMACS (written by Richard Stallman). GNU EMACS is not a WYSIWYG word processor, since it's used for programming (eg: Lisp, TECO, Scheme, Trac Mint, C languages, etc) and typesetting (eg: TeX, LaTeX, tROFF). All EMACS commands are 8-bit ASCII characters, and the set of all key bindings (ie: meta characters, prefix or compound key combos) make up the EMACS command set. EMACS provides common programming modes that assist code editing, compiling, and debugging, providing context sensitive indentation and layout. If a file with the "*.TEX" extension is imported, EMACS will automatically invoke the TeX program for editing it. EMACS also provides mail readers, news readers, World Wide Web, gopher, and FTP clients, spell checking, and even an UnDo UnDo restoration feature. Detractors claim that EMACS means "Emacs Makes A Computer Slow". See text editor.

e-mail / email :
The contraction for electronic mail; being the transmission of messages over a communications network. E-mail is a version of post office or telegraphic messages sent computer-to-computer or terminal-to-terminal, as with interoffice mail. Used on both Local Area Networks (LAN) and larger communications networks, electronic mail enables users to send and receive text, voice, and graphics messages; and users can also forward mail, include "carbon" copies, request return receipts, edit contents, and attach files. Enriched or "rich e-mail" includes style attributes, such as fonts and colors, image or audio clips. Delivered messages are stored in electronic mailboxes assigned to users on the network, either to individual recipients or in broadcast form to larger groups, and can then be viewed, saved, or deleted by the recipient. The protocol indicator for internet message transmission is "mailto:". See emoticon, flame, spam, underline, UseNet, MIME, SMTP, POP, SLIP, URL; compare PaperNet.

e-mag :
Contraction of electronic-magazine, as either an independent "webzine" or an online supplement to the printed version; see magazine, little magazine, magapaper, zine, tabazine, tabloid, gazette, journal, newsletter, periodical.

emboss :
To raise designs from a surface, to represent images or ornaments in relief; also called "cameo" and "tool". Embossing depth depends upon paper weight and line-art dimensions. Raised designs may be one uniform depth ("single-level emboss") or several depths ("multi-level emboss"). Compare deboss; see blank, die, stamp, tool line, blind emboss. Also, the surface treatment or effect applied to paper after being made; such "dry impressions" are conventional. Compare genuine finish; see finish, paper coating.

emoticon :
The contraction for emote / emotion icon; being a keyboard picture of a facial expression composed from punctuation characters, used in e-mail and other Internet communications to clarify "burst" speech or to express attitude and style. Emoticons (read sideways) signal the writer's mood, and assist the interpretation of ambiguous messages. See ASCII art, flame, instant messaging.

emulsion :
A coating of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films, printing plates, and stencils. In preparation to make a plate or stencil, the emulsion side may be designated 'face down' (away from the viewer) as ED or E-down, or designated 'face up' (toward the viewer) as EU or E-up. See plate, film, burn, illustration.

en :
A unit of measurement based upon the point size of the selected font; derived from the letter 'N', which is approximately half the width of the letter 'M'. See em, nuts, dash. [nb: the em square measure is both height and width, while the en measure is full height but half the width of em; both pica and point are linear measures, with pica of line length, and point of line height]

Encapsulated PostScript file :
Computer file format (abbreviated EPS) containing both images and PostScript commands. See illustration.

encyclopedia / encyclopaedia :
A book, or set of books, containing articles on various topics covering all branches of knowledge, or all aspects of one subject, usually arranged alphabetically; derived from having a well-rounded or "circular education". See dictionary, syllabary, stylebook, bible paper.

end mark :
See end sign.

endpaper :
A sheet of paper, also called an end sheet, folded vertically once to form two leaves, one of which is pasted flat to the inside of the front or back cover of a book, with the other pasted to the inside edge of the first or last page to form a flyleaf. Compare end sheet, flyleaf; see binding.

end sheet :
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Compare endpaper, flyleaf; see binding.

end sign :
The triple asterisk sign, or any other terminal symbol or end mark, used to indicate the close of text or the end of material; see proofreader's marks, 30, dingbat, bullet, compare ellipses. Also, a special symbol, such as the horseshoe-shaped Greek letter "omega" (inverted U / ? or the control character (CTRL+END / ^z or EOF / ^d) keyboard combination, used to delimit processing or to terminate documentation. Also called "end stop" or "ender". [nb: morse code uses a similar convention by closing traffic with the abbreviation "EOT" for the "end of transmission"]

English :
A 12.5 point type; see font, type.

English finish :
Smooth finish on uncoated book paper; smoother than eggshell, rougher than smooth. See paper coating.

engrave / engraving :
Printing method using a die, or a plate with an image carved into its surface. Compare emboss, intaglio, thermography; see etch, mezzotint, micrographia, xylography, zincography, vignette.

The acronym for Electronic Numerical Integrator (Analyzer) And Computer; being the world's first operational digital electronic computer, developed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania for Army Ordnance to plot World War II ballistic firing tables. The ENIAC, weighing 30 tons, using 200 kilowatts of electric power and consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, was completed in 1945. In addition to ballistics, the ENIAC's fields of application included weather prediction, atomic-energy calculations, cosmic-ray studies, thermal ignition, random-number studies, wind-tunnel design, and other scientific uses. See computer.

enlightenment :
Conventionally characterized as a Protestant phenomenon, fostered by the Reformation, subsequent to the Renaissance and prior to the Industrial Revolution, during which reason or rationalism innovated political, educational, and religious doctrines. See athenaeum, literature.

entrepreneurship :
The organizational initiative and management risk with limited resources during a confined period of opportunity that forms a viable business operation. See venture, budget, scalable.

envelope :
A flat paper container, wrapper, or cover, as for a letter or thin package, usually having a gummed flap or other closure method; abbreviated "ep". Envelopes are classified by flap style (ie: flat, square, wallet, pointed, mail point), by opening (ie: open-side [flap/seal on long side], open-end [flap/seal on short side]), by seam (ie: side, center, diagonal), and by dimension (ie: mailable, mailable with surcharge, non-mailable). The most useful ISO envelope sizes are C3 - C6, but a special C6/C5 format was created by DIN 678 to replace the most popular DL business size, which is incompatible with automated postal machines. The DL designation originally meant "DIN Lang", but the abbreviation is now more diplomatically explained as "Dimension Lengthwise". The ISO 269 envelope standard does not include transparent "address window" envelopes, so the international standard is defined by DIN 680. See courtesy envelope, C sizes, converter, pre-consumer waste, kraft paper. [nb: "envelope" is noun; "envelop" is verb]

envoy :
A short concluding stanza to a poem, especially a ballade, or a postscript to a prose work, often containing a summary, acknowledgement, or dedication; derived "to send". See back matter.

ep :
The abbreviation for envelope.

The Electronic Product Code, being a passive form of "smart tag", and the successor to the bar code. A computerized product description encoded for response to electronic inquiry on sale or purchase price, expiration date, inventory stock number, manufacturer's production control, and related data. See RFID; compare UPC.

epigone :
An undistinguished imitator or successor of an important artist, author, or composer. Derived from "born afterward".

epigram :
A short poem or concise prose, often witty or satirical, that tersely expresses an ingenious turn of thought; also recognized as a monostich, saying, bon mot, witticism, quip, chrea, maxim, apothegm, aphorism, apostil, adage, proverb, dictum, axiom, slogan, motto, stele, soliloquy. Also called "initial quote". Compare epigraph; see bite, snippet, squib, ear.

epigraph :
An apposite quotation, terse saying, or concise poem at the beginning of a book, chapter, or the like. Compare epigram, cento; see hokku, bite, squib, snippet, call-out, fair use, ear.

epilogue :
A concluding part added to a literary work. Also, a speech, usually in verse, delivered at the end of a play by one of the actors. Compare prologue; see back matter.

epiphany :
A section in or the theme of a literary work presenting a perceptive moment of intuitive insight or sudden revelation into the essential meaning of ordinary things and commonplace events.

epitasis :
The part of an ancient drama, following the protasis, in which the main action is developed; derived from "stretching", increase of intensity. See drama.

The abbreviation for Encapsulated PostScript; being a graphics file format that can be used with many different computers and printers. EPS files can be imported into most desktop publishing (DTP) software. See streambedding, illustration.

Epson emulation :
The standard control codes for dot-matrix printers, to which the industry complies. See printer driver.

e-pub :
The contraction for electronic publishing, which has been called the "new papyrus", and contrasts with the "dead-tree edition". E-pub is producing and storing documents to be transmitted for viewing on computer screens, which may never be printed on paper. Electronically published documents may be on CD-ROM or floppy disk, or available via computer networks such as the internet. In addition to text (eg: TeleText) and illustrations (eg: VideoText), e-pub may include video and sound clips, animated graphics, and hypertext links to other documents, electronic mail, and search engines. Related E-pub concepts include e-commerce, e-production, e-mag, e-book, e-text, e-material, e-editor, and e-author. Copyright on e-pubs should be filed with the Registrar of Copyrights, Copyright Office, Library of Congress, Washington DC 20559-6000 using form TX, available at <http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/>. See hypernovel, selective binding, dual edition, DAISY, videotex, designing on press, DTP, word processor, text editor, web publishing, webcast, multicast backbone, broadcast, microform.

equivalent paper :
Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints, and may cost the same. See paper.

erratum / errata :
An error in writing or printing; derived from "stray" orr "wander". Also, a statement of an error and its correction, inserted in a book or other publication on a separate page. See corrigenda, tip.

escalation :
A contractual agreement to increase the magnitude of royalty payments when sales exceed a predetermined quantity, or when a publication is reprinted, revised, or reissued in a different format. See advance, royalty, offprint.

escape sequence :
Character entities that will display markup text or code symbols for presentation or demonstration purposes without executing their special representation; see markup, language. Also, a sequence of characters, usually beginning with one of the control keys, such as the escape key (ESC / ASCII 27 / hexadecimal 1B), followed by one or more characters that collectively issue an instructional command to a program or device, such as a printer; see printer driver. [nb: phrase originated with ANSI commands which all begin with the escape character]

escrow key :
The access system used to decode or decipher an encryption algorithm, which is deposited with a third party; also called "master key" or "passkey". Such reserved protocols or solutions are intended for governmental surveillance or investigation pursuant to judicial authority, but privacy violations and other malfeasances are probable. See trap door, PGP, Clipper, password, proxy, firewall.

essay :
A short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose, and generally analytic, speculative, or interpretative.

estimate :
Price that states what a specific job will probably cost within a given limited period; also called bid, quotation, and tender. See fixed costs, variable costs, formula pricing, unit cost, specifications.

etch / etching :
The process of engraving designs or pictures onto a metal, glass, or other suitable surface by the corrosive action of an acid, that when charged with ink will transfer the impression to paper or another substance. Also, an impression, as on paper, of the design or image taken from an etched plate. Also, the plate so produced. Derived from "to eat" or graze. See engrave, intaglio, zincography, gravure press, thermography, vignette.

Ethernet :
The most popular type of local area network, which sends its communications through radio frequency signals carried by a coaxial cable or twisted pair wiring, at 1 or 10 Mbps, to a physical controller board address, expressed as a 48-bit number in hexadecimal notation. Each computer checks to see if another computer is transmitting and waits its turn to transmit. If two computers accidentally transmit at the same time and their messages collide, they wait and send again in turn. Software protocols used by Ethernet systems vary, but include Novell Netware and TCP/IP. Fast or Gigabit Ethernet extend standards, providing increased network bandwidth and interoperability among Ethernets at operating speeds from 10 Mbps to 1000 Mbps. Gigabit Ethernet can be used in backbone environments to interconnect multiple lower speed Ethernets. Its tenfold increase in bandwidth will benefit high performance file servers. It uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol of the original Ethernet standard. See LAN, MAN, WAN.

etymology :
An account of the origin and development of a particular word or word element. Also, the study of historical linguistic change, as manifested in individual words. See morpheme, dictionary.

eulogy :
A laudatory speech or written homage in praise of something or someone, as when honoring a deceased person; derived from "good + word" [eulogium], an encomium, panegyric, or paean. See obituary, elegy, back matter; compare dedication. [nb: a literary eulogy is appropriately positioned at the end of a publication]

euphemism :
The substitution of an indirect or vague expression for one thought to be blunt or offensive; also known as "weasel word" or "circumlocution". Social conventions change, as the once acceptable "arse", derived from 'tail' and referring to 'buttocks', has become the unacceptable "ass" ... which cannot be said, but can be shown! Over time, etiquette and diplomacy have been complicated by legalese and bureaucratese, such that reasonable tact (eg: "passed away" = 'died') has been displaced by unreasonable obfuscation (eg: 'handicapped' = "physically challenged"), and communication is in jeopardy. See vernacular, censorship, pap, propaganda, expurgate, slander, trigger term, puffery, oxymoron, elocution, eloquence, language, rhetorical forms. [cf: dysphemism]

exception dictionary :
A store of pre-hyphenated words that do not conform to the usual rules contained in the hyphenation and justification subroutine (ie: H&J) of word processing or desktop publishing software. Some text and publishing programs (eg: PageMaker) are only outfitted with an integral exception dictionary, so users must augment their software with a supplementary dictionary. See dictionary, word processor.

exclamation point :
The sign (!) used in writing after an exclamation or interjection, expressing strong emotion or astonishment, or to indicate a command; also called "exclamation mark", "exclam", "bang", or "screamer". See interrobang, punctuation.

ex libris :
An inscription denoting "from the library of" before the ascription, as on a bookplate (qv).

expanded type :
A typeface with a slightly wider body, giving a flatter appearance; also called "extended". See set size, type.

expert set :
A base font enhanced with supplemental alphabets (eg: small caps, condensed, expanded, etc) and miscellaneous characters (eg: ligatures, logotypes, initials, etc) that are emplaced by a font change, as if selecting a different type; but this technique is the recommended procedure for accurate and coordinated embellishments. The alternative is to tag the affected text, as by bold/strong or Italic/emphasis, and allow the computer to distort a font (eg: slant Roman = "Italic") to approximate the desired result in an uncontrolled manner. See typeface, font.

expiration date :
The closing date of an offer, or the terminal date of a contract; such as the last moment to accept a special price, or the end of a subscription cycle without renewal for either a specific period or number of issues. See fulfillment period, renewal rate, renewal series, subscription.

expire issue :
The last issue of a given subscription term. A fundamental of circulation record-keeping. Tracking expire information allows you to plan timely renewals, formulate accurate print-runs, as well as to project income and other operational essentials. See subscription.

expletive :
A syllable, word, or phrase that serves to fill out a sentence or a line of verse, without conveying any meaning of its own (eg: There is an antelope herd that is running across the plain. = An antelope herd is running across the plain.); see forced line, compare truncation. Also, an interjectory or emphatic expression, sometimes objectionable, such as an exclamatory oath or an odious profanation.

expose / expos?:
A public revelation, as to uncover or exhibit something discreditable; also variously known as divulgence, divulgation, disclosure, spill the beans, eyeopener, bombshell, shocker. See yellow journalism, muckracker, bully pulpit, tabloid, news.

Express :
A printer control language (PCL) developed by OASYS. See printer driver.

expurgate :
To amend a text by the excision of words or passages deemed objectionable, as to purge whatever is morally offensive; derived from "cleanse" or "clear away". Also called bowdlerize, abridge, excerpt. See euphemism, trigger term, censorship, imprimatur, curiosa, pornography.

eye markers :
In flexography, color control images consisting of small squares of process color printed outside of image areas. Compare drawdown, ink roll-out, color control bar, cheater bar.

- F -

face :
Jargon truncation of typeface (qv). Also, the actual character to be printed using relief type; see foundry type. Also, the outside front cover of a book or magazine (qqv); see cover.

factoid :
Something fictitious or unsubstantiated that is presented as factual; a canard, deception, or myth. Such disinformation (qv) is devised to gain publicity, and persists due to constant repetition. See bully pulpit, journalism, propaganda, sleazy, flackery, counterfactual, anachronism, byplay, sidebar, call-out, pull-quote, text box, box. [nb: "As many lies as will lie in thy paper, although the sheet were big enough for the bed of Ware in [Hertfordshire] England." by William Shakespeare; "The great mass of people ... will more easily fall victim to a big lie than to a small one." by Adolf Hitler]

fair use :
A provision of the Copyright Act that entitles anyone to quote or cite protected material in literary review, educational instruction, scholarly research, editorial opinion, news report, comparative advertisment, or parody without infringement or permission. Any extensive excerpts or qualitative collections must be authorized for use, reprint, or release by the copyright or trademark owner. Factors to be considered when determining whether to apply the Fair Use doctrine include purpose and character of the use, nature of copyrighted work, amount and substantiality of portion used, and effect of use on potential copyright market. While every commercial use is "presumptively unfair", that presumption is easily overcome by productive or transformative, nonsuperseding use, a secondary use that produced a new result or purpose, different from the original ... the commercial character of song parody does not create presumption against fair use. In order to prevail on the effect on the market for the copyrighted work element, on alleged copyright infringer's contention of fair use, copyright owner is only required to show that challenged use, should it become widespread, would adversely affect potential market for copyrighted work. Certain nonprofit uses can qualify as fair use, even though they may involve nonproductive superseding copies. See public domain, plagiarism, appropriation, subsidiary rights, volume rights, specialized format.

fan :
A book bound at only one point, usually one of the four corners. See side binding, binding.

F&G / F-and-G / F 'n' G :
Abbreviation for Fold and Gather, being a production specimen of the fully printed signature contents before binding. Compare comprehensive dummy.

Acronym for Frequently Asked Questions, being the quick or ready reference on common inquiries, product details, known problems, troubleshooting, and contact information for hardware and software. See help, RTDM, debug, program.

fascicle :
A section of a book or set of books being published in installments as separate pamphlets or volumes; also called "fascicule" and "fasciculus". Unlike permanent book or volume parts, a fascicle is a temporary physical subdivision of a publication, which installments may or may not be numbered, and does not adhere to the content sections or chapters. Issued in self-cover wrappers, they may be properly sequenced for binding into a single volume at a later time. See series, serialization.

fax :
A method for transmitting documents, drawings, photographs, or the like by telephone or radio for exact reproduction elsewhere; derived from "facsimile". Also, a device ("fax machine" or "telefacsimile machine") for such transmittals. [nb: Fax technology dates from the 19th Century. In 1843, Alexander Bain invented an early fax machine, which had two pens that were connected to two pendulums, and it could reproduce writing on an electrically-conductive surface. In 1862, the Italian physicist Giovanni Caselli built a "pantelegraph" (pantograph + telegraph), which improved on Bain's invention by including a "synchronizing apparatus" that helped two machines interface. In 1934, the Associated Press news agency introduced the first system for transmitting "wire photos" to augment reports. Thirty years later, the Xerox Corporation introduced Long Distance Xerography (LDX). In 1966, Xerox introduced the "Magnafax Telecopier", a smaller, lighter facsimile machine that was easier to use and could be connected to any telephone line. Using this machine, a letter-sized document took about six minutes to transmit.]

featheredge :
A thin or tapered sharp edge. Compare feathering, dot gain, hairline.

feathering :
An inconsistent line that tapers, blurs, or bleeds; compare featheredge, dot gain. Also, the addition of blank lines or spaces in a column or page to force the vertical justification or centering of copy; see justify, flush, straight composition, ragged, alignment, furniture; compare leading, quad, slug, nonpareil, solid.

feature :
Something offered as a special or main attraction; a prominent article or conspicuous write-up, as a feature story. Also, a regular part of a newspaper or magazine, such as a column, book review, feuilleton, funny paper. See service feature, feature well, violin piece, anchor, squib, editorial well, boilerplate, sidebar, contents, 30, half-life.

feature-length :
Long enough to develop the story line, as a full-length essay.

feature-shock :
Slang for a website that's content-heavy with promotionals and other visuals, but content-light on facts, details, or other relevant information; by association with "Future Shock" by Alvin Toffler. Compare cobweb-site; see website.

feature story :
A major article usually written from a personal perspective; including the most prominent story in a periodical, such as the cover story.

feature well :
The unique feature stories in a periodical; the topical allure that impels single-copy sales of a publication, as distinguished from its regular and recurring departments. Unlike departments, which have their own stylized format, features are often framed by interlarded art or full page advertising. The feature well is either bracketed between front and back matter, or placed to precede or succeed departments. Compare editorial well.

feedback :
The return of part of the output from a circuit, system, or device to the input, either direct or indirect. Also, output data furnished for automatic monitoring or regulating of machine operations. Also, a self-regulating exchange, in which an input reaction or response to a particular process or activity affects further output. Also, confirmation or acknowledgement; as the completion of a reciprocal communications system (ie: sender, message, medium, recipient, feedback). See noise, interface.

feeding unit :
Component of a printing press that moves paper into the register unit. See press.

felt finish :
Soft woven pattern in text paper. See paper coating.

felt side :
Side of the paper that does not make contact with the fourdrinier wire during papermaking; usually considered to be the "top side" or "front side". Compare wire side; see deckle, paper.

feuilleton :
The part of a European newspaper devoted to light literature, fiction, criticism, and the like; derived from "little leaf". See feature.

fifth color :
Spot color run in addition to process colors. See illustration.

filename :
The set of letters, numbers, and permissible punctuation or symbols assigned to a file that distinguishes it from all other files in any particular hierarchy. Users save or call specific blocks of information with discrete filename "handles" or keys. Filenames, often with extensions, identify the type or purpose of data. In MS-DOS, a filename can be up to eight alphanumeric characters long, with a three character extension. On Macintosh computers, a filename can be up to 31 characters long, and can include any symbol other than the colon (:), which is used to separate the elements of a path. In the OS/2 High-Performance File System (HPFS), filenames can be up to 254 characters long, but no path can exceed 259 characters. In the Windows NT File System (NTFS), filenames can be up to 255 characters long. Although HPFS and NTFS both support spaces in filenames, web servers do not allow spaces. UNIX does not allow spaces in filenames, and is case sensitive. The UNIX and Macintosh operating systems permit a file to have more than one name, which is called "alias" or "symbolic link". See path, slash, backslash, pipe, MIME, internet address.

file system :
A method of organizing and indexing the data stored on electronic media, which table or list enables the computer operating system to designate data connections, to track the status of segmentalized storage space, to map the available sectors, and to mark any defective areas. Files are commonly stored, as space allows, in fixed-size groups of character bytes, rather than as continuous strings of text or numbers, thus often scattering a single file in pieces over many separate storage areas. The operator uses a directory command (DIR) or finder subroutine to locate stored data. The MS-DOS file system is known as the File Allocation Table (FAT), which can also be utilized by OS/2, Windows, and UNIX. The OS/2 file system is known as the High-Performance File System (HPFS), which can also be utilized by Windows. The Windows NT ["Northern Telecom Ltd" trademark] file system (NTFS) is configured for object-orientation, POSIX subsystem compatibility, and other features, including FAT and HPFS recognition. See filename, program, language, computer.

filler :
Decorative or textual material of secondary importance used to fill a space, close a gap, or end a section. See squib, bite, snippet, paragraph, puffery, mannerism. [v: bagatelle]

fillet :
A decorative line impressed onto a book cover, usually at the top and bottom of the back cover. [nb: not 'cover lines'] See tool line, rule; compare reglet.

fill-in :
Something that completes or substitutes, as a replacement or insertion. Also, a brief summary or a rundown. See proofread, proofreader's marks, notation, insert, interpolation, sandwich, interlinear.

film :
A medium, such as a cellulose nitrate or cellulose acetate composition, made in thin sheets or strips and coated with a light-sensitive emulsion for taking photographs or motion pictures; see plate, flat, burn, emulsion. Also, the genre of motion picture art and entertainment, also called "cinema", "movie", "video", "flick"; see cinematography, cinema verite, trailer, photography, storyboard, vignette, curiosa, censorship. [v: phi phenomenon, blue movie]

film coating :
Method of coating paper that leaves a relatively thin covering and rough surface, as compared to blade coating. See paper coating.

fine papers :
Papers made specifically for writing and printing. See paper.

finial :
A curve terminating the main stroke of the characters in some Italics type fonts; derived from "final". See kern, bowl, ear, stem, font, typeface, typography.

finish :
The surface characteristics of paper; see paper coating. Also, the general term for trimming, folding, binding, and all other post-press operations.

firewall :
A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a network; also known as a "drawbridge". Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private or restricted networks, especially intranets. All messages passing through the firewall are examined, and those which do not meet the specified security criteria are blocked. There are several types of firewall architecture: screened-host or packet filter, application gateway, circuit-level gateway, dual-host or proxy server. In practice, many firewalls use two or more of these techniques in concert. A firewall is considered to be the initial defense in protecting privileged data or sensitive information. For greater security, data can be encrypted. See password, PGP, SSL, proxy, trap door, escrow key, virus, malware, software.

FireWire :
A serial bus developed by Apple Computer and Texas Instruments (IEEE 1394), that's formerly known as High Performance Serial Bus, and is also known as iLink. The High Performance Serial Bus can connect up to 63 devices in a tree-like daisy chain configuration, and transmit data (video, audio, power) at up to 400 megabits per second over a single cable. FireWire supports Plug-and-Play, and peer-to-peer communication between peripheral devices.

fishbowl :
Slang for the control and communications center of a broadcast studio, which glass-walled operating environment resembles an aquarium; such an "executive tank" has displaced the slot (qv) in modern computerized publishing.

fist :
Printer's slang for the 'pointing finger' symbol used like a bullet to draw attention to an item, usually indented; also called "fistnote". See index, disc, guillemet, dingbat, page marker.

fixed costs :
Budget and expenses that remain unchanged by the quantity of any pressrun. Compare variable costs; see estimate, quotation, unit cost, specifications.

flackery :
Publicity; provided by a press agent or publicist, a "flack" or "flacker". See advance, blad, co-op ad, co-op money, publicist, copywriter, ad diction, puffery, counterfactual, factoid.

flame :
The expression of intense ardor, zeal, or passion, as related to combustion; especially derision or scorn conveyed through UseNet or e-mail messages. Related terms include: flamer, flame on / off, flame-bait, pain in the net, fry the screen, flame war; and emoticons include: ~:-( for flamer, ~= for lit candle, -= for snuffed fire. See poison-pen, emoticon, screed, spam.

flame-bait :
Any message deliberately posted or broadcast so as to provoke a response or to incite a reaction, as to instigate, foment, stimulate, goad, prod, spur, or fillip by rude and insensitive expressions; also known as "troll". See flame, spam, screed, poison-pen.

Flash :
A bandwidth friendly and browser independent vector graphic animation technology. As long as different browsers are equipped with the necessary plug-ins, Flash animations will look the same. With Flash, users can draw their own animations or import other vector-based images. Flash animation can only be created using the Flash animation application from Macromedia Inc. Flash was known as FutureSplash until 1997, when Macromedia Inc. bought the company that developed it. Compare SVG; see graphics, crawl, illustration.

flash memory :
A small printed circuit board that holds large amounts of data in memory. Flash memory is used in laptops and palmtops, because it is small, and holds its data when the computer is turned off. Compare RAM, ROM, bento storage.

flat :
Stripped film ready for platemaking. See film, illustration.

flat size :
The dimensions of a layout when opened-out and fully spread, for use in plotting the optimal position for conserving paper during press setup.

flexography :
A relief printing technique (c1890) on a web press, similar to letterpress, that employs rubber or soft plastic plates, a simple inking system, and fast-drying inks; also known as "aniline (dye) printing", and abbreviated "flexo". See press.

flier / flyer :
A small handbill or circular. See fly sheet, panel.

flimsy :
A thin tissue or onionskin (qv) paper used for making manifold or carbon copy sets. Compare NCR paper; see copy, cc, paper.

flipbook / flip book :
A small book consisting of a series of sequential images that give the illusion of continuous movement when the page edges are riffled. See animation, illustration.

floating accent :
An accent or diacritical mark which is set separately from the affected character, so appears beside or nearby, but is stylistically discontinuous.

floating flag :
A title or head placed at other than the top of the page, and displayed compressed, compact, or vertically. See nameplate, heading.

flood :
To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. Also, to increase ink flow or color saturation for more intensity or better coverage. See paper coating.

flop :
To invert the negative of a photograph so that the right and left sides are transposed; see illustration. Also, abbreviation for FLoating-point OPeration, wherein normalized signed decimal number data followed by a signed exponent is arithmetically processed for spreadsheet and computer-aided design (CAD) calculations. Coprocessing computers may be rated by measurement of their FLOP per second performance, as in millions (MFLOPS), billions (GFLOPS), or trillions (TFLOPS).

Floptical disk :
A small, high-capacity, removable disk for storing computer data that combines magnetic disk and optical disc technologies; see disc, hardware.

flourish :
The addition of embellishments or ornamental lines to letters and writing. See paraph, swash, calligraphy, ornament.

flowchart :
A graphic representation, using symbols interconnected with lines, of the successive steps in a systematic procedure, with logical options and remedies already integrated; also called "flow diagram". See storyboard.

flush :
Even or level with the margin on a page layout, and without indention, as "flush left" for alignment to the left, and "flush right" for alignment to the right; also known as "ranged". See justify, feathering, straight composition, ragged, alignment, H&J, indent.

flyleaf :
A blank leaf in the front or back of a book, sometimes translucent; derived from something attached at the edge. Compare end sheet, endpaper.

fly sheet :
A sheet on which information or instructions are printed. See flier, leaflet, handbill.

Contraction of ForMaT, being a UNIX text formatter that fills each line to 72-characters with justified margins, skipping over extra spaces and applying a hyphenation algorithm. FMT can be run within screen-oriented editors, such as "Vi". See text editor.

foil :
A very thin metal sheet or metallic backing; see stamp. Also, an arc or rounded space between cusps, as in ornamental tracery.

foil blocking :
A process for stamping a design on a book cover without ink by using a colored foil with pressure from a heated die or block. Compare blind emboss.

foil stamp :
Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die; also called "hot stamp" or "block print".

fold lines :
Inconspicuous dotted or dashed lines on copy, which are either concealed or trimmed, that guide the post-press assembly of printing. See gather, imposition, nested, signature, finish, binding; compare register marks, keylines, crop marks.

foldout :
A page larger than the trim size of a magazine or book, folded one or more times, so as not to extend beyond the edges, and designed to be unfolded for use; also called "gatefold". See accordian-fold, concertina-fold, French fold, parallel-fold, wrap-fold.

folio :
A sheet of paper folded once to make two leaves, or four pages, of a book or manuscript. Also, a volume having pages of the largest size, formerly made from such a sheet. Also, a leaf of a manuscript or book numbered only on the front side. Also, the number of each page in a book, or the number of each page together with the name and date of the newspaper; also called "folio line". See sheet.

font / fount :
A complete assortment of type of one style and size. In typeface styles, size is subordinate to series, and series is a subset of families; so a type family (qv) will contain numerous fonts. See proportional font, scalable font, raster font, screen font, Display PostScript, Character Map, hint, weight, aspect ratio, ATM, TT, OpenType, printer font, expert set, quad, suitcase, Pi fonts, type, foundry type, typeface, alphabet.

foolscap :
A type of inexpensive writing paper, especially legal-size, lined, yellow sheets, bound in tablet form. Derived from the watermark of a fool's cap (dunce's cap) formerly used on such paper. Compare legal paper; see paper.

foot :
The lowest part of a page; see basement. Also, the part of the type body that forms the sides of the groove, at the base. Also, a group of syllables constituting a metrical unit of a verse (eg: anacrusis, monometer, dimeter, ionic, iamb, syzygy, trimeter, tetrameter, alcaic, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter, octameter, dieresis, catalectic, acatalectic, hypercatalectic, trochee, tetrabrach, tercet, haiku, tanka, refrain, running rhythm, macron, pyrrhic, breve, arsis, ictus, truncation, colon, period); see meter, scansion, prosody, verse, rhyme, caesura.

foot and folio line / foot-and-folio-line :
The title and page number of a publication appearing at the bottom of every page; may include chapter, section, or department subhead title as well as web address. See running foot, footer, folio, dateline.

footer :
A line or lines of text set to display at the bottom of every page in a document or publication, usually for identification; may include graphic lines or automatic page sequencing, but usually includes title, subtitle, or web address. See header, dateline.

footnote :
A note of explanation, emendation, or other commentary placed at the bottom of the same page where the specific part of the text has been referenced, usually by a distinctive mark or a superscript numeral; an annotation distinguished from an appendix, sidebar, marginalia (qqv), obiter dictum, or endnote. See gloss, notation, reference marks.

forbearance agreement :
Refraining from action or abstaining from enforcement, as such restraint being sufficient consideration to fulfill contractual terms; especially applicable in schedule of debt payments without delay penalty. See golden handcuffs, trade secret; compare non-disclosure agreement, non-competition agreement.

forced line :
A composition or construction, especially rhyme, which calls attention to itself by its stilted language or awkward grammar; word order or phrasing selected to affect or fulfill a scheme, instead of conveyed meaning [eg: "little grubby hands with dirt and soot / up with which she could not put"]. See accent, prosody, verse, expletive.

foreshadowing :
A basic technique for building suspense in many genres by which an author hints at future trends or coming events; the admixture of subtle clues into the story line to sustain or increase interest. See plot, drama.

foreword :
A short introductory statement in a published work by someone other than the author. A preface usually follows a foreword, if both are used. Compare afterword; see front matter.

form / forme :
An assemblage of printing types, leads, and the like, secured in a chase to be printed from; classed as live (ready for press; typeset and proofed), dead (printed; awaiting melt or disassembly), or standing (stored for later use; never melted or disassembled). Also, each side of a signature; see sheet.

format :
The size, shape, style, or organization of a layout for a published product, with consideration for content, audience, and medium; see formula, stylesheet, master page, template, Snap, trademark. Also, the configured structure of electronically processed data, with particular consideration to system compatibility and file convertibility; see protocol, degauss.

form bond :
Lightweight bond paper made for business forms; also called "register bond". See paper.

form class :
A class of words or other forms in a language having one or more grammatical features in common, such as the form class of all plural nouns. See word class, parts of speech.

formula :
A magazine's editorial makeup, specifying types of content and regular departments; also known as "unity" for consistency of make-up. See format, stylesheet, master page, template, editorial well, feature well, magazine, trademark.

formula pricing :
Prices shown on a grid or spreadsheet; an industry-wide uniform price schedule is available in the Franklin Printing Catalogue. See estimate, quotation, unit cost, specifications.

form web :
Press using rolls 8-1/2" to 10" wide to print business forms, direct mailers, catalog sheets, stationery, and other products with a flat size typically 8-1/2" X 11". See press.

For Position Only :
Refers to inexpensive or low resolution images, used to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction; abbreviated FPO. See sketch, thumbnail.

A fourth-generation programming language developed by Charles Moore in the late 1960s. The first use of FORTH was guiding the telescope at NRAO, Kitt Peak. It has also been used with games and robotics. See language.

The contraction of FORmula TRANslator, being a high-level programming language, developed by IBM in 1954, used mainly for solving problems in science and engineering. See language.

forum :
An online conference or discussion group; also known as newsgroup. BBS and online service providers sponsor a variety of forums (some moderated) where participants can openly exchange messages of common interest on a specific subject. See UseNet, thread, BBS, listserve, blog, chatroom.

foundry type :
Type formed by casting (founding) molten metal. Originally, steel dies punched molds into copper, and molten base metals (especially alloys of lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, and zinc) formed the reverse characters necessary for printing. Relief typeface anatomy includes: face, beard, shoulder, belly, back, feet, nick, counter. See type case, California job case, letterpress, hot type, type metal, hellbox, typeface. [nb: relief type could not be readily exchanged because type heights differed: English @0.918", Italian @0.928", German @0.975", Dutch @0.977"]

fountain pen :
A pen (qv) with a refillable reservoir that provides a continuous supply of ink to its penpoint. Compare quill; see writing instrument.

fountain solution :
Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to the non-image area; also called "dampener solution". See ink fountain, illustration.

four-color process :
A continuous tone printing method for color images on offset or lithographic presses; also called "color process printing". See CMYK, PMS, process colors, illustration.

fourdrinier / Fourdrinier :
A machine for manufacturing paper; ca1830 eponym after English papermakers, Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier. See deckle, wire.

Abbreviation of For Position Only (qv); see sketch, thumbnail.

The abbreviation for Frames Per Second, which is also known as "frame rate"; being a unit used to measure computer and display performance. A frame is one complete scan of the display screen. Each frame consists of a number of horizontal scan lines; each scan line includes a number of pixels on the computer screen. The number of horizontal scan lines represents the vertical resolution and the number of pixels per scan line represents the horizontal resolution of the display. The refresh rate, or the number of times the displayed image is refreshed per second, is measured in frames per second. When video is exported to a QuickTime file, the different formats have different FPS rates. Lower FPS rates produce smaller files. As a measurement of the speed at which pictures (frames) are displayed in sequence in a film or video, the more frames displayed per second, the smoother the motion appears. Full-motion video uses 30 fps or more. See illustration.

fractional ad :
Small-sized advertisements, usually sold by the column inch, and classified advertisements, usually sold by the word, often placed at the back of magazines and newspapers. See agate, column inch, milline, tombstone, card, island ad, advertising.

frame :
A newspaper layout pattern, with the outermost columns on opposite sides of a page, each containing a single story or complete article. Compare well, poster make-up.

frames :
In DTP software, a delimited area of variable size and scope with text or graphics and coded instructions specific to that environment; thus a single page may contain several independent frames, or an entire document may be sequenced within one templated frame. On WWW pages, a bordered area that acts as an independent browser window. There can be a number of frames within the same webpage, and they can be separately scrolled, linked, and viewed. Sometimes a frame can be used to view an entirely different website without leaving the original site that contains the frame. Frames can only be accessed on webpages with browsers that support or enable this technology.

freedom of information :
The statutory right of public access to official information compiled and maintained by the federal government, embodied in the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) passed by the U.S. Congress in 1966, and subsequently enacted in most European and United Kingdom countries. Under provisions of the FOIA, applicants may indicate in writing the information to which they seek access, and must either be supplied with copies (fee payment prior to delivery) of the requested documents, or a denial notice stipulating the reason must be received within a specified period of time. Disclosure of information which might prove harmful to national defense, foreign relations, law enforcement, commercial activities of third parties, or personal privacy is exempted. See censorship, information law.

freedom of speech :
The right of people to publicly express themselves by words or images, without governmental interference, subject to the laws against defamation, incitement to violence, etc. Privileged exceptions to restraint extend to "fair comment" (ie: personal perspective, subjective speculation, or reasonable alternative) and to "opinion" (ie: figurative hyperbole, pernicious satire, or vituperative parody), as distinct from verifiable facts and truth. Speech proposing a transaction or exchange is commercial or contractual, and does not enjoy the Free Speech protections of open debate. The legislated "hate speech" caveat is a form of double-jeopardy, which civil libertarians may eventually address and ultimately redress. Also called free speech, freedom of expression. See copyright, public domain, censorship, editorial, libel, slander, trigger term, intellectual freedom. [v: "preventative restraint" 1863 Clement L. Vallandigham, John W. Basughman, Paul R. Shipman, Beale H. Richardson, Francis Richardson, Stephen J. Joyce]

freelance :
A person, also known as a "freelancer" or an "independent contractor", selling their work or services, usually by negotiated contract, without being on a regular salary basis for only one employer; derived from a "mercenary" without loyalty, alignment, or allegiance. See work for hire, kill fee, stringer, outsource.

free sheet :
Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities; also called "woodfree paper". See paper.

free verse / vers libre :
Poetry that uses natural rhythmic cadences, recurrent image patterns, and stressed and unstressed syllables rather than any set metrical scheme. It may be rhymed or unrhymed. Free verse is used in the Psalms and the Song of Solomon in the King James Bible. Milton experimented with the form in Lycidas and in Samson Agonistes. The French Symbolists did a great deal to popularize free verse in France, as did Arno Holz in Germany, and Walt Whitman in America. Compare blank verse; see verse.

freeware :
A computer program, application, or adaptation that has been made available to the public, often through user groups and BBS postings, without charge. Freeware is usually licensed to a single user, without authority to modify or distribute the software; hence the independent developer retains all copyright to the "free-software". Freeware is usually offered as a public service, or as a test for future marketing of a similar product. See open-source, public domain software, shareware, software. [nb: The most prominent example of software with a freely adapted source code is Linux (qv), which may be copied and distributed at will. The Free Software Foundation developed the General Public License (GPL), which specifies provisions for the distribution and modification of Linux, and other GNU free software. This mode promotes creative use and development, regardless of funding or other strictures, and is only hindered by interfaces with proprietary device drivers that have restrictive copyright or license agreements.]

French fold :
A sheet which has been printed only on one side, then pleated with two right-angle folds, forming an uncut four page section. Compare parallel-fold; see foldout, wrap-fold, accordian-fold, concertina-fold, dog-ear.

frisket :
A cloth or padlike device interposed in a hinged frame between the platen of a printing press and the sheet to be printed, in order to restrict the exposed portion of the press sheet; perhaps related to "looped pile fabric" (frise/fris?. See tympan, letterpress.

frobnicate :
To manipulate or adjust something, especially a bidirectional or biconditional entity; colloquially contracted to "frob". See tweak; compare debug, twiddle. [nb: "frobnosticate" is probably a combination of frobnicate and prognosticate]

frontispiece :
An illustrated leaf preceding the title page of a book, often placed verso to the recto title page, without pagination displayed; derived from "forehead + look", as to peer ahead. Compare tailpiece, headpiece.

frontlist :
Books published in the current season. Commercial publishers often make the distinction between frontlist and midlist, frontlist being those books that are featured in the front of the catalog. Commercial frontlist books are those deemed as most salesworthy, and receive more publicity attention and budget than midlist books. Independent publishers, which usually publish fewer books per season, generally do not make a distinction between front- and midlist. See midlist, backlist, deadlist.

front matter :
Printed material preliminary to the body copy of a book, consisting of title and copyright pages, acknowledgments, dedication, autograph, disclaimer, foreword, preface, prologue, introduction, table of contents, incipit, and any other related materials. These pages are often paginated with lowercase Roman numerals [v: pagination]. Compare back matter.

front-page / frontpage :
The first and outermost page of a newspaper, therefore the place where the most important stories or features begin; corresponds to the cover of a magazine, with headlines equal to cover lines. Also, anything significant or conspicuous. See half-life, news.

The abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol, being a client-server protocol, which allows a user on one computer to transfer files to and from another computer over a TCP/IP network. Also, the client program that the user executes to transfer files. See anonymous FTP, HTTP, TELNET, protocol, internet address, URL, internet. [nb: use "ws_ftp" or "cute ftp" utility to access or edit websites from ftp://]

fugitive materials :
Transient publications (eg: pamphlets, broadsides, etc) which tend to disappear, due to small quantity production, limited distribution, or topical application, before they can be collected or catalogued. Direct mail advertising, political handbills, and other circulars are often considered expendable. The class of "ephemera" is typically reserved for historical (eg: newspaper clippings, archival notes, etc) or collectable (eg: exhibit posters, performance programs, etc) constituents. Compare gray literature.

fulfillment house :
A company that handles the entire ordering process for books, such as storing, packing, mailing, maintaining records, and other business related operations for the author or publisher.

fulfillment period :
The period of time during which paid subscribers are entitled to receive periodical issues; also called "subscription cycle". See renewal series, renewal rate, expire issue, expiration date, subscription.

full web :
Press using rolls 35" to 40" wide to print sixteen-page signatures with a flat size typically 23" X 35"; also called "sixteen-page web". See press.

funny paper / funny papers :
The section of a newspaper reserved for comic strips, puzzles, word games, and other light entertainments; also called "funnies". See cartoon, feature, tabloid, newspaper.

furnish :
A mixture of fibers, water, dyes, and chemicals poured from the headbox onto the wire of a papermaking machine (fourdrinier); also called "slurry" and "stock". See deckle, wire.

furniture :
Pieces of non-type material (eg: aluminum, wood) used for holding type set into place as pages within a chase (qv). See leading, slug, nonpareil, quad, feathering, reglet, quoin.

The abbreviation of For Your Information, being an advice or data copy; also called "head's up" or notice. Compare RFC.

- G -

galley :
A long narrow tray, usually of metal, for holding type that has been set. See composing stick, chase, typeface, font.

galley proof :
A proof taken before the material has been made up into pages and usually printed as a single column of type with wide margins for marking corrections; originally a proof set from type in a galley. See proof, proofread, catchline.

gamma :
A measure of the degree of development of a photographic print or negative. See burn, retouch, gamma curve, photography.

gamma curve :
An expression of the brightness and contrast relationships for the red, green, and blue display elements, which may be broadcast calibrated or reception adjusted. See interlaced, additive color.

gang :
To separate more than one image in only one halftone or exposure. Also, to reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously onto one sheet during a single pressrun; also called "combination run". Also, to form into groups, sets, or sequences; see tail-in. Also, a group of identical or related items. Also, a group of elements or components arranged to work together or simultaneously.

garland :
A collection of short literary pieces, as poems and ballads; being a literary miscellany, cycle, or divan. See compilation.

gateway :
An interface device or system used to connect dissimilar networks, so that information can be passed among different communications protocols. Unlike a bridge, which transfers information between similar networks, a gateway both transfers information and converts it to a form compatible with the protocols used by the other networks for transport and delivery.

gather :
Signatures assembled in the proper sequence for binding; also called "stack". Compare quire, imposition, nested, fold lines, F&G; see binding.

gazette :
A commercial newspaper or a government journal; derived from the price of an issue. See journal, newspaper, catalog, trade journal, organ, periodical.

gem :
A four-point type; see font, type. Also, the abbreviation for the Graphics Environment Manager (GEM) by Digital Research; being a graphical interface designed to both make the operation of software simpler for the non-expert, and to allow programs to communicate with one another. Two key DTP packages, "GEM Desktop Publisher" and "Ventura", operate within this GUI environment.

gender :
A set of grammatical categories, or the membership of a word or form in such a grammatical category, applied to masculine, feminine, neuter, or common nouns, represented by the form of the noun itself or the choice of words that modify, replace, or refer to it. The referent may or may not be correlated with sex, animateness, or any other characteristic. Specificity is used as grammatical delimiter, and not as designator of sexuality; derived from "kind, sort, or class" (genus). See syntax, grammar, parts of speech, censorship. [eg: "God created man, male and female" Genesis 1:27, Mark 10:6, Matthew 19:4]

genre :
A class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form, technique, style, content, or the like.

genuine finish :
Any surface treatment or effect applied to paper while actually being made; such "wet impressions" are not only more durable, but accept ink better for a finer printing display. Compare emboss; see finish, paper coating.

The abbreviation for Geosynchronous / Geostationary Earth Orbit, a satellite system used in telecommunications. GEOs orbit the earth at 22,300 miles above the planet's surface. They are tied to the earth's rotation and are therefore in a fixed position in space in relation to the earth's surface. The satellite goes around once in its orbit for each rotation of the earth. The advantage of a GEO system is that the transmission station needs to point to only one place in space in order to transmit the signal to the GEO satellite. GEO systems are used for transmissions of high-speed data, television signals, and other wideband applications. Compare LEO, MEO: see VSAT.

ghosting :
Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printing sheet where it was not intended to appear. Also, phenomenon of printed image appearing too light due to ink starvation. Compare scum, setoff, slur, hickey, mottle, cheater bar; see illustration.

GhostScript :
A freeware program that reads PostScript files in the Linux environment without displaying EPS coding; as a browser reads HTML files that would display coding in an ASCII text editor.

ghost word :
A word that has come into existence by error rather than by normal linguistic transmission, as through the mistaken reading of a manuscript, a scribal error, or a misprint. See mot juste, counterword, word, rhetorical forms.

ghostwriter :
A person who is paid to write a speech, article, book, or the like, for another person who's presumed to be the author. See hack, byline, plagiarism; compare amanuensis.

The abbreviation for Graphics Interchange Format; being a graphics file format (*.GIF) developed by CompuServe (c1987 CIS) that uses LZW compression algorithm and 256 colors to display bitmap images. GIF files are widely used on World Wide Web pages because they provide good-quality color images in a format that takes up a small amount of compressed memory space. The GIF89A version allows one color of an image to be made transparent, so images can display directly onto backgrounds. GIF is suitable for banners, cartoons, and animations. Compare PNG; see graphics, illustration.

gigaPOP / gigaPoP :
A contraction of gigabit Point of Presence, a network access point that supports data transfer rates of at least 1 Gbps. Only a few gigaPOPs currently exist, and they're used primarily for accessing the I2 network. Each university that connects to I2 must do so through a gigaPOP, which connects the university's LANs and WANs to the I2 network. Originally, 12 gigaPOPs were planned, each one serving half a dozen I2 members, but the number of gigaPOPs is likely to grow. Whereas the POPs maintained by ISPs are designed to allow low-speed modems to connect to the internet, gigaPOPs are designed for fast access to a high-speed network, such as I2.

The abbreviation for Garbage In Garbage Out, being the axiom that faulty data fed into a computer will result in distorted information. No valid conclusion can be drawn from invalid premisses. See debug, kludge, patch, RTDM. [nb: a technology adage declares that work-products can be timely and inexpensive, but they won't be flawless; or they can be timely and flawless, but they won't be inexpensive; or they can be flawless and inexpensive, but they won't be timely.]

The abbreviation for Global Information Infrastructure, being the high-speed interactive network that distributes audio, video, and text elements, regardless of format or mode (including satellite communications; also called National Information Infrastructure (NII). See website, www, portal, internet.

glassine :
A strong, thin, glazed semitransparent paper. See paper.

glide :
A transitional or connective sound linking contiguous articulations, as a "semivowel"; see accent, syllabary, compare blend, compound. Also, a smooth progression from one tone or pitch to another; portamento.

glitch :
A defect, error, or malfunction, as in a machine or plan. See crash, debug.

gloss :
In old manuscripts, an explanation, translation, or interpretation of a word or phrase written interlinear, marginal, or appended in a glossary. In modern printing, a marginal annotation is usually set in a type size smaller than that of the text to which it refers. Also, an artfully or deliberately misleading interpretation, as "to gloss over" by explaining away or dismissing. Also, a glossary or lexis; derived from "a word requiring explanation". See interlinear, marginalia, notation, reference marks.

gloss finish :
A shiny finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper. See paper coating.

glyph :
Any symbol bearing non-verbal information or a non-alphanumeric message, such as a pictograph or hieroglyph (qqv); see rebus, ideogram, logogram, semiotics, alphabet, typology. Also, a shape in a font that is used to represent a computerized character code, such as letterforms and dingbats (wingdings); see hint, font, typeface.

golden handcuffs :
Colloquial expression for attractive remuneration packages offered to senior managers, particularly those with specialized knowledge, which make it more worthwhile for them to remain with present employers than to succumb to offers made by rival organizations. Generous but delayed share option schemes can form a helpful ingredient in preparing these inducements. A practice frequently adopted to deter competitors from poaching senior executives by devices such as golden hellos (qv). See revolving-door, headhunting, staff, trade secret, forbearance agreement; compare golden key.

golden handshake :
Alternative reference for 'golden parachute' (qv); being an incentive to resign or an inducement to retire.

golden hello :
Colloquial expression for a payment made to induce a prospect to take up employment. The taxability of the payment depends upon how it is characterized (eg: compensation, allowance, honorarium, gift, etc). See revolving-door, headhunting, staff.

golden key :
Colloquial expression for the key that unlocks the golden handcuffs (qv); usually consisting of a single payment, exclusive of salary / wages or other benefits, to an employee who is dismissed for reasons beyond their control, who is no longer considered worth retention, or who has not fulfilled expectations. Also known as superannuation, redundancy, or severance pay. See revolving-door, non-competition agreement, headhunting, staff.

golden parachute :
Colloquial expression for a clause in the employment contract of a senior executive that provides financial and other benefit guaranties if a change of corporate ownership, business practice, or company policy causes the position to lose function or forfeit status, resulting in transfer or demotion, then the "bail-out" option may be exercised. Also called "golden handshake". See revolving-door, headhunting, non-competition agreement, staff.

golden proportion :
The proportional ratio of linear or planar dimensions serving to guide good or pleasing design layouts, as derived from ancient Greek architecture; also called "golden ratio" or "golden section". This rule posits that dimensions or proportions relate the lesser of the two to the greater as the greater is to the sum of both; a ratio of approximately 0.618 to 1.000. See aesthetics, design, graphic design, layout. [cf: Aristotelean Golden Mean]

Goldenrod sheet :
An opaque yellow paper used to block actinic light in non-print areas for lithography. See masking.

Gothic :
A square-cut printing type with broad even strokes, but without serifs or hairlines; also called "grotesk"; see black letter, typeface, type family. Also, a literary or filmic work characterized by a gloomy setting, violent events, mysterious or sinister plots, and, in contemporary fiction, an imperiled heroine.

The abbreviation for General Requirements and Applications for Commercial Offset Lithography; being an industry guideline. See trade customs, trade associations.

grade :
General term used to distinguish among printing papers, by referring to the category, class, rating, finish, or brand of paper.

graduated screen tint :
Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly (not in distinct steps); also called "degrade", "gradient", "ramped screen", and "vignette". See illustration.

graffiti / graffito :
Markings, as slogans or drawings, written or sketched on a sidewalk, wall, or a similar public receptacle; derived from "to scratch" an incised inscription or design. See samizdat, scratchboard.

graffitist :
One who marks public surfaces with writings or drawings, as artistic expression, as political protest, as vandalistic defacement, or as antagonistic desecration; also called "tagger", "street author", "sidewalk scribe", "pavement poet". See samizdatchik, writer.

grain direction :
The predominant direction of fiber alignment in paper during manufacture; also called "machine direction". Compare cross grain; see with the grain, cracking, paper.

grain long / short paper :
Paper with fibers running parallel to the long or short dimension of the sheet. Compare cross grain; see with the grain, cracking, paper.

grammage :
The ISO basis weight (qv) of paper expressed in grams per square meter (gsm). See paper.

grammar :
The study of the way the sentences of a language are constructed. Also, a set of rules accounting for prescriptive and proscriptive usage in a language, as a grammar book. Derived from the Greek letter "gamma"; see syntax, morpheme, alphabet, rhetorical forms. [cf: agrammatism, lexis, sprachgefühl] [nb: computerized grammar checkers operate like generative parsers, so that subtlety, ambiguity, and poetic license is identified as erroneous; the programmer's catch-phrase for this phenomenon is: "time flies like an arrow, but fruit flies like a banana"]

grant :
Something valuable, such as a sum of money or property, goods or services, that is conferred or conveyed without encumbrance or obligation; as a gift, stipend, or subvention. See advance, production advance, royalty, benefactor, white knight.

graphic arts :
The crafts, industries, and professions related to designing and printing on paper and other strata.

graphic design :
An arrangement of type and visual elements, along with specifications for paper, ink colors, and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message. Artistic tension is permissible, but text and graphics should not compete for dominance or attention. Standard source directories include: "Creative Illustration Book" (The Black Book), and "American Showcase: Illustration". See design, golden proportion.

graphics :
The creation, editing, and printing of pictures. Computer graphics have two main methods: vector graphics (stored as a list of vector matrices), and raster or bitmap graphics (stored as a collection of dots or pixels). In HTML, all graphics display at 72 pixels per inch (dpi); and if the dimensions are specified, the accompanying text will stream around a tagged border while the image is loading. Graphical formats include BMP, CGM, GIF, JPEG, PICT, PNG, SVG, TIFF, WMF, Flash, among others. See bitmap graphics, raster graphics, vector graphics, Bezier curve, metafile, gray scale, stochastic screening, CAD, drawing program, clipart, dithering, web pox, VRML, palette, transparent palette, dentation, illustration; compare program, software.

graph plotter :
A device that draws images using ink pens that can be raised, lowered and moved over a page. The plotter uses vector graphics, making an image out of a series of point-to-point lines. Lines and curves are drawn on the page by a combination of horizontal and vertical movements of the pen or paper. See plotter, pantograph.

gravure :
A rotary printing process where the image is etched into the metal plate attached to a cylinder. The cylinder is then rotated through a trough of printing ink after which the etched surface is wiped clean by a blade leaving the non-image area clean. The paper is then passed between two rollers and pressed against the etched cylinder drawing the ink out by absorption. This high speed, high capacity, and high accuracy process will not pick paper, regardless of quality. See doctor blade, photogravure, rotogravure, intaglio.

gravure press :
An intaglio process of photomechanical printing, such as photogravure or rotogravure, using metal plates or cylinders etched with numberless tiny wells that hold ink. See press.

gray balance :
Printed cyan, magenta, and yellow halftone dots that accurately reproduce a neutral gray image. See illustration.

gray component replacement :
Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan, and magenta files with black; abbreviated GCR. See illustration.

gray levels :
Number of distinct gray tones that can be captured by a scanner or reproduced by an output device. Compare dynamic range; see illustration.

gray literature :
Non-commercial printed works, such as theses and proceedings, internal reports and commissioned documents, which were never intended for general circulation, but which may be channeled through interlibrary loan, document delivery service, and other methods. Compare fugitive materials; see thesis, monograph, hermeneutics, DAI, gray space.

gray scale :
A scale of achromatic colors having equal gradations ranging from white to black, used to calibrate exposure times for film and plates for fine shading in photography, television, and computer graphics. See dithering, graphics, illustration.

gray space :
The designation for text or body copy printed throughout a publication, regardless of ink color; also known as "gray matter" [nb: probably a publishing pun on the brains necessary for the creation of interesting and readable text]. Compare white space, black space; see gray literature, type noise.

great primer :
Approximately a seventeen-point type; see font, type.

Greek type :
An arrangement of incomprehensible nonwords or indecipherable nonsense phrases on a sample or specimen, used to demonstrate the setup or layout of a proposed publication; also known as "dummy text" or "verbigeration". See comprehensive dummy, dummy, solecism, balderdash.

Gresham's Law :
A mid-19th Century economic theory on devaluation which has since been applied to social psychology and political science. As a publishing reference, it argues that inferior or mediocre publications appealing to the "lowest common denominator" will cause the displacement or downfall of better or superior publications by pandering to "mass markets". The degradation of fine publishing is due to abandonment of higher standards, for any number of reasons, rather than infiltration and permutation. Unlike economics, where hoarding retains or increases value, communication is contingent upon circulation for both the establishment of basic value and its increased value by modification or refinement. Innovation and experimentation are meaningless without other measures, be they historical or popular culture. See publish, publication, periodical.

grid :
The systematic subdivision of a page into the consistent presentation of contents, according to style guidelines and segmental definition, so as to ensure a recognizable pattern in subject and design. This artificial boundary or imaginary overlay serves to measure and position page elements (ie: text, heads, images, ads, borders, margins) on the periodical's trim size. See frames, template, layout, modular make-up, horizon line, pipeline, design.

grid box :
A structural display area on a page layout containing copy; grid boxes may be combined or bridged to accommodate particular images, headings, or body text. See box, mortise, grid.

gripper edge :
The edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheet-fed press, thus the edge going through the press first; also called "feeding edge" and "leading edge". See work and tumble, work and turn, bite, guide edge, head stop, lap.

Contraction of GNU Run-OFF, being a freeware version of troff for the Linux system, which formats text for display on a phototypesetter, as an enabling program associated with ROFF (qv). As a complex coding system, primarily used for manual pages, it is being displaced by TeX and LaTeX (qqv). See text editor.

groundwood paper :
Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically, rather than refined chemically. See paper.

guard :
A narrow strip of paper or cloth pasted to a single leaf to allow sewing into a section for binding (qv). Compare backing.

The abbreviation for Graphical User Interface, being an image intensive display, or an iconographic overlay of computer program operations, in which the masked command options are executed by actuators (eg: mouse clicks, hot buttons). The "Apple" Macintosh computer system introduced iconographics in 1984, and Microsoft "Windows" followed the next year. The first World Wide Web GUI browser was "Mosaic", created by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois, since it enabled a cross-platform multimedia interface for UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh operating systems. See WYSIWYG, GEM, X-Window @ UNIX, window; compare command line, POSIX.

guide edge :
Used to set the registration of sheets from the feeding unit (qv) prior to printing, or to jog (qv) sheet alignment when stacking in the delivery unit after printing; distinct from head stop and gripper edge. See lap, press.

guideline / guidelines :
Any lightly marked line(s) used to position page contents in a layout template with extensional or intentional specifications; see stripping, crop marks, keylines, register marks. Also, a set of publication standards governing acceptable submission material(s), which are often used as an advisory by freelancers seeking appropriate outlets; see mission statement, publication.

guillemet :
A single or double angle-bracket character, pointing either left or right (?/ ?, used as a bullet to draw attention to particular sections of text. See dingbat, page marker, ornament, typeface.

guillotine cutter :
A large cutting machine with a descending blade that trims paper evenly across a stack of sheets.

gusset :
See dog-ear.

gutenberg :
A unit of measure, equal to 0.01 pica point; named after the German printer, Johannes Gutenberg (Johann Gensfleisch), who is recognized as the first European to print with movable type.

gutter :
The white space formed by the inner margins of two facing pages in a bound book, magazine, or newspaper. See white space; compare valley.

- H -

hack :
A writer whose services are for hire; see ghostwriter. Also, a person who surrenders individual independence, integrity, or belief in return for money or other reward. Also, a person who engages in an activity without talent or skill, as a producer of banal or mediocre work, or a dull or routine worker. Also, to make trite, banal, or stale by frequent use; hackney. Also, to damage or injure by crude, harsh, or insensitive treatment, as a piece of writing.

hacker :
Slang for a computer expert or enthusiast; the term may be either complimentary or derogatory. Among technophobes, there is little distinction between a nerd and a hacker, between a dweeb and a techie; so the pejorative sense of the term is becoming more prominent, largely due to its co-optation by the popular press as a referent for persons gaining unauthorized access to computer systems for malicious or illegal purposes. The proper term for computer system intruders is cracker (qv). See phreak, script kiddie, turist, software, virus.

haiku :
A Japanese poem or verse form, consisting of 17 syllables divided into three lines, respectively of 5 / 7 / 5 syllables, often about nature or a season. Derived from "jesting stanza". See hokku, tanka.

hairline :
Subjective term referring to a very small space, thin line, or close register, which is too vague for accuracy; for example, a "hairline rule" is the thinnest which can be printed. See featheredge.

half binding :
A type of book binding consisting of a leather binding on the spine and, sometimes, the corners, with paper or cloth sides. See binding.

half-life :
The time it takes for a sensational news item to migrate from a front-page (qv) report to a back-page filler (qv), or for a spectacular entertainment to lose public interest; being a period that's shrinking with improved communications and diminished attention span. The "art of journalism" consists in the ability to extend or revive a waning story. Revisiting "old news" is less nostalgia than revisionism. See news.

half-title page :
The first printed page of certain books, appearing after the endpapers but before the title page, and containing only the title of the book; also called "fly title" or "bastard title". Beginning in the 17th Century, a half-title page was printed in abbreviation on one of the flyleaves so it could be cut-out and tipped over the fore-edge or pasted onto the spine for book identification on shelving. Compare title page; see heading, key title, protocol, spine, colophon, acknowledgments.

halftone :
A printing process in which gradation of tone is obtained by a system of minute dots; also called "monotone". Also, either the metal printing plate or the final image obtained from this process of intermediate values. See illustration.

half web :
Press using rolls 17" to 20" wide to print eight-page signatures with a flat size typically 17" X 22". See press.

hallmark :
Any distinguishing mark or special indication signifying quality or genuineness; also called "plate mark". See indicia, signet, autograph, show-off, logo, brand, imprint, trademark, colophon, imprimatur.

handbill :
A small printed notice, advertisement, or announcement, usually for circulation by hand; also called a flier or tract. See leaflet, fly sheet, broadside, banner, panel. [eg: "Zap" comix; v: cartoon]

H&J :
Notation for setting hyphenation and justification to automatically delimit the permissible character count at the end of each line, and the frequency of repetition between lines. See justify, straight composition, alignment, river, proofreader's marks.

hand sample :
A handmade prototype or mock-up offered for design approval and production setup (nb: contract should stipulate that the manufactured item will meet the quality and performance of the sample). See samples.

handshake :
The slang expression for a protocol interface or an exchange of signals during initialization, by computer systems or their devices, to ensure synchronization of the connection; including modem, bandwidth, interlace, power, and the like. See password.

hanging :
Any type of mark or non-alphanumeric character positioned in a margin, and not aligned with the body of the copy, such as "hanging hyphenation" and "hanging punctuation". A common example is "hanging indentation", also known as "out-denting", in which the initial text line extends beyond the body of a paragraph, as used in stylization and itemization. A "hanging baseline" is also used with some non-Latin scripts.

Hansard :
The official published report of the debates and proceedings in the British Parliament, equivalent to the Congressional Record; eponymously derived from Luke Hansard and his descendants, who compiled the reports from about 1775 through 1889.

hard copy :
Type and images on paper or proofing material that's ready for printing or scanning. Also, computer output printed onto paper; a printout. Compare soft copy, PaperNet; see screen shot.

hardcover :
A book bound in cloth, leather, or the like, over firm or stiff material; also called "hardback" or "case bound". Hardcover book interiors are sewn together before being glued to the cover. See split edition, paperback, binding.

harden :
The oxidation process of drying ink, which is affected by adhesion and penetration additives, so as to prevent setoff (qv) and other problems. See ink.

hardware :
The mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical devices comprising a computer system. Compare software; see chip, disc, Floptical disk, Winchester disk, bus, multifunction, computer.

hard-wired :
Intrinsic or built-in, not readily changed; such as a direct hardware connection, or an invariable procedure, or an inflexible technique. See interface.

haute-couture :
High fashion, especially the dressmaking establishments that produce collections. Derived from "high + fashion", but not to be confused with "high + fashion designer" (haute-couturier/-e; similar to "high society" (haut-monde / haute-monde), with the same root as "haughty" (hauteur). See ars gratia artis, l'art pour l'art, oeuvre, tour de force. [v: de rigueur, outr? m倀ier]

headband :
A reinforcing strip added at the inner top of a book spine; intended to prevent cover damage when books are unshelved by their spine.

headbox :
The dispenser or hopper for supplying pulp/furnish to a papermaking machine (fourdrinier). See deckle, wire.

header :
A line or lines of text set to display at the top of every page in a document or publication, usually for identification; may include graphic lines or automatic page sequencing, but usually includes title, subtitle, or web address. Also known as running head (qv). See footer, meta tag, dateline.

headhunting :
The search by professional recruiters ("headhunters") for executives to fill high-level positions; see revolving-door, golden hello, golden handcuffs, golden key, golden parachute, staff, non-competition agreement. Also, the act or practice of trying to destroy the power, position, or influence of one's competitors.

heading :
Any title or caption of a page, chapter, etc, as used to identify or distinguish that part; also called headline or head. See subhead, cross head, deck, strap, kicker, nameplate, catchline, jump head, banner, floating flag, down style, streamer, screamer, stepped head, standing head, tombstone, initial, rubric, sinkage, key title, title page.

headless-word :
An irregular form of a grammatical construction that does not derive from its components or keywords (eg: lowlife, flat-out, flatfoot, tenderfoot, fly-out, sabertooth, etc). Compare headword, keyword.

headpiece / head-piece :
A decoration, usually a printer's ornament or a small illustration, printed in the blank space above the beginning of the text of a book chapter or other subdivision; also called "head ornament". Compare tailpiece, frontispiece; see sinkage, horizon line, attic.

head stop :
The butt of the registration or delivery units, enabling sheet position to be set accurately and consistently; lightweight paper tends to crumple, and heavy paper tends to bounce-back when striking the head stop. See guide edge, press.

headword :
A word or phrase appearing as the heading of a chapter, section, or reference entry, as used in codex volumes for place location before pagination; also known as "guide word" or catchword. Also, a word that serves as the origin of a grammatical construction, or the source of meaning for another word or phrase; also called "lemma" or keyword; compare headless-word.

heat-set web :
Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able to print coated paper.

hellbox :
The receptacle for collecting discarded type ("dead matter") that will be melted for re-use. See foundry type, hot type, type metal.

help :
An integral form of assistance provided by many programs, consisting of advice or instructions on using specific features. Help facilities, also called "online help", can be accessed directly, without the need to interrupt work in progress or to leaf through a manual, by actuating a hot-key or control character (eg: help key, F1 / ? function key). Some help facilities are context-sensitive, so that relevant information about the active task or topic will be automatically presented. Help screens are not as extensive as manuals, but they refresh the memory and quickly detail little-used features. See RTDM, FAQ, debug, program, software.

hermeneutics :
The art or science of textual description, explanation, and interpretation, especially scriptural exegesis. See monograph, thesis, gray literature.

heteronym :
A word spelled the same (homograph) as another but having a different sound and meaning (eg: lead [conduct/metal]; row [line / fight]; bear [carry / animal]). See homonym, oronym, vocabulary, rhetorical forms, alphabet; compare contranym. [see Confusing Words]

hickey / hickie :
A spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket; also called blemish, goober, booger. Compare slur, mottle, scum, setoff, picking, webpox. [v: maculate / maculation]

hieroglyphics :
Designating a symbolic language, in which many of the signs are conventionalized pictures of the things represented; also known as hieroglyphs. Also, characters that are difficult to read or decipher; or a figure or symbol with a hidden meaning, as derived from "sacred writing". See ideogram, logogram, rebus, pictography, semiotics, alphabet, steganography, typology.

high-fidelity color :
Color reproduced using six, eight, or twelve separations. See illustration.

high-key photo :
A photo with its most important details appearing in the highlights. See illustration.

highlights :
Lightest or brightest portions of an image; as distinguished from midtones and shadows. See key, illustration.

hint :
A hint is a mathematical instruction added to the font to distort a character's outline at particular sizes. Technically, hints result in operations which modify a character contours' scaled control point coordinates before the outline is scan converted for optimal "grid-fit". Hinting is a method of defining exactly which pixels are actuated in order to create the best possible bitmapped font character shape at small sizes and low resolutions. It is often necessary to modify a glyph's outline to generate an accurate and recognizable image. Global parameters which only specify letterform spacing or distances are properly kerning, instead of hinting a more readable image. See kern, font, typography, pantograph, tweak; compare dentation.

histogram :
Vertical bar chart or proportional graph showing the frequency distribution or tonal range in an image. See illustration.

historiography :
The body of literature dealing with historical matters; the body of techniques, theories, and principles of historical research and presentation, including hierology and hagiology. Compare roman a clef.

The abbreviation for the Hue / Lightness / Saturation table; also called HVS. See color curves.

hokku :
The opening verse of a linked poetic series. Derived from "opening stanza". See epigraph, haiku, tanka.

hologram :
A three-dimensional image of an object produced by recording the patterns of interference formed by a split laser beam on a photographic plate or film, and then illuminating the pattern with usually coherent light; also called "holograph".

holography :
A printing method using a laser to emboss images precisely overlaying each other on a thin piece of film to produce a three-dimensional image.

homepage :
The entry or gateway to the contents of a website; which normally includes the website's title, mission, credits, and menu, with links to supporting webpages. In a hierarchical arrangement, the highest webpage; in a linear arrangement, the first webpage; in a distributed arrangement, the central webpage; in an eclectic arrangement, the primary webpage. In well designed websites, internal links back to the homepage will be conveniently placed to facilitate user navigation. In hypermedia, the initial or arrival webpage is identified as ".../index.html"; and any unspecified path defaults to the homepage location, but the homepage need not act as menu or exit. See webpage, domain name, internet address; compare portal.

homonym :
A word that's the same as another in spelling ["homograph"] or pronunciation ["homophone"] but different in meaning, usually as a result of word origin. See heteronym, oronym, vocabulary, rhetorical forms, alphabet; compare contranym. [see Confusing Words]

honeypot :
A decoy internet-attached server that lures prospective hackers and potential crackers, in order to study their activities and monitor their techniques. Honeypots are designed to mimic systems that an intruder would like to break into, but limit the scope of possible access. Most honeypots are installed inside firewalls so that they can be better controlled, though it is possible to install them outside of firewalls. A honeypot firewall works the opposite of a normal firewall; instead of restricting ingress to a system from the internet, it restricts egress from that system back onto the internet. The surveillance objectives do not include tracing intruders back to their origin. The study of honeypot activity is designed to develop tamper-proof environments. See web server, BBS, virus, software.

hook :
Something that attracts attention, as an audience captivated by a dramatic introduction; or entices patronage, as to snare clients and customers. See cover lines, skyline, teaser, take-off, puffery.

horizon line :
The position on a page where contents are placed to establish a consistent pattern, so that the reader can reliably anticipate the starting point of sections, departments, or features. This "eye line" or "sight line" is established so the point of focus consistently lands at the same place on successive pages. Inconsistent placement tends to frustrate and alienate readers, but the horizon line can be varied by typography and imagery, including ruled lines. See sinkage, optical center, layout, grid, modular make-up, attic, headpiece, skyline.

hot-key :
A command key sequence, so called due to always being ready and waiting ("warmed-up") for activation. Hot-key combinations usually consist of control keys (ie: CTRL, ALT, Shift) used simultaneously with some other keyboard selection. Hot-keys actuate subroutines, TSR programs, compatible programs, and command shells. The definition of hot-keys must not conflict with any program keystrokes or application functions. Importing memory-resident "pop-ups" monopolizes RAM, and processing may be retarded by over-equipped programs. See TSR, subroutine, macro, script, batch file, shell, multitasking.

hot link :
A link between two applications such that changes in one will automatically affect the other. See link, pointer, hypertext, hot spot, OLE.

hot spot :
Slang for a hyperlink; see pointer, hot link, image map.

hot type :
Any relief printing method, especially involving molten metal castings. Compositions include: hand-cut (block), hand-set (foundry), machine-cut (monotype, linotype). The distinction is oriented to the prevailing or final process, rather than exclusion; as 'scanned relief' is "cold type", but 'photo engraved' is "hot type". See foundry type, reproduction proof, hellbox, type metal, font, type.

hourglass :
The serpentine effect from justified copy produced by placing a column of flush left text beside a column of flush right text; the resulting white space may be deliberate or accidental. See H&J, river, trapped white space, white space.

housekeeping :
The routine management, maintenance, and servicing of any system, especially computers attended by script or utility software; also called "system clean-up".

house sheet :
Paper that's suitable for a wide variety of printing jobs, that is regularly kept in stock by a printer; also called "floor sheet". See paper.

The abbreviation for HyperText Markup Language, being the language format used to develop and write document pages on the World Wide Web. Webpages are built with HTML codes or tags (qv) embedded into the text. HTML defines the webpage layout, attributes, and graphic elements as well as the hypertext links to other documents on the Web. Each link contains the address or URL of a webpage residing on any Internet server. HTML 2.0 was defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) with a basic set of features including interactive forms capability. From HTML 1 (1991) to HTML 4.0 (1999), subsequent versions added more features such as blinking text, custom backgrounds and tables of contents. Each new version requires agreement by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) on the codes or tags used, and browsers must be modified to implement those tags. HTML is not a programming language (ie: if this, do that), rather it could be considered a "presentation language". HTML was derived by Tim Berners-Lee from the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), which is widely used to publish documents. HTML is an SGML document with a fixed set of tags that, although changing with each new revision, are not flexible. A subset of SGML, known as XML, allows the developer of the webpage to define the tags, and HTML 4.0 and XML 1.0 have been combined into a single format called "XHTML", which is expected to become the standard format for Webpages. XHTML also enables Web pages to be developed with different sets of data, depending on the type of browser used to access the Web. See DTD, CSS, image map, markup, webpage.

HTML tag :
A code used in HTML to define a format change or hypertext link. HTML tags are enclosed within <angle brackets>; and nested contents are enclosed by the most recently opened HTML tag element. See tag, slash, DTD, SSI, markup.

Hypertext Transport/Transfer Protocol. The client-server TCP/IP protocol used on the World Wide Web for the exchange of HTML documents. See FTP, anonymous FTP, TELNET, internet address, protocol, URL, internet.

hue :
A specific gradation or variety of a color. Compare chroma, value; see tint, solid, illustration.

hundredweight :
A unit of avoirdupois weight commonly equivalent to 100 pounds (45.359 kilograms) in the U.S.A., 112 pounds in the United Kingdom; abbreviated CWT. Also called "cental" or "quintal".

hypermedia :
The non-linear integration of text, graphics, animation, video, audio, sound recordings, or any combination of data into a primarily associative system of non-sequential information storage and retrieval; originated ca1985. See hypertext.

hypernovel / hyperlinked novel :
Based upon a model of the multiverse interactivity of quantum mechanics, a speculative composition with inherent potential and uncertainty, such as a story with alternative conclusions or contrary storylines manifest by different characters. Best represented in electronic media, these multireality depictions have been presented in books and plays, films and poems.

hypertext :
A computer programming method of storing data for random access or retrieval through non-sequential information links; as derived from a metaphoric expression for browsing unstructured ideas or non-linear associations, originated by Ted Nelson in 1965. See hypermedia, link, hot link. [nb: an "index" was the first hypertext]

hyphen :
A short line (-) used to connect the parts of a compound or divided word, or used to conjoin related words for clarity of meaning. Compare dash, composition, solid; see hanging, punctuation.

- I -

The abbreviation of Institute for Advanced Studies, that hosted the "von Neumann calculating machine", which many consider to be the first modern computer. This early computer, created by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann (1903-1957), included three components used by most modern computers: a central processing unit (CPU), a slow-access data storage area (like disc drive / HDD), and a secondary fast-access memory (like RAM). The "von Neumann machines" stored instructions as binary values (creating the stored program concept) and executed instructions sequentially (processing fetched instructions one at a time). A "von Neumann architecture" often refers to the sequential nature of computers based on this model. See computer.

ideogram :
A written symbol that represents an idea or object directly, rather than a particular word or speech sound; also called "ideograph". See lexigram, logogram, pictography, rebus, hieroglyphics, alphabet, typology.

idiolect :
A person's individual speech pattern or eccentric vocabulary. Compare dialect, neologism; see accent, diction, oronym, slide, slang, catch-phrase, colloquialism, vernacular, language.

idiom :
An expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, or from the usual grammatical rules of a language (eg: "kick the bucket" means "to die"). Also, a dialect, construction, or expression peculiar to the language of a people. Also, a distinctive style or character in linguistic or artistic expression. [v: sprachgefühl]

illustration :
Drawings, pictures, or other artwork, including photographs, lithographs, sketches, caricatures, woodcuts, and holograms. See bleed, dry-trap, ink-trap, spread, overprint, image-trap, keylines, color break, integral proof, loose proof, overlay proof, page proof, image map, hue, tint, ink, dye, tint block, graduated screen tint, high-fidelity color, standard viewing conditions, brightness, value, density, low-key photo, high-key photo, highlights, shadows, contrast, specular highlight, flop, subtractive color, Dmax / Dmin, histogram, tonal range, dynamic range, gray levels, dithering, stochastic screening, neutral gray, ink balance, fifth color, spot color, dot area, total area coverage, CIE, DCS, CMYK, subtractive primary colors, RGB, additive color, undercolor removal, color sequence, chroma, color balance, color build, color control bar, color model, color curves, HLS, color correct, color cast, ghosting, color shift, color gamut, palette, transparent palette, color matching system, device independent colors, commercial match, multicolor printing, four-color process, process colors, black point, white point, chiaroscuro, gray balance, gray component replacement, gray scale, silhouette, line drawing, block-in, continuous tone, color specification, resolution, measured photography, opacity, burn, double burn, Imagesetter, black patch, unsharp masking, repeatability, up, wrong reading, emulsion, halftone, monotone, duotone, double black duotone, quadtone, midtone, screen, Ben Day, watermark, screen tint, dot gain, band, drop out, masking, moire, mottle, pixelated, tessellate, wallpaper, rule, pixel, pixel map, bitmap graphics, EGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, Flash, VESA, SVG, vector graphics, GIF, JPEG, CGM, TIFF, PNG, WMF, EPS, PICT, PostScript, digitizing tablet, plate, flat, digital plate, plate-ready film, working film, dye transfer, fountain solution, setoff, scum, crossover, reflective copy, dry transfer, montage, collage, pochoir, mezzotint, stipple, cartoon, animation, flipbook, ASCII art, photogenic, mediagenic. Also, to make intelligible with examples or analogies; to exemplify.

illustrator :
A person or thing that illustrates; an artist conceptualizes from the theme of the copy, then designs images consistent with the style or format of the publication. See sketch, scamp, line drawing, block-in, thumbnail, graphics design, design, illustration.

image map / imagemap :
A map or other graphic in an HTML document that has hyperlinks or "hot spots"; also called "clickable image". Multiple areas can be defined within one image, and the plotted shapes include point, oval, circle, polygon, and rectangle. When using an interactive browser (such as Mosaic or Netscape), a user can activate the hyperlink on the image and open a box or page with more information. May be categorized as either a client-side image map, in which the hyperlinks that relate the URLs are stored in the current file, or a server-side image map, in which the hyperlinks that relate the URLs are stored on the server. Formerly required CGI script.

imagery :
Mental pictures evoked by figurative descriptions; derivative imagination. Compare videation; see rhetorical forms.

Imagesetter :
Laser device for outputting film or plates. Compare typesetter, phototypesetter; see illustration.

image-trap :
Slight overlapping of images to ensure they appear registered, as contrasted with simple juncture or abutment ("dead butt"). See keylines, illustration.

immortals :
A designation for the gods of classical mythology, who were augmented in the oral tradition by noteworthy persons of enduring fame. This legendary category was exponentially extended to artists and authors during the Medieval era, as a result of the printing press widely disseminating lifelong works beyond the graves of their creators. Mass production eventually elevated so many to the rank of "cultural hero" that the distinction of achieving egomaniacal notoriety [v: parvenu] has become meaningless ... hence, posthumous immortality is just another disposable commodity to fickle antiheroes in a revisionistic society intimidated by posterity. See mentor, intelligentsia, poet laureate, writer. [nb: "In the future, everyone will be world-famous for fifteen minutes." by Andy Warhol]

imposition :
Arrangement of pages so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound. Compare gather, quire, fold lines; see stripping, template, format.

impression :
One impression is equal to the speed of passing a single sheet once through a press, or to the process of passing a single sheet once through a color printing unit.

impression cylinder :
The cylinder on a press, that pushes paper against the plate or blanket, thus forming the printed image.

impressions per hour :
Measure of the speed of a printing press; abbreviated iph.

imprimatur :
Sanction or cachet; permission to print and publish a book or pamphlet, after clearance review for dissemination by a censor. See signet, samizdat, expurgate, censorship. [v: nihil obstat, auto-da-fe/auto-da-f俔 ["If fascism came to America, it would be on a program of Americanism." by Huey P. Long; "I have often thought that if a rational Fascist dictatorship were to exist, then it would choose the American system." by Noam Chomsky]

imprint :
The designation under which a publisher issues a given list of titles, and by which designation, the books of a publisher are identified. See indicia, signet, autograph, show-off, logo, brand, trademark, hallmark, colophon.

incipit :
The introductory words or opening phrase of a text; derived from "begin here". See front matter; compare coda.

incunabula / incunabulum :
The earliest stage of anything, especially books printed before 1455-1501. Derived from "earliest home", as straps holding a baby in a cradle, or placing an instrument in a cradle. See scroll, volume, codex, protocol, spine, artifact.

indemnify :
The legal exemption from penalties attaching to illegal actions; to secure against anticipated loss. Most publishing contracts require that non-employee or freelance authors indemnify the publisher against manuscript defects, errors, libel, negligence, etc.; such that the editors have limited responsibility for verification in published works. Derived from "without (financial) loss".

indent :
A notch, recess, or setback from the margin or edge; derived from back-formation of "toothlike". Also, to sever a duplicated document along an irregular line as a means of identification, or to cut the edge of a copied document in an irregular way. See hanging, mortise, punctuation, stylebook.

index / indices / indexes :
A sequential arrangement of material, especially in alphabetical or numerical order; as derived from "informer". In printed works, an alphabetical listing of names, places, and topics, with page numbers indicating where they appear in the body of the work; see contents, back matter. Also, a pointer or indicator, as a printed sign in the shape of a hand with the index finger extended toward a notice or paragraph; also known as "fistnote" or fist (qv).

indicia :
Any distinctive mark, such as an imprint or signet. Also, the printed legend or stamp-like device (cachet) marked on bulk mail indicating that postage has been paid.

infomercial :
A program-length television commercial that is cast in a standard format, such as a documentary or a talk show, so as to disguise the fact that it is an advertisement; derived as a blend of information and commercial. See broadcast, narrowcast, PSA, advertorial, advertising.

information ethics :
The branch of ethics which deals with the relationship between the creation, organization, dissemination, and utilization of information, and the implicit ethical standards and explicit legal codes which govern human conduct in society. Compare information law; see intellectual freedom, censorship, intellectual property, plagiarism.

information law :
The regulation and control of information by the state, including laws regarding censorship, copyright, fair use, intellectual property, freedom of speech, freedom of information, intellectual freedom. Also, a specialized branch of legal studies dealing with the regulation of information; see information ethics.

initial / initial cap :
The enlarged or decorative first letter of the word beginning a paragraph or section. If the top is level with the first line and the letter descends into the text body, then it is called a drop initial. If the base is level with the first line and the letter projects above the text body, then it is called a cocked-up initial. See drop-cap, rubric, heading, swash.

initialism :
An abbreviation or acrostic formed from the initial letters of the words in a name or phrase, which are always separately spelled-out in pronunciation (eg: MPH, RPM, ATM, HIV, STD, TLC, PRN, QID, IRS, FBI, CIA). Compare acronym.

ink :
A viscous fluid (originally a compound of carbon black and linseed oil invented in Sixth Century China) used for marking, writing, or printing. Compare dye, toner, strike-through, opacity; see pigment, chalking, dot gain, ghosting, hickey, picking, mottle, pounce, scum, setoff, slur, harden, lacquer, varnish, laminate, illustration.

ink balance :
Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other, and to a standard density of neutral gray. See illustration.

ink fountain :
The reservoir on a printing press that holds ink. Compare fountain solution.

ink holdout :
A characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper; also called "holdout". See paper coating.

ink-jet printing :
A method of high-speed printing by spraying charged droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. See demand printing, quick printing.

ink roll-out :
Test proof of specified color matched to actual paper as preliminary to job approval; also called "drawdown". Compare eye markers, color control bar; see commercial match, samples. [nb: not to be confused with 'rollout' (qv)]

ink-trap :
Ink printed over a previously printed image. Compare overprint; see illustration.

inscription :
A brief dedication or other note written and signed by hand in a book, on a photograph, etc; an autograph. Also, some notable words or a significant message running across the field of a prepared permanent surface, such as stelai or medallions; see banderole, cartouche, epigram, legend. [nb: the evolution of literature in China, from seals through stone rubbings to clay and woodblock typesetting for the accurate transference of knowledge, vastly antedated Occidental developments]

inset :
A small text box (eg: legend), graphic (eg: picture), or illustration (eg: diagram) contained within the border of a larger display. Also, to set anything within the bounds of something else; an insert. See mortise.

insert :
In binding, one or more folded sheets of four pages (or any signature having a multiple of four) placed within another section of a book in such a way that the sewing passes through the back fold of all sections. Often used to incorporate plates, as opposed to tipping them in. Also known as nested or inset signatures; see tip, integral, binding. Also, to alter or amend proof copy, by the addition of a phrase or passage, before a work goes to press; see AA, change order, sandwich, proofread, interpolation, interlinear, trope.

insertion point :
A blinking vertical line or other mark in the document window of the editor, form, or other application which indicates where any new text or data will appear. See prompt, cursor, mouse, pointer.

installment :
One portion of a literary work published in consecutive issues of a periodical, or one part or fascicle of such a work published separately at regular intervals. Formerly, novels were often published by installments in literary magazines. See serialization, series, sequel.

instant book :
A book published within weeks of an important event, to capitalize on popular interest in the subject. Because research requires time, works prepared in haste may lack depth of treatment and contain errors of fact. An astute reviewer will note such weaknesses. See bestseller, book.

instant messaging :
A compact and deconstructed mode of rapid communication, using abbreviations and other shorthand (eg: ATM = at the moment, BRB = be right back, BCNU = be seeing you, BTW = by the way, IMHO = in my humble opinion, FWIW = for what it's worth, G2G = got to go, R U = are you, TTYL = talk to you later) in a "burst speech" subcultural creole; abbreviated "IM", also called "alphanumerish"; compare emoticon, notation, stenograph. Also, an interactive conference method for personal or business contacts sharing the same software (eg: AIM, ICQ, Yahoo!Pager, etc), being a fast and compact messaging system for pagers and online; see chatroom, IRC, newsgroup, blog, thread, listserve, UseNet.

intaglio :
A printing process in which a design or text is recessed below the surface of a plate, so that when ink is applied and the excess wiped off, ink remains in the grooves for transfer to paper; also called gravure (qv). Also, any incised design or sunken ornamentation.

integral :
A leaf or page bound into a publication at the time it was initially printed and assembled. Compare insert, tip.

integral proof :
Color proof of separations, shown on one piece of proofing paper; also called "laminate proof". See proof, illustration.

intellectual freedom :
The Constitutional right of any person to receive or express views which may be unpopular or offensive to others, provided that such views are not libelous or seditious, nor cause equal freedom to be denied to others. The Office of Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association sponsors the Intellectual Freedom Round Table (IFRT), and publishes a Freedom to Read Statement and a Library Bill of Rights. See freedom of speech, freedom of information, censorship.

intellectual property :
The catchall label for the tangible product of mental labor or creative work, without absolute definition of its delineation, as represented by protections for copyright, patent, trademark, trade name, trade dress, trade secret, servicemark, and their authorized license or expansion; also known as "intellectual capital", "intellectual asset", "literary property", and "artistic property". See fair use, non-disclosure agreement, public domain.

intelligentsia :
The group or class of intellectuals representing a cultural, social, or political elite; an intellectual is also known as a sage, savant, pundit / pandit, maven, polymath, polyhistor, scholar, scholiastic, scholastici, philosophe, casuist, pedagogue, autodidact, virtuoso / virtuosa, cognoscente, connoisseur, dilettante, sophisticate, magus, solon, mandarin, brahmin. In ancient times, learned persons were patronized by aristocrats, but the division of labor, having been enabled by Medieval technologies, and that era's "conspiracy of learning", evolved into professions. The literati is usually differentiated from the bourgeoisie (uncultured) and proletariat (illiterate). It has only been in the modern era that the impractical and unrealistic Ivory Tower egghead has acquired the pejorative sense of the aloof and disdainful highbrow. Reciprocal prejudice presumes the illiterate (unlettered) to be either stupid (thoughtless) or dumb (mute). With a rich oral tradition, people differentiate between "learning to read" and "learning from reading". A "man of letters" derives from a "school of letters", which derives from the "republic of letters", as an idealized subculture comprised of the educated; which "book learning" by volumes of "silent instructors" must be distinguished from "real life learning" ("The sick shall be the physician's textbooks."). Among the conflicts of the Reformation was the contradiction of iconoclastic thinking being inculcated by literary idolatry ... an orthodox substitution instead of a heterodox liberation. It has been alleged that orality is too imprecise for the preservation of civilized history and the documentation of scientific inquiry, but the supposedly disinterested recordings of authentic truth have not been impartial and unbiased; so the distortions of revisionism seem to be immaterial to their medium. Since most people in the modern era obtain their data through an audio-visual broadcast medium, validation and verification is professionally crucial, if timely and legitimate decisions are to be made. See renaissance, enlightenment, athenaeum, literature, lingua franca, immortals, mentor. [nb: paraphrased attribution of Charles V (King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor): "Educated persons speak Greek to God, Latin to ecclesiastics, Spanish to gentlemen, French to ladies, Italian to servants, and German to horses."]

interface :
The area shared by or connecting two or more disciplines or fields of study. Also, a common boundary or interconnection between systems, equipment, concepts, or people. Also, something that enables separate and sometimes incompatible elements to coordinate or communicate. Also, computer hardware or software designed to enable the communication of information between hardware devices, between software programs, between devices and programs, or between a computer and a user. See noise, feedback, computer, cybernetics.

interlaced :
Interlaced display technology scans alternate lines of the whole screen with electron beams, covering the full image in two vertical passes; includes analog television broadcasts conforming to NTSC, Phase Alternate Line (PAL/PAL1; Phase Alternation Line), and Sequential Couleurs a Memoire (SECAM; or Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire) protocols. See gamma curve. Also known as "interleave" (stored in alternate segments), as in the non-adjacent file storage of audio and video elements. A "fade-in" effect for interlaced media will initially display as discontinuous segments on a webpage. Slice graphics can be housed in tables, which the browser assembles. Non-interlaced (N/I) display technology sends every line of information to the screen, so that image flicker is eliminated, and viewing eyestrain is reduced.

Interleaf :
An extensible cross-platform commercial DTP package with an integral graphics utility running in the X-Windows environment. The initial desktop contains a cabinet and clipboard, to which the user adds other cabinets, drawers, folders, and files. Configuration files and style templates are housed in a single location. Features and functions are selected by a three-button mouse pointer. See WYSIWYM, DTP.

interlinear :
Explanatory matter or translation that is situated or inserted between the lines of a text, usually handwritten or printed in small lettering or type; see insert, interpolation, sandwich, trope. Also, a publication having the same text in different languages set in alternate lines (eg: an interlinear Bible); see gloss.

interlude :
An intervening episode or intermediate entertainment, as a separating period, musical passage, or brief performance between other acts or events. Also, a comedic sketch performed between the parts of a play or other entertainment. Also, a play or morality play containing comic or farcical elements. See revue, drama.

internet / InterNet :
A network of networks; a group of networks interconnected via routers. This worldwide information superhighway is comprised of thousands of interconnected computer networks, and reaches millions of people in many different countries. The Internet was originally developed for the United States military, as a result of a RAND study on post-war decentralization that was implemented by DARPA until 1989; and its use was then extended to government, academic and commercial communications and research. The Internet is made up of large backbone networks (such as MILNET, NSFNET, and CREN), and smaller networks that link to them. The U.S. National Science Foundation maintains a major part of the backbone (NSFNET). The Internet functions as a gateway for electronic mail between various networks and online services. The World Wide Web facility on the Internet makes possible almost instantaneous exchange of information by linking documents around the world. Internet computers use the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). There are over six million hosts on the Internet: mainframes, minicomputers, or workstations that support the Internet Protocol. An autonomous internet is a group of gateways that are under the same administrative authority and use a common Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). The Internet is connected to computer networks worldwide that use various message formats and protocols; gateways convert these formats between networks so that the Internet functions as one big network. UNIX utilities such as FTP, Archie, TELNET, Gopher and Veronica have been widely used to access the Internet. The Internet sometimes appears to be amorphous and unregulated, but there are several administrative bodies: the Internet Architecture Board, which oversees technology and standards; the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, which assigns numbers for ports and sockets, etc.; InterNIC, which assigns Internet addresses; the Internet Engineering and Planning Group, Internet Engineering Steering Group, and the Internet Society. Compare intranet; see website.

Internet Access Provider / IAP :
An organization or company which provides Internet access to individuals, businesses, or other groups. An IAP may provide leased line services for dedicated high-speed access, and dial-up accounts that use a modem and a regular telephone line. Major online services such as America Online and CompuServe are often also Internet Access Providers. Abbreviated IAP; compare Internet Service Provider, see web server.

internet address :
Consisting of a network portion and a node portion, the address for a host must be unique on the network. This unique 32-bit number is assigned to each computer connected to the Internet and used by the TCP/IP protocol to route packets of data to their destinations. The number is usually written in "dotted octet" shorthand notation, in which the 32 bit address is grouped into four sets of 8 bits, each eight-bit set is converted into a decimal number, and the four resulting decimal numbers are separated by dots. See URL, IP, TCP/IP, MIME, HTTP, FTP, WWW, web server, domain name, filename. [nb: the internet address of every publication should appear on the front or back cover, in the masthead, in the acknowledgements, on the table of contents, and in the running foot or running head]

Internet Service Provider / ISP :
A telecommunications company which provides Internet access or Internet presence to subscribing individuals, businesses, and other groups. A major continental Internet Service Provider is European UNIX Network (also called EUnet). Abbreviated ISP; compare Internet Access Provider, see web server.

InterNIC :
The contraction of Internet Network Information Center, being the quango governing body that assigns and tracks IP addresses. See domain name, DNS, internet address, IP, TCP/IP, sniffer.

interpolation :
Increasing input resolution by using software to create new pixels based on the nature of neighboring pixels. Also, to introduce, interject, or interpose something additional or extraneous between other things or parts; see interlinear, insert, trope, sandwich. Also, to alter a text by the insertion of new or spurious matter, especially in a deceptive or unauthorized manner; derived from refurbish, as to make polished or new.

interrobang :
A printed punctuation mark (or its approximation), designed to combine the question mark and the exclamation point, indicating a mixture of query and interjection. Derived from interro- [gation point] + -bang [nb: printer's jargon for an exclamation point]. See tittle, kern, digraph, ligature, punctuation.

intranet :
A network of World Wide Web technology for internal applications to a private enterprise. It may consist of many interlinked Local Area Networks, and also use leased lines in the Wide Area Network. Typically, an intranet includes connections through one or more gateway computers to the outside Internet. The main purpose of an intranet is to share company information and computing resources among employees, while restricting external access. An intranet can also be used to facilitate working in groups, and for teleconferences. An intranet uses TCP/IP, HTTP, and other Internet protocols, and generally looks like a private version of the Internet. May also be called "innernet". Compare internet, website; see LAN, MAN, PAN, WAN, Ethernet, URL.

introduction :
A preliminary part leading to the main body of a publication; usually an extensive statement that guides or outlines the text. See front matter.

IP :
The abbreviation for Internet Protocol, being a component of TCP/IP, which is the protocol used to route a data packet from its source to its destination, by numerically translating the 32-bit address for the domain name server, over the Internet or any IP managed networks. The IP datagram has the addresses of its source and destination, the data being sent, error checking, and some fields defining length or breaks. IP supports TCP, UDP, ICMP and many others. See UrL, web server.

The abbreviation for Internet Relay Chat, being an internet service that allows interactive conversations using a keyboard. See chatroom, instant messaging, BBS, UseNet.

International Standard Book Number; the worldwide catalog number assigned to each new book by its publisher. ISBNs assist librarians, distributors, wholesalers and booksellers in identifying, ordering, and maintaining inventory control over new titles. A publisher will be issued ISBNs according to the number of titles in print, to be assigned to each existing title, and to every future title. The master list of current ISBN titles is "Books in Print", which is available in bookstores and libraries. To obtain information and ISBN applications for new books, contact: Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540-4160; http://lcweb.loc.gov/isbn/; 202/707-3000. See LCN, UPC, Dewey decimal system, book categorization, out of print.

The abbreviation for Integrated Services Digital Network, being a communications method for telephone systems that uses ordinary phone lines and special modems to transmit digital (instead of analog) signals.

island ad :
A display ad set in a text well, or positioned like a call-out or image box, such that it is surrounded by editorial or feature material; often conspicuously positioned in a related article. See advertising.

The abbreviation for the International Standardization Organization. See ANSI.

isometric projection :
A three-dimensional drawing. Compare orthographic projection; see hologram.

ISO sizes :
Because the ISO paper size system is metric, the area is even, while the linear dimensions are uneven, making grammage and postage calculations for a known quantity in a given size easier and more consistent than US/Canadian sizes. In the ISO 216 paper size system, all trimmed pages have a height-to-width ratio of the square root of two (1:1.4142). The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of two (1.4142). For example, format A0 has an area of one square meter; and A0 is as wide as A1 is high, while A0 is twice as high as A1 is wide. In the same progressive ratio, the B series is the geometric mean between the corresponding A series formats. Similarly, the formats of the C series, which have been defined for envelopes, are the geometric mean between the corresponding numbers in the A and B series formats. ISO paper size series formats include: 4A0, 2A0, A0, A1 - A10; B0, B1 - B10; C0, C1 - C10. Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as: A0 / A1 : technical drawings, posters; A2 / A3 : drawings, diagrams, large tables; A4 : letters, magazines, forms, catalogs, laser printer and copying machine output; B4 / A3 : newspapers, copying machine output; A5 : note pads; A6 : postcards; B5 / A5 / B6 / A6 : books; C4 / C5 / C6 : envelopes for A4 letters. Compare basic size; see paper. Also, the numerical exposure index of a photographic film under the system adopted by the International Standardization Organization, used to indicate the light sensitivity of the film's emulsion; formerly cited as Deutsche Industrie Normen (DIN) [later construed as "Das ist Norm", or 'that is the standard'] and American Standards Association (ASA); see ANSI.

International Standard Serial Number; magazine publishers need to assign the concise ISSN citation for periodical or serial publications. ISSNs and key titles (qv) are commonly used by librarians, researchers, booksellers, distributors, subscription agents and others. To obtain information and an ISSN application for a print periodical or web publication, contact: Library of Congress, National Serials Data Program, Washington DC 20540-4160; <http://lcweb.loc.gov/issn/>; 202/707-6452. The explanatory brochure "ISSN Is for Serials" is useful and includes a form.

issue :
One of a series of things that is printed, promulgated, published, or distributed at one time, or all the copies of a series produced at one time; derived from "to go out", as the place or passage of exit. Also, all the copies of an edition of a publication printed from the same setting of type for public distribution and sale, including slight variations in impression or compilation. See regional edition, selective binding, copy, volume, reissue.

I2 :
The abbreviation for Internet2, which is a testing-ground network for universities to work together and develop advanced Internet technologies such as telemedicine, digital libraries, and virtual laboratories. In October of 1996, 34 US research universities began working on Internet2, and in September of 1997, the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID) was created to give an organizational body to the project. Requiring state-of-the-art infrastructure, Internet2 universities are connected to the Abilene network backbone, which uses regional network aggregation points called gigaPoPs, high-speed Sonet facilities, and IP-over-Sonet routers. Abilene supports transfer rates between 2.4 gigabits per second and 9.6 gigabits per second. With over 140 members, Internet2 currently has 30 gigaPoPs, about 150 HPCs, two backbones, and around 1500 routes. See multicast backbone, backbone, internet.

Abbreviation for "set in Italic type"; see proofreader's marks. [nb: the SGML "italics" tag was deprecated in HTML and CSS by "emphasis"]

Italics :
A cursive form of type, which involves kerning, and slants heavily to the right to obtain the maximum word density per line. It is used in combination with roman type for emphasis, and to indicate foreign words or phrases in a text. Italics, abbreviated ITAL or "It", should not be confused with "slanted Roman type". Italics, first used in an Italian edition of "Virgil", were invented by Aldus Manutius (Teobaldo Mannucci / Manuzio), an Italian protege/prot俫?printer of Johannes Gutenberg (Johann Gensfleisch). See typeface.

ivory board :
A smooth white stock used for business cards; see paper.

- J -

jabberwocky :
Writing or speech with nonsensical words or construction. See balderdash, pap, Greek type.

jacket :
A removable paper cover for protecting the binding of a book, usually bearing the title, author's name, imprint, and an illustration; also called a "dust jacket". Also, the cover of a paperbound book, usually bearing an illustration. Also, any protective covering or case, such as a document sleeve, portfolio, or slipcase.

jargon :
The specialized vocabulary peculiar to a specific occupation, profession, or social group. Also, obscure or unintelligible communication, as language that is characterized by pretentious vocabulary, convoluted syntax, and is uncommonly vague in meaning (eg: "sacred gibberish"). See pidgin, vernacular, boilerplate, puffery, balderdash, euphemism, neologism, language.

Java :
A cross-platform programming language from Sun Microsystems that can be used to create animations and interactive features on World Wide Web pages. Java programs are embedded into HTML documents. Java applications are run on browsers eg: (Microsoft Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Sun HotJava) using small self-contained programs (called applets). A component technology of Java (called Java Bean) lets developers create reusable software objects, which can be shared. See C/C++, language, program, software; compare JavaScript.

JavaScript :
A popular scripting language that is widely supported in Web browsers and other Web tools. It is easier to use than Java, but not as powerful and deals mainly with the elements on the webpage. On the client, JavaScript is maintained as source code embedded into an HTML document. On the server, it is compiled into bytecode (intermediate language), similar to Java programs. JavaScript evolved from Netscape's LiveScript language. First released with Navigator 2.0, it was made more compatible with Java. JavaScript does not have the programming overhead of Java, but can be used in conjunction with it. For example, a JavaScript script could be used to display a data entry form and validate the input, while a Java applet or Java servlet processes the information. JavaScript is also used to tie Java applets together. See browser, webpage, language.

jingle :
A piece of verse or a short song, with a light or humorous succession of catchy or repetitious sounds; as in an advertising jingle. See doggerel, verse, catchword, catch phrase, slogan.

JIS sizes :
The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the A paper size series the same as for the ISO 216, but the B paper size series (sometimes called "JIS B" or "JB" series) is slightly different. The area of JIS B page progressions is equivalent to the arithmetic mean of the area of A series page progressions, instead of the geometric mean of the ISO B series. The JIS B series should be avoided because it introduces additional magnification factors, and is not internationally standard. See ISO sizes, paper.

job lot paper :
Paper that doesn't meet specifications, has been discontinued, or is not considered first quality for some other reason. See paper.

job order :
The order for a printing job usually consists of original illustrations, image printouts, applicable fonts, text files, copy layouts, and specifications for size, paper, colors, and binding. See specifications, artwork, lasers, suitcase.

jog :
To align the edges of a stack of sheets of paper, all of the same size, by gently tapping. See guide edge; compare burst.

journal :
A daily newspaper, or any daily record of the proceedings and transactions of an organization or governmental body. Also, a magazine or periodical published for a profession or learned society. Also, a personal account of occurrences, experiences, or observations, as in a diary, log, or other ephemera. See monograph, chapbook, pamphlet, booklet, catalog, gazette, organ, periodical, little magazine, desideratum. [nb: a literary genre which imitates the diarium form is known as "epistolary fiction"; compare roman a clef]

journalism :
The occupation of gathering, writing, editing, and publishing or broadcasting news; commonly known as "the press" or "the media". By association with gadfly, most reporters are known as "fruit flies", but these bullyraggers imagine their pronouncements and prognostications annoint them as soothsayers of the realm. It has often been noted that journalism, which is populated by unscrupulous and disreputable persons, is a career but not a profession! See copyboy, stringer, deskman, news, counterfactual, factoid, yellow journalism, Pulitzer Prize. [nb: School of Journalism established at University of Missouri (1908), and at Columbia University (1912)]

The acronym for Jonathan's Own Version of Emacs, being a freeware screen-oriented editor that operates on UNIX, VMS, MS-DOS, and Macintosh systems. Delivered with many versions of Berkeley UNIX, JOVE is quickly becoming very popular due to its powerful capabilities, its size and speed, and the fact that it's available on a wide variety of machines. The command "jove" will invoke the program, and "teachjove" will launch an integral tutorial. See text editor.

joystick :
A lever that moves in all directions and controls the movement of a pointer or some other display symbol. Unlike a mouse or trackball, which stops when movement stops, a joystick pointer continues moving in the designated direction until the control is neutralized at upright. Most joysticks include two buttons, called "triggers". Joysticks are used with computer games, focus group surveys, interactive directories, animated maps, CAD/CAM systems, and other applications. See pointer.

The abbreviation for the Joint Picture Expert Group (or Joint Photographic Experts Group); being the ISO standard for the compression of still pictures. JPEG compresses image files (*.JPG) to yield a smaller file size, resulting in some loss of image data during the compression process. JPEG is therefore termed a "lossy" format. JPEG usually offers more than the standard 256 color palette, so is suitable continuous tone images; but is unsuitable for cartoons and transparencies. See graphics, illustration.

Jscript :
Jscript is Microsoft's extended implementation of ECMAScript (ECMA262), an international standard based on Netscape's JavaScript and Microsoft's script languages. Jscript is implemented as a Windows Script engine, which means that it can be plugged into any application that supports Windows Script, such as Internet Explorer, Active Server Pages, and Windows Script Host. It also means that any application supporting Windows Script can use multiple languages - Jscript, VBscript, Perl, and others. Jscript and other languages can be used for both simple tasks (such as mouseovers on webpages) and for more complex tasks (such as updating a database with ASP, or running log-on scripts for Windows NT). Windows Script relies on external "object models" to carry out much of its work. For example, Internet Explorer's DOM provides objects (such as 'document') and methods (such as 'write()') to enable the scripting of webpages. See language; compare JavaScript.

The filename extension (*.JSS) for JavaScript Stylesheet data sets. See JavaScript, CSS.

jump article :
An article started near the beginning of a periodical, often with a dramatic heading and profuse illustrations, then interrupted for continuation near the back pages. This practice is designed to capture a reader's attention early, and to accommodate as much advertising elsewhere in the presentation as possible. This commercial technique is not usually practiced by literary magazines and serious journals, where theme and cohesion are paramount. See pipeline, carry-over, continue line.

jump cut :
An abrupt break, created by editing, in the continuity of a presentation, as in a film scene or a webcast. Designed to retain audience attention by altering momentum or sequence; which usually sacrifices subtilty and depth of presentation.

jump head :
The subheading that announces the resumption of a jump article from its interruption on a previous page. See continue line, carry-over, heading.

jump line :
Phrase referring to both carry-over and continue line (qqv) functions.

justify :
To fit exactly in a line, by adjusting the spacing of words and characters, which produces even margins. See flush, alignment, feathering, straight composition, ragged, H&J, indent.

- K -

Kermit :
A file transfer and terminal emulation program from Columbia University. Kermit can transfer text and binary files on many different computer platforms. It is a reliable protocol for moving data over noisy lines, but it is slow. See internet.

kern :
A part of the face of a type projecting beyond the body or shank, as in certain Italic letters; see finial, ear, digraph, alignment, font, typeface, typography. Also, to remove a portion of space between adjacent letters in preparation for printing; see tracking, copyfit, hint, tweak. Derived from "corner of type".

kernel :
The essential part of a program or the core of an operating system, that manages memory, files, peripheral devices, time/date, application launch, system resource allocation, and performs the other basic functions after start-up. Proprietary kernels should not be used without license, and freeware kernels should not be adapted without modifying all affected software.

key :
One of the buttons on the keyboard of a typewriter, computer, or the like that are pressed to operate the device, as while inputting data; see keyboard, num-pad, six pack, arrow keys. Also, the mood, degree of intensity, or characteristic style of expression; see diction, elecution. Also, a book or other text containing the solutions or translations of material given or cited elsewhere; as musical transposition key or computer substitution key. Also, a systematic explanation of symbols, abbreviations, and the like used in a book, chart, or map (eg: pronunciation key); see legend. Also, a pin, bolt, wedge, or other piece inserted in a space to lock or hold parts of a mechanism or structure together; see quoin, reglet. Also, the dominant tonal value of a photograph or image, with high key being light tonal value with minimal contrast, and low key being generally dark with minimal contrast; see highlights, shadows, midtone. Also, a group of characters that identifies a record in a database or other computer file; see filename, path, internet address. Also, the system, method, or pattern used to decode or decipher a cryptogram; see escrow key, Clipper, digital watermark, steganography.

keyboard :
A set of keys, usually arranged in tiers, for operating a typewriter, typesetting machine, computer terminal, or the like; abbreviated "keyb". Also, to enter data into a computer, or to set text in type, by using a machine operated by means of a keyboard. See num-pad, six pack, arrow keys, cursor, mouse, prompt, insertion point, console.

keylines :
The lines on a mechanical or a negative, showing the exact size, shape, and location of photographs or other graphic elements; also called "holding lines". See register marks, illustration.

key title :
The commonly recognized title of a periodical, often condensed or rid of initialisms, as used for ISSN registration. See heading, title, half-title page, spine.

keyword :
A word serving as an indication or elucidation of the meaning of another word, phrase, or passage. See headword; compare headless-word.

kicker :
A subheading placed above the main headline in a story or article, usually underlined; also called strap or "precede". A "reverse kicker" is situated beneath the headline, like a subtitle, and is usually underlined. See deck, subhead, heading; compare skyline. Also, slang for a catchy or startling ending, as in a short story or mystery novel; compare climax, anticlimax, catastrophe, denouement, deus ex machina.

kill fee :
Compensation paid a writer, usually less than half the purchase price, for an assignment that's canceled, or for commissioned work that is not published. Because the writer is not salaried, and the work for hire (qv) cannot be sold elsewhere, this is the only payment the writer can earn.

kiosk :
A small separate structure, often open on one or more sides, used as a newsstand, vending stall, or other conveniences which may include computerized directories or animated maps. The term has been applied to a place to post public notices and advertisements, as well as a British-style telephone booth. By extension, it's a BBS website for news or announcements on the internet. Derived from Turkish for a pavilion or stand in a public park. See carrel, scriptorium. [nb: in a competitive display, each periodical has 2.7 seconds or less to capture the attention of potential buyers]

kiss die cut :
Die cut through face materials but not backing.

kludge :
An inelegant but successful solution to a problem in computer hardware or software. See patch, debug.

knee :
A braced angle or other device to help hold type in a composing stick (qv).

knockout :
The blocking, masking, or omission of a color process to prevent overlap or overprint; a form of trapping that normally requires larger than normal display type or image area. See cutout, reverse, cameo; compare color build, overlay, drop out.

kraft paper :
A strong brown paper, processed from wood pulp, used chiefly for bags, envelopes, and as wrapping paper; derived from "strength". See paper.

- L -

label :
An inscribed slip or strip used for identification (eg: UPC) or destination (eg: Cheshire, self-adhesive) attachment purposes; derived from "ribbon". See direct mail package.

lacquer :
A protective coating, such as resin or cellulose ester dissolved in a volatile solvent, sometimes with pigment added for printing on substrates. See ink, laminate, varnish.

ladder :
A graded series or graduated set, as a hierarchy of contents or an ordered preference for submitted materials; used in the selection and placement of features for presentation, as the "lead story". Compare contents.

laid finish :
A paper finish, on bond or text, simulating the surface of handmade paper with a grid of parallel lines; when the laid lines appear in both directions (crosshatching) the effect is called "chain marks". See wire, text paper, paper coating.

laminate :
To cover with a thin layer, or to overlay with a thin plate or scale; composed of layers, as paper finished with a coating.

The abbreviation for Local Area Network, being a group of computers and data communications equipment, generally within a single office or building, that are connected together by cable into a network of workstations, file servers, printers, and other devices. Computers on a LAN can exchange information and share resources. Common LAN protocols are Ethernet and Token Ring; and LAN emulation is a technology that uses asynchronous transfer mode to connect Ethernet and Token Ring networks together. See NetWare, intranet, MAN, WAN, PAN.

language :
Communication using a formalized system of arbitrary vocal sounds, orthographic symbols and signs, or nonverbal gestures in conventional ways with conventional meanings, such as spoken language, sign language, body language; see standard, semantics, signifier, semiotics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, mannerism. Also, a body of words (vocabulary) and the systems (syntax, grammar) for their use common to a people of shared geography or heritage (dialect); see idiolect, vernacular, lingua franca, alphabet, writing system. Also, a set of symbols, together with the syntactic rules for their combination and use, by means of which a computer can be given operational directions; see ALGOL, BASIC, C/C++, COBOL, FORTH, FORTRAN, Java, LISP, Objective C, Objective Pascal, Pascal, PERL, Python, SNOBOL, SQL, Visual BASIC, XQL, YODL, script, CGI script, JavaScript, Jscript, VBscript, VRML, markup, escape sequence, at sign, program, software. Derived from "tongue".

lap :
Edge of a signature that a machine grips during binding operations. Compare gripper edge, guide edge.

large print :
Documents or publications set in a type larger than normal, usually 18-point or higher, for use by lecturers and public speakers, or by visually-impaired persons; also called "speech font". See specialized format; compare display type.

l'art pour l'art :
French slogan: art for art's sake, or art for its own sake. The philosophy of aestheticism derived from Kant's "purposiveness without purpose". Term first used by Benjamin Constant (1804), and later exemplified by Poe: "the poem written solely for the poem's sake" (1850). See ars gratia artis; compare masterpiece, tour de force, aesthetics. [v: aestheticism]

laser bond :
Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.

laser-imprintable ink :
Ink that will not fade or blister as dispensed during laser printing.

lasers :
Slang for the set of color separated ("color break lasers") and composite images supplied as low-resolution printouts, together with related files, for a print job. These printouts, with graphics files and color samples, will form the basis for the high-resolution plates made for commercial reproduction. See job order.

LaTeX :
A typesetting system based on the TeX programming language, originally written by Leslie Lamport and developed by Donald E. Knuth. LaTeX provides higher-level macros, which makes it easier to format documents, but sacrifices some of the flexibility of TeX. After creating the copy, a WYSIWYG preview may be generated using the "xdvi" (TeX device independent) subroutine. Two nearly WYSIWYG versions, called LyX and KLyX, are also available for UNIX or Linux systems. Derived from contraction of Lamport TeX. See text editor.

lay :
To devise a plan, as the consistent arrangement of type within font boxes; see type case. Also, a short narrative, poem, or song; see story, verse.

lay-flat bind :
Method of perfect binding that allows a publication to lay open fully. See binding.

layout / lay-out :
The overall design or mock-up of a page, including typeface, page number, headlines, and visuals showing how the page will look when printed; a guide for the printer. See cast off, grid, spread, white space, golden proportion, format, template, imposition, stripping, balance, contrast, sequence, pipeline, reticulate, read through, pre-press.

LC :
Abbreviation for "lowercase capital letter"; see proofreader's marks, compare U&LC.

The abbreviation for Liquid-Crystal Display, being a liquid-crystal film that changes optical properties when voltage is applied. Compare LED.

The abbreviation for Library of Congress Number (qv); also known as Library of Congress Catalog Number (LCCN).

leader / lead-in :
Words, letters, or symbols, such as a row of dots or a short line, that directs the viewer's attention across the page, and draws the reader into the writing.

leading :
A thin strip of type metal or brass, less than type-high, used for increasing the space between lines of type; compare solid, see quad, slug, nonpareil, tracking, furniture, tweak. Also, the measured spacing between lines of type, as in computer-generated typeset output; compare alignment, solid leading, minus leading, kern, copyfit, feathering.

leaf :
A sheet of paper or other writing material, especially as part of a document, one side of each sheet constituting a page. See sheet.

leaflet :
A small flat or folded sheet of printed matter, as an advertisement or notice, usually intended for free distribution; also called a flier or tract. See handbill, fly sheet, broadside, panel.

The abbreviation for Light-Emitting Diode, being a semiconductor diode that emits light when conducting current, used in electronic equipment, especially for displaying digital readings. Compare LCD.

ledger paper :
Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business records; also called "record paper". Ledger paper is usually sub wt 28 or 32. See paper.

legacy materials :
Art, film, or files from previous print jobs for incorporating into a new job; also known as "archive".

legal paper :
Term prevalent in North America for bond paper trimmed to legal-size (8.5" X 14") sheets, usually composed into a ruled writing tablet; often called "legal pad". Compare foolscap; see paper.

legal-size / legal-sized :
Term prevalent in North America for paper sheets trimmed to measure approximately 8.5 x 14 inches (216mm x 356mm); and office supplies or equipment fitted to accept such ledger paper. Compare letter-size; see paper.

legend :
An inscription, as a motto or epigraph on a crest, monument, or illustration. Also, an explanatory table or key to symbols and signs, as on a chart or map.

legible / legibility :
Referring to the clarity of type and its contrast against the background for easy perception or discernment of the characters. The "rule of mono-typographic harmony" promotes consistency and legibility by limiting print to one type family, or to contrasts of size and attribution between no more than two type families. See readability, type noise, type family, font, typeface.

The abbreviation for Low Earth Orbit, a satellite system used in telecommunications. LEO satellites orbit the earth between 400 and 1,000 miles above the planet's surface. LEOs are mostly used for data communication such as e-mail, paging, and videoconferencing. Because LEOs are not fixed in space in relation to the rotation of the earth, they move at very high speeds, and therefore data being transmitted via LEOs must be handed off from one satellite to the next as the satellites move in and out of range of the earthbound transmitting stations that are sending the signals into space. Because of the low orbit, the transmitting stations do not have to be as powerful as those that transmit to satellites orbiting at greater distances from the earth's surface. LEO telecommunication systems are a promising technology because they provide the ability for underdeveloped territories to acquire satellite telephone service in areas where it is either too costly or not geographically possible to lay land lines. Compare GEO, MEO: see VSAT.

less is more :
A catch-phrase representing the aesthetics of spare minimalism or of meager functionalism, with an emphasis on craftsmanship and simplicity of design; exemplified by Chinese calligraphy and Bauhaus typography.

letter :
A written or printed communication addressed to a person or entity, and usually transmitted by mail; see autograph, e-mail. [nb: Correspondence is the legal property of the recipient addressee, bearing the same disposal rights as any other personal property; however, the sender retains copyright, so letters may not be released for quotation or publication without the express permission of the author.] Also, a conventional symbol or character used in writing and printing to represent a speech sound, and is part of an alphabet (qv). Also, a particular style of type bearing such a character; see font, typeface. Also, the actual terms or literal wording, as a formal document granting a right or privilege. Also, as "letters", the field of literature (qv) representing knowledge or learning.

letterpress :
The process of printing from type in relief or other raised surfaces, rather than from planographic or intaglio plates. This labor-intensive method, also called flat-bed or clamshell or block printing, is now reserved for fancy letterheads, wedding invitations, elegant brochures, short-run books (under 1,000 copies), and other expensive work. The technique was originated by Pi Sheng in Eleventh Century China; and reinvented by Johannes Gutenberg (Johann Gensfleisch) in Germany about 1447 by adapting a wine press. See tympan, frisket, platen, block print, foundry type, press.

letter-quality / letter quality :
A high-grade print output mode available on most office machine and desktop printers for the production of correspondence and other high-resolution character or image materials; also called "correspondence-mode". Compare near-letter-quality, draft-quality.

letter-size / letter-sized :
Term prevalent in North America for bond paper sheets trimmed to measure approximately 8.5 X 11 inches (216mm X 279mm); known as P4 sized paper in Canada, and as A4 sized paper wherever the ISO standard prevails. Also, office supplies or equipment fitted to accept such paper. Compare legal-size; see paper. [nb: A4 sheets are 18mm higher and 6mm narrower than letter-sized sheets, which makes international document conversion and exchange difficult]

letter spacing :
The distance between individual letters. See kern, tracking, digraph, ligature, quad, stylebook.

lexigram :
A written word or orthographic sign, as derived from "word + write"; also called "lexigraph". See orthography, alphabet, rune, steganography, semiotics, typology, script, inscription, manuscript, prose, prosody, literature, fugitive materials, word, vocabulary, gloss, language; compare ideogram, logogram, glyph, orality. [cf: alexia]

libel :
The crime (tort) of publishing a defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or the like, rather than by spoken words (slander); derived from book, library. anything that is defamatory or that maliciously or damagingly misrepresents. If an author alters another's words but effects no material change in meaning, including any meaning conveyed by the manner or fact of expression, the source suffers no injury to reputation that is compensable as a defamation. Likewise, if a person grants preliminary consent to privilege or immunity, then there is no basis for libel upon the conclusion of a report, survey, interview, or the like. [v: John Peter Zenger, Harry Croswell] [nb: in Europe (until 1830's) and America (until 1905), the usual manner of punishment for libel or perjury was confinement in the pillory (including William Prynne, Daniel Defoe, Thomas Evans); v: "Star Chamber"]

library :
A repository of cultural materials, primarily reading matter in printed form, arranged and categorized in an accessible manner, as by a public, private, religious, or educational institution. Changing technologies and mass-production combined with increasing patronage and diminishing budgets may redefine the library, from a cloistered depository to a bibliographic resource without walls. See scroll, volume, codex, incunabula, microform, book categorization, e-pub, athenaeum.

Library of Congress Number :
The arbitrary catalog number assigned to all forthcoming publications by the Copyright Office, and used by libraries and booksellers since 1901. See book categorization, ISBN, ISSN, UPC, Dewey decimal system.

license :
The legal and heritable right to use the property of another, which may be granted exclusively or non-exclusively, for one or more times, for one or more media, with or without options. See fair use, reprint permission, subsidiary rights, volume rights, copyright. [cf: usufruct, dilution, conversion]

ligature :
A stroke or bar connecting two letters, as a character or type combining two or more letters (eg: ff, fi, fl, ffi, ffl, iff); also called "conjoint" or "tied letters". See at sign, kern, notation, crossbar, digraph, typeface, alphabet.

lightweight paper :
Book paper (qv) with basis weight less than 40# (60 gsm). See paper.

limerick :
A folkloric poem, often humorous and sometimes ribald, in which lines one, two, and five rhyme, while lines three and four form a rhymed couplet. Unlike the French ode, Italian sonnet, and Japanese haiku, the five-line limerick is wholly English; from the refrain "Will you come up to Limerick?" that was sung after each set of extemporized verses during social gatherings. See verse.

linage :
The number of printed lines, especially agate lines, covered by a magazine article, newspaper advertisement, or the like; and consequently, the amount charged or paid per printed line. See character count, copyfit, agate, milline, space writer, copywriter, freelance.

line copy :
Any high-contrast image, including type.

line drawing :
A drawing done exclusively in line, providing gradations in tone entirely through variations in width and density; includes all graphics that are not photographs, such as pen-and-ink or pencil drawings, etchings or engravings. Line drawings, also called "line art", are usually printed like text. See block-in, scamp, sketch, pantograph, surprint, illustration.

linen finish :
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth. See paper coating.

line shot :
The picture taken by a printer of a layout, including text and line drawings, that does not require halftones.

lingua franca / lingua-franca :
Any language that is widely used as a means of communication among speakers of other languages; derived from "Frankish + tongue", as the Italianate pidgin spoken in Mediterranean Sea ports from the Medieval era. The first natural language which transcended its borders by military and religious dissemination was Greek, succeeded by Latin, both being displaced by French for literary and academic applications (eg: langue d'oc, langue d'o媗 / d'oil) during the 17th Century, which has been replaced by English since the 19th Century as a result of science and trade. Artificial languages, for science and communications, have been developed to improve information exchange and enhance international relations; notably Interlingua, Esperanto, and Ido. A synthesized language contrives a consistent syntax, but natural languages evolve both their grammar and vocabulary; which irregularity makes them both vital and enticing. See pidgin, vernacular, literature, language, intelligentsia.

linguistics :
The study of language, including: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, philology, pragmatics; and entails the following subdisciplines: descriptive linguistics, historical linguistics, synchronic linguistics, diachronic linguistics, anthropological linguistics, computational linguistics, paralinguistics, systemic linguistics, metalinguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, structural linguistics, computational linguistics, paralinguistics.

link :
A connector, as anything that connects two or more things; especially a pointer or a cue (called a hyperlink) in an HTML document that leads to another place within the same document, or to another WWW site. When setoff by angle-brackets, <LINK>, this HTML tag indicates the relationship between documents. Linked text is usually underlined or shown in a different color. A hyperlink in the middle of a line of text is known as an embedded link. Base reference to a designated URL can be nested within the heading of a webpage so all subsequent links can be abridged. See pointer, hot link, hot spot, OLE, relative link, target, SSI, image map.

Linotype :
A keyboard typesetting machine, invented in 1886 by Ottmar Mergenthaler, that automatically casts solid lines of type from brass dies or matrices when selected; contraction derived from casting a "line of type" at one time. This composing machine enabled one operator to be type-setter, justifier, typefounder, and type-distributor. Since first used by the New York Tribune, probably more than 1,500 separate patents for improvements have been filed in connection with it.

Linux :
A freeware implementation of UNIX (qv) created by Linus Torvalds, after inspiration from "Minix" by Andy Tanenbaum. Publicly released on 5 October 1991, Linux can be used with many different systems. Hundreds of application programs have been written for Linux, some of these by the GNU Project, and none encroach upon any proprietary sources. The Linux operating system, utilities, and applications can be downloaded from the internet / BBS, or purchased as an integrated suite on CD-ROM. See EMACS, TeX, LaTeX, LyX, GROFF, YODL, program.

Contraction for LISt Processor /-ing, a high-level programming language, developed in the early-1960s by John McCarthy at MIT, that processes data in the form of lists, recursions, and character string manipulations. LISP statements are linked lists; and data objects may be lists or atoms. LISP, based on lambda calculus, is widely used in artificial-intelligence programs because it handles complex data structures more easily than other programming languages. An object-oriented version of LISP also exists. See language.

list broker / list rental :
A list broker is an agent who manages and rents subscriber and membership lists, and usually works for a large list brokerage agency. Many magazines with lists of more than 5000 subscribers will rent names on the commercial market -- whether or not the publication is considered "commercial". List rental is the term applied to accessing another publication's subscriber list, or any part thereof, for one-time use. Many of the best lists for literary magazines and independent presses are too small to be on the commercial market. You can often trade or rent lists directly from publishers. To maximize the potential of contact success, specify the intended audience by creating a "reader profile", then search for matching lists from brokers.

listserve :
A subject-oriented mailing list identified by a distinctive name. When a message is sent to the mailing list name on a BBS, it is automatically forwarded to all the addresses in the list. Unlike a thread, the messages are not displayed or archived. Unlike a forum, the responses are returned directly to the sender, instead of the group. Unlike a chatroom, the exchanges are not live. Listserve messaging, also known as a "reflector" or "lstsrv", is most appropriate for technical or academic communications. See instant messaging, usegroup.

literary magazine :
See little magazine, periodical.

literati :
Persons of literary or scholarly attainments; also known as "intellectuals". See intelligentsia, immortals, litterateur, poet laureate, writer. [v: scholiastic, scholastici]

literature :
Writing, in prose or verse, regarded as having permanent worth through its intrinsic excellence; encompassing the entire body of a people's work, from the heroic and agonic to fin-de-siecle and dada, including contextualism, expressionism, classicism, neoclassicism, impressionism, minimalism, naturalism, new wave, modernism, postmodernism, realism, surrealism, regionalism, romanticism, neoromanticism, eroticism, symbolism, verism. Of the thousands of oral languages used during the past 50,000 years of human development, only 106 made a commitment to writing sufficient to have produced literature; and of the approximately 3,000 surviving languages, only 78 modern tongues have any literature. Speech and rhetoric are in the tradition of disciple or apprenticeship of mastery by imitation of proven authority, but text is substantial in itself ... literature serves as substantial proof, therefore what is written becomes irrefutable truth. A multiplicity of modes of expression tends to extend diversity at the expense of depth; hence pluralism increases breadth while decreasing depth, inevitably resulting in a new homogeneity. See athenaeum, renaissance, enlightenment, anthology, essay, poetry, prose, belles-lettres, roman a clef, novel, classic, bildungsroman, picaresque, stream of consciousness, metafiction, hypernovel, historiography, feuilleton, gray literature, OULIPO, intelligentsia, mentor, immortals; compare orality. Also, professional literary work or production; as any kind of printed material, including circulars, leaflets, handbills, brochures, or pamphlets. See chapbook, newsletter, tabloid, fugitive materials, lexigram. [nb: On behalf of the Korean people, King Htai Tjong exploited the existing Chinese technologies of ink, paper, and type to advocate universal literacy by standardizing their "alphabet", and commissioning movable type for publications. Between 1403 and 1516, six different fonts of 100,000 characters each were created in bronze for literary production; but this ambitious program was terminated by political changes.]

lithography :
A printing technique, by which the image to be printed is fixed onto a stone or metal plate, by a combination of ink-absorbent and ink-repellent vehicles; invented by Alois Senefelder in 1798, as derived from "stone + write". Non-image areas may be coated with water, to repel the oily ink, or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink. Chemical resists include electrostatic, and material resists include bimetal. See tusche, press.

litterateur / litt俽ateur :
A literary person, especially a writer of literary works; also called "literator". See literati, writer.

little magazine :
A periodical of limited circulation, often subsidized or sponsored, and devoted to publishing experimental prose and avant-garde poetry, or high-quality work by unknown authors, without the discontinuity or incoherence of jump cuts. Little magazines, so named due to their compact size, claim a disproportionate artistic influence due to the originality and intellectual honesty of their contributions. Although an unconventional and uncommercial career track, surveys show that little magazines have featured 80% of all notable poets, novelists, and critics. Originating in the United States with "Port Folio" (1801-27, Phila) edited by Joseph Dennie; "North American Review" (1815-1939, Boston) edited by William Tudor, Edward Everett, Jared Sparks, et al; and "Southern Literary Messenger" (1834-64, Richmond) featuring Poe, Simms, Maury, et al. The autonomous tradition was carried on by "Poetry" (1912) and "Hudson Review" (1948), and has been revitalized by "Sun" (1974) and "Oxford American" (1992). Little magazines, also known as "literary magazines", hosted by institutions include: "Yale Literary Magazine" (Yale Univ 1831), "American Literature" (Duke Univ 1929), "American Scholar" (Phi Beta Kappa Society 1932), "Partisan Review" (Boston Univ 1934), "Kenyon Review" (Kenyon Col 1939), "Triquarterly" (Northwestern Univ 1964), "Southern Literary Journal" (Univ North Carolina 1967). Since their greatest flourish during the period between the World Wars, little magazines have been displaced in popularity by consumer and trade periodicals ... similarly, neither "National Geographic" (1888) nor "Reader's Digest" (1922) accepted advertising during their early development. Little magazine references include: "Directory of Literary Magazines and Presses" (CLMP), and "DustBooks' Guide to Little Magazines and Small Presses". Rating services for literary magazines include: "American Scholastic Press Association", "Columbia Scholastic Press Association", "National Council of Teachers of English", "National Scholastic Press Association". See magazine, periodical.

logo :
A single piece of type bearing two or more uncombined letters, a syllable, or a word; also called "logotype"; see digraph, expert set, typeface, alphabet. Also, a graphic representation or symbol of a company name, abbreviation, product name, or tradename, often uniquely designed for ready recognition; see indicia, imprint, signet, autograph, show-off, brand, trademark, hallmark; compare watermark.

logogram :
An abbreviated conventional symbol for a frequently recurring word or phrase, such as the symbol "&" for the word 'and'; also called "logograph", as derived from "word + draw". See ideogram, rebus, semiotics, lexigram, alphabet, typology.

long primer :
A 9.5 point type; see font, type.

long run :
A relatively large quantity to print in relation to the size and speed of the press used. See pressrun.

loose-leaf :
Sheets of paper secured as printed matter in a notebook or portfolio for ease of replacement or rearrangement; including ring, spring-back, expansion post, binder post, screw-and-post. See side binding, binding.

loose proof :
Proof of a halftone or color separation, that is not assembled with other elements from a page; also called "first proof", "random proof", "scatter proof", and "show-color proof". See illustration.

low-key photo :
A photo with its most important details appearing in the shadows. See illustration.

lpi / lpcm :
The abbreviation for lines per inch/centimeter, being the unit of measurement for the size of halftone dots. Compare ppi / ppcm.

LyX :
A visual open-source editor, together with its variant KLyX (adjusted for the KDE environment), running in UNIX or Linux systems, and based on TeX and LaTeX (qqv). See WYSIWYM, text editor.

- M -

machine glazed :
Paper finished with a high gloss on one side only; abbreviated "mg". See calender, C1S, paper coating.

macro :
A single function for a computer program that implements a sequence of instructions; this special sequence is actuated by a control-key combination (called a hot-key). See script, batch file, subroutine, EMACS.

macron :
A horizontal line used over a vowel to show that it is long, or to indicate a specific pronunciation; see vowel, accent, diacritic. Also, this same symbol used to indicate a long or stressed syllable in prosody; compare breve, see foot.

magapaper :
Combination magazine and newspaper for trade circulation, often arranged in tabloid format. See public relations magazine, trade journal, newsletter, zine, tabazine, periodical.

magazine :
A periodical publication, usually paperbound, that typically contains essays, stories, poems, and illustrations on continuing or recurrent themes, with specific appeal to a categorized or specialized audience; derivation used figuratively as a "storehouse of information," in titles from c1640. The standard magazine size in USA is about 8.125" X 10.875" (ranging from 5"X8" to 11"X15"); and the standard international size for magazines is A4 (210mm X 297mm). The type area for common magazine sizes includes: pocket (@2 cols X 85 ag lns), standard (@2 cols X 119 ag lns), flat (@3 cols X 140 ag lns), and large (@4 cols X 170 ag lns). There are three times as many trade (ie: professional, organizational, specialty) magazines as consumer (ie: general, news, genre) magazines. The presentation and content of any magazine should be relatively consistent; following the Four F's of magazine design: Format (eg: size, folio, headers, logo, cover lines); Formula (eg: story length, feature type, department location, image style); Frame (eg: margin, border, gutter, well); and Function (eg: mission, audience). Magazines that focus their contents upon the majority of their readership will eventually lose their minority subscribers; but contents that offer a mix of general and subspecialty material will probably gain readership. Very few subscribers read everything in each issue, but will remain loyal if their narrow interests are covered at least once in every issue of a specialized magazine. Also, a television program that combines interviews, commentary, and entertainment. References include: "Oxbridge National Directory of Magazines", "Burrelle's Directory of Magazines", "Bacon's Magazine Directory", "Literary Market Place" (LMP), "Ulrich's Periodicals Directory", "Directory of Literary Magazines and Presses" (CLMP), "DustBooks' Guide to Little Magazines and Small Presses", "Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media"; International Association of Business Communicators (IABC); City and Regional Magazine Association (CRMA); American Society of Business Press Editors; Agriculture Publishers Association; Society of the National Association of Publications; Magazine Publishers of America (MPA). [nb: Benjamin Franklin conceived the first American magazine, but by the time he could develop it, a competing magazine by Andrew Bradford was produced three days earlier; the "American Magazine, or A Monthly View of the Political State of the British Colonies" dated Jan 1741 but issued 13 Feb 1741 for only three editions, and the "General Magazine and Historical Chronical for All the British Plantations in America" dated Jan 1741 but issued 16 Feb 1741 lasted for only six editions. Early American magazines for women include: "Lady's Book" / "Godey's Lady's Book" (1830-98), "Peterson's Ladies National Magazine" (1842-98). A polemical magazine entitled "The Liberator" (1831-65), published by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, did not transcend its zealous topic. The "Pennsylvania Gazette", a 1728 newspaper, evolved into the "Saturday Evening Post" in 1821, adopted the magazine format in 1871, ceased publication in 1969, and was reborn in 1971 as a quarterly. Other early American magazines include: "Scientific American" (1849), "Harper's New Monthly Magazine" / "Harper's Monthly Magazine" (1850), and "Atlantic Monthly" (1857)]

mailing service :
A business, also called a "letter shop", that addresses, sorts, and bundles publication mailings according to postal regulatory standards. See UPC, bar code, indicia.

majuscule :
A capital letter or uncial. Compare minuscule, cursive; see CAP, OC, LC, drop-cap, small-cap, initial, rubric.

make good :
Republication of an advertisement in a periodical at no additional charge, as compensation for an error in the original insertion. See advertising.

make-ready :
The process of preparing a form for printing by overlays or underlays to equalize the impression; compare setoff, scum, ghosting. Also, paper used in the make-ready process at any stage of production; see paper. Also, all activities required to prepare a press or other machine for a specific printing or binding job; also called "setup".

making order :
An order for paper made to the customer's specifications by a mill; as [paper] making order.

malware :
Contraction of malicious+software, such as virus or worm, being software that is specifically designed to damage or disrupt a system; see hacker, phreak, deadman, honeypot, sniffer, spoofer, smurf, script kitty, cracker, Trojan Horse, spyware.

The abbreviation for Metropolitan Area Network, being a data network designed for a municipality or urban area. Intermediate between LAN and WAN configurations, MANs are usually characterized by very high-speed connections using fiber optical cable or other digital media. See LAN, WAN, PAN, intranet.

The acronym for Mathematical Analyzer, Numerator, Integrator, and Computer; being a high-speed computer built at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in the 1940s, which was used in the development of the hydrogen bomb. See computer.

manifold :
A thin, lightweight, translucent glazed paper, used especially for making multiple copies; also called flimsy. See onionskin, NCR paper, cc, copy, paper. [nb: both onionskin and manifold are 9# flimsy papers, but onionskin is stronger due to its cotton fiber content]

manila / Manila :
A strong, light-brown or buff paper, originally made from abaca fiber, but now also from wood pulp substitutes or other fibers. See paper.

mannerism :
An affected or habitual characteristic, as a style of posture or speech, which is considered unprofessional when injected or interlarded into the broadcast persona. Common verbal fillers include um, ah, like, ya know, okay, right, see, get it, you dig, you follow. Common nervous gestures include tick, twitch, pluck, stroke, poke, jiggle, rock, sway, tap, drum, thrum. An eccentric peculiarity can become a successful trademark. See body language, sign language, non-standard. [v: perseveration]

manuscript :
The text, especially when handwritten, of a book, play, or other literary work; abbreviated ms (plural: mss). Also, any written text prior to typesetting; derived from "hand written". For legal protection, manuscripts must be catalogued by author name and arrival date upon receipt, since the title may change, and cross-reference is always to the artist. Development or disposition of the manuscript must also be noted by date; and this catalogue retained for a minimum of one year after conclusion. See folio, page, script, autograph, portfolio, slush pile, proofreader's marks. [v: hapax legomenon]

map :
A file showing the structure of a program after it has been compiled. The map file lists every variable in the program along with its memory address. This information is useful for purposes of debugging, but it must be explicitly requested by specifying the appropriate compiler option. The term map is often used to describe programming languages; for example, C/C++ is an efficient programming language because it maps well onto the machine language.

mapping :
To make logical connections between two entities. Because programs cannot translate directly from human modes (source code) to computer numbers (object code), the data is translated incrementally, with each layer containing the same amount of information as previous layers, but in a more machine-readable form. These translations, from layer to layer, are called mapping. Also, to copy a data set or set of objects from one place to another while preserving the objects' organization; as when loaded programs are mapped into memory, or when graphics in memory are image mapped onto a display device.

margin / margins :
The border or edge space separating or surrounding printed matter on a page. Standard proportion stipulates that the bottom margin is larger than the top, and the top margin is larger than the sides. Progressive proportion stipulates that the inside margin is the smallest, the top next larger, the outside is next larger, and the bottom margin is largest; such that the progression runs clockwise on recto pages, and counter-clockwise on verso pages. The white space between columns is also a margin, sometimes called an "internal margin" (as distinguished from "external margins" at the edges), with or without a column rule. See valley, gutter, apron, white space, air, river, attic; compare sinkage.

marginalia :
Headings or notes that are written or printed on the margins of a page, especially in manuscript, usually in a type or style distinct from the text; including side notes, shoulder notes, and footnotes. See notation, reference marks, sidebar. [nb: a heading or subtitle may be arranged in the margin using a distinctive type positioned relative to the initial or drop-cap for a stylistic effect]

marketing plan :
A publisher's scheme for marketing a particular title, set, or series; including budgeting, staffing, targeting, advertising, and distribution. A marketing plan develops from the publication's design, production, and promotion. See budget, sweat equity, appropriation, venture capital.

Mark 1 / Ferranti Mark I :
The first full-sized digital computer, developed in 1944 by Howard Aiken at Harvard University. See computer.

markup :
The use of delimiters to structure data for electronic or print presentation; which formatting may be specific, general, or generic. All document markups are contextual, transparent, and unambiguous. The standards and conventions used in Markup Languages are approved by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). See SGML, HTML, XHTML, XML, SMIL, CFML, DCFGML, DTD, CSS, XSL, VoxML, VoiceXML, MathML, tag, meta tag, alt tag, title tag, container tag, HTML tag, deprecated tag, SSi, image map, attribute, escape sequence, validation, webpage; compare language, program, software, graphics.

masking :
Obscuring or blocking one element or process. See knockout, Goldenrod sheet, reverse, illustration.

mass market / mass-market :
A general or varied product intended for distribution to a relatively high proportion of the population. See audience, reader profile, universe, circulation; compare crossover market, niche market.

master page :
A template that sets up certain design elements that will appear on every page of a printed document, such as headers, footers, logos, rules, or borders. See format, stripping, Snap, stylesheet.

masterpiece :
A piece, usually in miniature and incorporating all the most intricate or elaborate techniques, required to be made by a Medieval artisan aspiring to the rank of master in a craft guild. Also, an artist's or craftsman's greatest piece of work; also known as masterwork, paragon, archetype, nonpareil, soign?/ soign俥, par excellence, epitome, quintessence, apotheosis, ne plus ultra, tour de force, cr妋e de la cr妋e, pi奵e de r俿istance. See mentor.

masthead :
A box or column, usually on the editorial page of a newspaper or magazine, listing staff names, publication address, ownership, volume identification, and other legal notices. Compare nameplate; see contents, colophon.

MathML :
The acronym for Mathematics Markup Language, being an XML application for including scientific expressions and mathematical equations on webpages. See markup.

matrix :
A mold for casting typefaces. Also, a multiple die or perforated block in a press or stamping machine on which the material to be formed is placed. Also, a rectangular array, in the rows and columns of which are displayed numeric, symbolic, or other assigned values, as linguistic features, statistical variables, or other data. Derived from "mother + register", a female animal kept for breeding.

matte finish :
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper. See paper coating.

mean line :
The imaginary horizontal line running at the height of lowercase letters, exclusive of ascenders, being intermediate between the baseline and cap line (qqv); also called x-line. See body size, set size, font, type.

measure :
The width of the line of type being set. See pica, pitch, type. [nb: the em square measure is both height and width, while the en measure is full height but half the width of em; both pica and point are linear measures, with pica of line length, and point of line height]

measured photography :
Technique of exposing original photos to place critical details within the tonal range of the printing process. See illustration.

mechanical :
A sheet of stiff paper on which artwork and type proofs have been secured for making a camera-ready printing plate; also known as a "paste-up" or "art board". Also, a person skilled in an applied art; an artisan, artificer, or craftsman.

mechanical binding :
The binding of pre-trimmed leaves by the insertion of wire or plastic through holes drilled in the binding edge; another name for spiral, coil, or comb (qqv) bindings. Compare lay-flat bind; see side binding.

media event :
A factitious event staged or exploited for its news value; a pseudo-event. See anticlimax. [v: nonevent]

mediagenic :
Having qualities or characteristics that are especially appealing or attractive when presented in the mass media. A "publicity hound" searches for media events and personalities to cover, and a "publicity whore" seeks constant coverage in the press. [v: photogenic, telegenic]

media kit :
Synonymous with press kit (qv), with the ostensible exception that a press kit does not include advertising rate information.

medium / media :
The material or technique with which an artist works, and by which creative expression is represented. Also, an intervening agency, means, or instrument by which something is conveyed or accomplished (eg: words are the medium of literature). Also, one or more of the means, modes, or channels for general dissemination of communication, information, or entertainment in any format or configuration, such as print or broadcast; also called "mass media".

melodrama :
A dramatic form that exaggerates emotion and emphasizes plot or action at the expense of characterization. Also, during the period of the 17th through the 19th centuries, a romantic drama composed with music interspersed. See bathos, comedy, pathos, tragedy, drama. [v: coup de th們tre / Grand Guignol]

mentor :
A trustworthy counselor or teacher; also known as a preceptor, adviser, consultant, paraclete. When the professors of the Socratic method were displaced by the pedagogues of the scribal culture, students created their own textbooks from the formalized lectures. Among the social changes brought about by the printing press, the ready availability of a "silent instructor" from the "commonwealth of learning" revised the method of transmitting secret "tricks of the trade" to apprentices by the guild system. Subsequently, the teacher's role evolved into tutor, to augment the accumulated knowledge, and into mentor, to guide the student's quest for knowledge. See intelligentsia, immortals, masterpiece. [cf: recourse]

The abbreviation for Medium / Middle Earth Orbit, a satellite system used in telecommunications. MEO satellites orbit the earth between 1,000 and 22,300 miles above the planet's surface. MEOs are mainly used in geographical positioning systems and are not stationary in relation to the rotation of the earth. Compare GEO, LEO: see VSAT.

metafile / meta file :
A file that contains other files; especially a file format designed for exchanging graphical data between different program applications or different machine systems, often as a bitmap. Loanwords derive from Greek as a combining prefix with the meanings "after", "along with", "beyond", "among", "behind", and "about". See CGM, WMF, meta tag.

metafiction :
Any work of fiction that refers to its own fictitious nature, as by playfully dealing with the writing of fiction or its conventions. See story, novel, literature.

metamerism :
The phenomenon of color appearing to be different under different light sources, such that true tone is relative instead of absolute. See swatchbook.

metaphor :
The figurative application of a word or phrase to an object or concept that it does not literally denote, suggesting a comparison to that object or concept (eg: "A mighty fortress is our God." and "The soldiers advanced in wave after wave to break upon the treacherous shore of their defenses."); derived from "transfer". Compare simile; see rhetorical forms. [nb: a "mixed metaphor" is an expression that combines incongruous or inappropriate elements; such as: "If you open that Pandora's Box you never know what Trojan 'orses will jump out." by Ernest Bevin; "Mister Speaker, I smell a rat; I see him forming in the air and darkening the sky; but I'll nip him in the bud." by Boyle Roche; "Every director bites the hand that lays the golden egg." by Samuel Goldwyn]

meta tag / metatag :
A concealed header in the form of an HTML tag that identifies the contents of a webpage, including a formatted general description of the website, keywords for search engines, and copyright information. A meta tag sends "client pull" header data to the server, replacing the former "server push" process. See tag, DTD, markup, webpage, search engine, crawler, slug.

meter :
A particular rhythmic arrangement of syllabic feet in a line, or a particular rhythmic arrangement of stanzas or strophes, based upon their kind and number. There are four types of metrical systems: quantitative meter, syllabic meter, accentual meter, and accentual-syllabic meter. Quantitative meter depends on the length and number of syllables used in classical and Sanskrit verse. Syllabic meter is used in most Romance languages, in which there is a fixed number of syllables with varying accents. Accentual meter is the form of Old English and most Germanic versification, in which the number of accented syllables determines the basic metric unit. Accentual-syllabic meter is the form used in most English poetry, in which both the number of accents and the number of syllables are measured. Meter is based on units (called feet), with each foot usually being a set relationship between one accented syllable and one or two unaccented syllables. The four most common feet in English verse are the "iamb", "trochee", "anapest", and "dactyl"; with variations, such as the "spondee" and "pyrrhic", occasionally occurring. Verse lines are named according to the type of foot they contain, and the number of feet in the line. See accent, foot, scansion, prosody, rhyme, caesura, verse, poetry.

mezzotint :
A method of engraving on copper or steel by burnishing or scraping away a uniformly roughened surface, also called "brush" or "Florentine" finish; derived "middle + color"; compare stipple, tesselate, reticulate. Also, a print produced from a plate made by this method. Also, a screen printing effect that resembles a crayon drawing.

microform :
Any form of film or paper bearing a miniature photographic copy, or microreproduction, of printed or graphic matter; including microfilm, microfiche (fiche), ultrafiche, microphotography. See COLD, library. [nb: From its inception during the 1930s, the public resistance to utilizing an "apparatus" to access reading matter may have implications for e-books; but microform is principally used for scholarly research and historic preservation.]

micrographia :
Extremely small handwriting or minute engraving, usually executed with a "micrograph" instrument; also known as "micrography". See cursive, script, minuscule, font, type.

The abbreviation for Musical Instrument Digital/Data Interface, a standard mode for sending digitally encoded musical information, including filters and enhancers, between electronic synthesizers and computers, or other devices. See sound-clip.

midlist :
Large publishers often distinguish between their leading titles (those current titles that receive the bulk of the publishers' promotional efforts) and current or new titles for which the publishers expect lower sales volume and thus allocate less promotional push or advertising. The term "midlist author" refers to an author (often a writer of serious literary fiction) who has published to nominal sales success, but to whom a publisher is unlikely to devote the marketing dollars that would go to a possible bestseller. In recent years, some midlist authors have found it difficult to sell new projects to the commercial houses, and have turned to independent publishers with more satisfactory results. See frontlist, backlist, deadlist.

midtone :
Tones created by halftone dots, between 30 and 70 percent of coverage, intermediate between shadows and highlights; also called "middle tones". See key, illustration.

milline :
The appearance of one agate line of advertising, one column in width, published in one-million copies of a periodical. Also, the cost or charge per milline; also called "milline rate".

mill order :
Order for paper that will be filled from inventory at a mill, as distinguished from inventory at a paper merchant. See paper.

The abbreviation for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, being the encoded format (*.MIME) that allows the transfer of multiple types of data (eg: binary, audio, video, graphics) as attachments to email messages. As a standard for multimedia mail contents (including spreadsheets and word-processor documents) in the Internet suite of protocols, non-text files can be attached to typical Internet mail messages. The MIME standard is a way of specifying both the type of file being sent and the method that should be used to turn it back into its original form. Besides e-mail software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web clients. In this way, new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the browsers' list of pairs of MIME-types and appropriate software for handling each type. Electronic mail messages can be encrypted by a public-key protocol called Secure MIME (S/MIME / S-MIME). See e-mail.

mimeograph :
A sheet-fed printing machine, with an ink-fed rotating drum, that duplicates from a waxed cut-stencil. Like screen printing, ink passes through the openings in the stencil when copying. Also called "mimeo"; derived from "imitate / copy" + "write / draw", formerly a trademark. See typewriter, duplicator, press.

minikin :
A three-point type; see font, type.

minion :
A 7.3 point type; see font, type.

mini web :
Press using rolls 11" - 14" wide to print brochures, newsletters and other products with a flat size typically 11" X 17". See press.

minuscule :
Written in small (not capital) letters, as a lowercase letter. Also, a small cursive script developed in the 7th century AD from the uncial, which it afterward superseded. Compare majuscule; see ascender, descender. [nb: as a result of the confusion between minus (less) and mini (small), this word has often been misspelled, until "miniscule" is now accepted in edited writing as a legitimate variant]

minus leading :
Leading which is numerically less than the point size, or less than the default leading, for the font or typeface used. Compare solid leading; see leading, alignment.

mirror :
A duplicate of a busy archive website maintained on another network, which is created to speed access and to reduce the traffic load on the source site; also called "mirror site". Also, to write data to more than one storage device, as a precaution against damage, destruction, or loss; a backup.

miscellany :
A book or other assemblage of literary works by several authors on various topics; an "omnium-gatherum". See anthology, cento, garland, compilation, chapbook, oeuvre.

misnomer :
A misapplied name or inappropriate designation; the wrong word. See ghost word, counterword, polysemy, mot juste, rhetorical forms, word.

misquotation :
An inaccurate or incorrect quotation; also called "misquote". Like improper word conversions, many malapropism, spoonerism, and misquotations have acquired legitimacy; but their proper use by the knowledgeable writer is as idiom or irony. [nb: "Misquotations are the only quotations that are never misquoted." by Hesketh Pearson; "Misquotation is the pride and privilege of the learned." by Hesketh Pearson; "I live constantly in the fear of not being misunderstood." by Oscar Wilde]

mission statement :
Cites the publication's goals, focus, purpose, and subject in a concise (25-50 word) summary; also called "manifesto". Sets forth its basic function, declaring it enduring or ephemeral, and identifying its audience. This aims and scope apercu should be reviewed annually to confirm its benchmark for the relevant audience. Newspapers are timely and topical. Newsletters are topic centered periodicals with useful or accurate information. Magazines are generally diverse periodicals with topical development or featured expansion. See guideline, publication.

mock-up :
Alternate term for dummy.

modal auxiliary :
Any of a group of auxiliary verbs typically used with the base form of another verb to express distinctions of mood (eg: [in English] can, could, may, might, shall, should, ought, will, would, must); also known as "modal" or "modal auxiliary verb". See parts of speech.

modem / MoDem :
A contraction of mo(dulator)-dem(odulator), being an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of digital data to or from a computer via telephone or other communication lines. An analog telecom signal varies continuously over time (eg: sound waves), and is described in terms of frequency (Hz, cycles per second), amplitude (maximum deviation), and phase relationship. All DSL signals are modulated from digital signals at the modem to analog signals on the telephone lines. See baud rate, bandwidth.

modular make-up :
The arrangement of elements in variously sized and shaped rectangular units on a page; also called "mondrian make-up". See grid, frames, template, layout, pipeline, horizon line.

mogigraphia :
Writer's cramp; compare raster burn.

moire / moir?:
Presenting a watery or wavelike appearance; an undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when the pattern of a photographic subject, such as a plaid, interferes with a halftone dot pattern. See illustration.

monarch :
The second most popular size (7.25 X 10.5 inches) of writing paper in North America after letter-size (qv); available in a wide variety of colors and finishes. See paper.

monograph :
A learned treatise on a particular subject; or a written account on a single topic. See journal, booklet, pamphlet, brochure, catalog, thesis, gray literature, hermeneutics.

monologue / monolog :
A prolonged speech or discourse presented entirely by a single speaker, character, or performer. Also, any composition, as a script or poem, in which a single person speaks alone. Compare dialogue; see soliloquy, apostrophe, runner.

monostrophe :
A poem in which all the strophes or stanzas are of the same metrical form. See strophe, stanza, foot, verse.

monotone :
Consisting of a one color uniformity, being an alternative term for halftone characteristics in computer graphics; see duotone, quadtone, illustration. Also, in typography, strokes of equal or uniform size, thickness, and weight; also called "monoline".

monotype :
The only print made from a metal or glass plate onto which a picture is painted in oil color, printing ink, or the like. Also, term for any monofont or monospaced font; see hot type, text type. Also, the trademark for a machine that casts and sets metal type; see press. A character casting machine, invented by Tolbert Lanston in 1880/9, could set characters in three different faces, up to 36 points and 60 picas per line, by employing reusable paper-tape instructional controls generated on supplementary keyboards. A semi-automatic line casting machine, invented by Washington I. Ludlow in 1888, could mix Roman and Italic faces, and mix character points (8 - 144) within the same handset matrix.

montage :
The combining of pictorial elements from different sources in a single composition. The partial superimposition or juxtaposition of a graphical sequence presents a single idea or set of interconnected ideas. This combination of disparate elements or images seemingly forms a unified whole, or a singularly representative statement. Compare collage; see pastiche, illustration. [v: assemblage]

morgue :
A reference file of old clippings, photographs, and related materials, especially in a newspaper office. Also, the room containing such reference files or materials; derived from "face bravely" (morguerto), being the entry room of a prison.

morgue day :
The day of publication; the day when a publication can no longer be amended or emended, but can only be archived. This day is often devoted to production evaluations and staff assessments, which "lessons learned" are applied to the next issue or publication. See deadline, publication date.

morph :
To alter an image by combination or animation; as to eclectically caricature or gradually transform. Many advanced animation programs support some type of morphing feature. A contraction derived from "metamorphose" or "metamorphosis"; not from morphology (either grammar or biology). See flash, svg, illustration.

morpheme :
Any of the minimal grammatical units of a language, each constituting a phrase, a word, or a meaningful part of a word (eg: prefix, infix, suffix, affix), that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts; existing bound (eg: raspberry morpheme) or free (eg: clip). See phoneme, syllabary, syntax, ideogram, alphabet, language. [v: morphology, allomorph, morphophoneme, etic, emic; cf: orthoepy, ultimate constituent]

mortise :
A recess, hole, notch, or cut-out made in a layout area to receive another element, such as text into an illustration, one image into another image, or a box into body copy. See inset, box, call-out, sidebar, side note, grid box, indent; compare surprint, overprint.

mot juste / mots justes :
The precise or appropriate word. See masterpiece, rhetorical forms; compare ghost word.

mottle :
A spotty or blotched appearance from uneven ink absorption on uncoated paper; also known as "sinkage" or "mealy". Compare hickey, slur, scum, setoff, picking, webpox, tessellate; see illustration. [v: marled]

mouse :
A small peripheral device that controls the movement of the pointer on a display screen; also called "mouse cursor", "mouse pointer", "e-rodent". By rolling the mouse along a flat horizontal surface (to improve traction a small piece of textured material, called a "mouse pad", is often used), a pointer correspondently moves on the display screen. All mice have at least one activation button, and may have as many as three, with a scroll wheel for reviewing long documents; the function of the mouse button varies from system to application. Invented by Douglas C. Engelbart / Englehart of Stanford Research Center in 1963, and pioneered by Xerox in the 1970s, the mouse is an ergonomic alternative to keyboarding commands. It is possible to "mouse ahead" with moves so swift that the computer's response will be delayed. In graphical user interfaces (GUI), the mouse cursor can point to options or objects and activate them by clicking a mouse button. Such "clickable" environments, known as "point-and-click", include symbols that change shape depending upon context, or change options depending upon application. System functions, like "drag-and-drop", are program independent. In graphics programs, the mouse may be used as a pen, stylus, or paintbrush to illustrate objects. There are several types of mice: (1) mechanical: has a rubber or metal ball on its underside that can roll in all directions, so the mechanical sensors (called "encoders") within the mouse will detect the direction the ball is rolling and move the screen pointer accordingly; (2) optomechanical: similar to a mechanical mouse, but uses optical sensors to detect the motion of the ball; (3) optical: uses a laser (no mechanical moving parts) to detect the mouse's movement, which is moved along a special grid mat, so that the optical mechanism has a frame of reference for rapid response. A flying mouse can be lifted off the desk, and used as a three-dimensional pointer. A mouse may be foot-operated for special circumstances. Mice connect to computers variously by: specific socket ("mouse port"), RS-232C or PS/2 serial port ("serial mouse"), expansion board ("bus mouse"), ADB [Apple Desktop Bus] port ("Macintosh mouse"). Cordless mice aren't physically connected, but rely upon infrared or radio waves to communicate with the computer. The term commonly derives from its resemblance to a long-tailed rodent scurrying across a desktop; but the word means "small". See pointer, trackball, joystick, insertion point.

MP/M :
Abbreviation for Multi-Program / Microprocessor (Monitor). Developed in 1979 by Digital Research Corporation, MP/M was the first multi-user and multitasking operating system, and derived from the 8-bit CP/M version. MP/M maintained downward compatibility with CP/M programs, provided they ran in no more than 48KB of RAM, and did not make BIOS calls. See program.

The abbreviation for Magazine Page eXposures; an index which denotes how thoroughly consumers read magazines. See optical center, sequence, z-path, readability.

ms / mss :
The abbreviation for manuscript (qv).

The abbreviation for MicroSoft Active Accessibility, being a programming protocol promoted by MS and Adobe that enhances software access by adaptive devices, such as screen readers or closed captioning; also called "MicroSoft Accessibility Access". See specialized format, WAI, accessibility.

muckraker :
A person, often a journalist or "investigative reporter", who searches for and exposes allegations of corruption, scandal, or the like, especially in politics. The term, for those who expose society's ills, was popularized by Theodore Roosevelt in a 1906 speech, referring to John Bunyan's "The Pilgrim's Progress" (1678): "A man that could look no way but downwards with a muckrake in his hand.". [v: billingsgate]

multicast backbone :
A network of Internet sites that supports Internet Protocol multicasting for a limited number of users; abbreviated as "MBone". MBone provides a faster technology than the Internet for transmitting real-time audio and video programs, and for videoconferencing. The Rolling Stones made history with the first major multicast concert on the MBone. See webcast, I2, backbone.

multicolor printing :
Printing in more than one ink color, but less than four-color process; also called "polychrome printing". See illustration

multifunction :
The inherent ability to perform more than one function, either serially or simultaneously, as with multifunction circuit boards or multitasking (qv). The most common multifunction device (MFD) is a peripheral that incorporates printing, copying, scanning, and faxing features. See hardware.

multitasking :
A mode of operation offered by an operating system in which a computer works on more than one task at a time. The principal types of multitasking are "context switching", "cooperative multitasking", and "time-slice multitasking". Context switching is a very simple type of multitasking in which two or more applications are loaded at the same time, but only the foreground application is given processing time; to activate a background task, the user must bring the window or screen containing that application to the front. In cooperative multitasking, exemplified by the Macintosh operating system, background tasks are given processing time during idle times in the foreground task but only if the application allows it. In time-slice multitasking, exemplified by OS/2, each task is given the microprocessor's attention for fractions of every second. To maintain order, tasks are either assigned priority levels or processed in sequential order. Because the user's sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of the computer, time-slice multitasking operations seem to be simultaneous. See background, TSR, shell, hot-key, MP/M, task.

muse / Muse :
To meditate, contemplate, or concentrate, especially in a silent or solemn manner. Also, the inspiration that motivates an artist, writer, or thinker. Also, a poet. Also, one of the nine goddesses [Calliope (epic and heroic poetry), Clio (history), Erato (lyric poetry), Euterpe (music and lyric poetry), Melpomene (tragedy), Polyhymnia (sacred music and dance), Terpsichore (choral song and dance), Thalia (comedic and idyllic poetry), and Urania (astronomy)] who presided over the arts in ancient Greece. See afflatus, aesthetics, art, artwork, videation. [v: limen] [nb: an old pun asks: "Can Clio do more than a muse?"]

mutton :
Printer jargon, coined to differentiate the pronunciation of "em quad" from "en quad"; "mutt" is also used to designate the typeset "em space". See em, quad, dash; compare en, nuts.

M weight :
The weight of one-thousand [Roman numeral: M] sheets of paper in any specific size; abbreviated MWT. See paper.

- N -

nameplate :
The distinctive display, usually formalized or standardized for consistent public recognition, of the periodical's name. This "flag" is typically printed at the top of the magazine's cover or a tabloid's front page; and usually cites issue specific details of date and volume. Often mistakenly called a masthead (qv). See floating flag, header, initial, rubric.

narrowcast :
A neologism on the model of 'broadcast' (qv), to target a limited or restricted audience with specialized information or customized programming, as in the transmission of radio and television performances (eg: NPR, PBS, etc) for a particular age level, ethnic group, professional class, or consumer market. People prefer media which reinforces their opinions and conclusions, selecting media by its application to lifestyle, education, entertainment, or career. See medium, webcast, communique, documentary, bully pulpit, commentator, mannerism, dramatis personae, infomercial, wasteland.

native file :
A file in the application format in which it was originally created.

natural color :
The undyed light brown color of paper; may also be called antique, cream, ivory, off-white, or mellow white.

NCR paper :
Abbreviation for No Carbon Required paper, a brand name for carbonless duplicating paper. Compare flimsy, manifold; see copy, cc, paper.

near frame :
A related or similar image, such as the variant thumbnail depicted in the cover credit on the table of contents; derived from the shot sequence on a film strip. See copy, replica.

near-letter-quality / near letter quality :
A relatively good-grade print output mode available on most office machine and desktop printers for the production of working materials and internal correspondence, that generates characters and images with enough resolution clarity for most practical purposes; abbreviated "NLQ". Compare draft-quality, letter-quality.

neologism :
A new word or phrase introduced into the language, or an existing word used in a new sense; also known as "coinage". See dictionary, orthography, cacography, counterword, idiolect, alphabet. [cf: calque, proclitic, enclitic] [nb: "Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind." by J. Rudyard Kipling]

nested :
Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for binding; also called inset or insert (qqv). Compare quire, imposition, fold lines; see binding, wrap-fold.

NetWare :
The most widely used software for local area networks (LAN), available for DOS, Macintosh, OS/2, VAX, and UNIX systems from Novell. Ethernet, Token Ring, and other configurations can also be used with NetWare. See LAN, program, software.

neutral gray :
Gray without hue or cast. See illustration.

news :
Informative reports or media coverage of current events, as distinguished from gossip and propaganda, also known as "domestic intelligence"; derived from "novelty". Although news agencies existed during the decline of the Roman Empire in Italy and the Han Dynasty in China, town criers heralded recent activities without compensation until the implicit social stratification in the coffee house and salon subcultures of the Medieval era made commercial presentation of news profitable. The survival value of information shifts over time from the forewarned community to the knowledgeable individual, until excess exchange compels cultural reassessment. The busybody, gossip monger, tattler, hawker, crier, and herald have been displaced by the news teller, newsreader, newscaster, newsman, journalist, moderator, commentator; who fear the "Scheherazade Syndrome" of perishing if their audience ever becomes bored! Newsworthy stories are dispensed, based upon their impact, timeliness, proximity, emotion, importance, prominence, unusualness. The free flow of news has always been a threat to authority, since shared disclosures only reinforce stable societies. See newspaper, newsletter, news book, tabloid, gazette, journal, documentary, bully pulpit, expose, screed, disinformation, mediagenic, copyboy, deskman, muckraker, yellow journalism. [nb: "Slay the messenger of bad tidings!"; "History is a rebuke of news!"]

news book :
A collection of articles related by subject, time, or place; as derived from the periodic theme books gathered from published pamphlets and broadsides in early printing. A monotonic precursor of multifarious newspapers. See tabloid, gazette, newsletter, pauper press, compilation, screed, yellow journalism.

newsgroup / news group :
A discussion group on the Internet which is focused on a particular topic. Communication occurs within any of the thousands of defined newsgroups by posting messages for others to read, by sending e-mail messages to participants or subscribers, and by having interactive online conversations. In order to view and post messages to a newsgroup, a news reader program is needed to interface the user's computer with a news server on the Internet. News reader programs are text based, so even music and movies are binary downloads. Some browsers include newsgroup software, which may or may not organize by thread. Some newsgroups are moderated to audit traffic, to arbitrate disputes, to censor input, and to eliminate monopolization. See forum, thread, UseNet, chatroom, instant messaging, blog, BBS, listserve.

newsletter :
A written report, often condensed, usually issued periodically by an organization or agency to present topical information to employees, contributors, stockholders, or to the public. An internal, affiliated, parochial, or other provincial newsletter is often deemed to be a "house organ", because it only plays music approved for the choir to sing along with the preaching. References, cataloged by subject, include: "Oxbridge Directory of Newsletters", "The Newsletter on Newsletters". See tabloid, zine, pauper press, tabazine, magapaper, periodical, pamphlet, booklet, organ, feuilleton, boilerplate, news book, collateral.

newspaper :
A daily or weekly publication containing current news, features, commentary, scheduled events, and advertising. A person spends an average of thirty-minutes each day reading the newspaper. The width of the standard newspaper column is thirteen picas (6 pica = 1 inch). See folio, edition, masthead, subhead, frame, well, poster make-up, front-page, basement, story, half-life, filler, ear, squib, 30, column rule, feature, editorial, Op-Ed, feuilleton, book review, funny paper, co-op money, mission statement, boilerplate, tabloid, journal, organ, gazette, dateline, stringer, deskman, copyboy, copywriter, paragrapher, copy desk, slot, rim, privilege. [nb: during the 1863 siege of Vicksburg in the American Civil War, local newspapers were printed on the plain side of wallpaper] [v: Newspaper Preservation Act (1971)]

newsprint :
A low-grade paper, made mainly from wood pulp, used chiefly for newspapers. See paper, sheet.

news release :
A news story or noteworthy statement prepared and distributed to the press by a publicist, a public relations firm, a business, or a governmental agency; also called press release. The Four C's of a news release are: Clear, Concise, Correct, and Complete. See advance, communique, press kit.

newsstand :
A stall, booth, or other place at which periodicals are displayed for single-copy sale to the public; also called "bookstall". See kiosk, BBS, RDA, audience, audit. [nb: in a competitive display, each periodical has 2.7 seconds or less to capture the attention of potential buyers]

nib :
A segmented penpoint, used with various inks to write variable strokes; also called "quill point". Derived from "sharp point" or beak; the steel nib was invented by the Shakers, but not patented. See penpoint, ink, stroke, calligraphy.

niche market :
Tailoring subject materials to an area of particular interest or specific demand, such as topical and regional books, specialized or technical magazines; often with limited distribution or restricted availability. See audience, reader profile, universe, circulation, book, magazine; compare crossover market, mass market.

nipping :
In bookbinding, the pressing together of the text block and case (or covers) to expel air from between the leaves, and give the volume its desired shape. When done after sewing but before the covers are applied, the process is known as "smashing". See bookbinder's press, binding.

node :
A concentration point in a network where numerous trunks come together at the same switch. See hypermedia, browser.

noise :
An electric disturbance in a communications system that interferes with signal reception, or prevents information transmittal. Also, extraneous data or excessive information acquired during duplication or transmission. Also, the wrong words, tone, or channel in a semantic delivery system. See feedback, interface, digital watermark; compare type noise.

non-competition agreement :
A contract regulating the business practices of partners or employees in consideration of their privileged access to operations and techniques, which is specifically restricted by job or profession, time period, geographic location, and defined clientele, often with the inducement of financial consideration; also called "restrictive pact" or "negative covenant". See golden key, golden parachute, headhunting. [v: monopoly, unfair competition, antitrust]

non-disclosure agreement :
A contract recognizing the "authorship" of intellectual property, and a restraint for confidentiality. Similar to a trade secrets (qv) agreement, this protects ideas, concepts, designs, and formulas from infringement ... all of which are excluded from both trademark and copyright protection. In consideration of the warrant of privacy, the disclosed information is open to discussion without further obligation, except against misappropriation. After learning about the confidential information, the signatory is liable for damages if any form of the idea or design is exploited for commercial development.

nonpareil :
A six-point type; see font, type. Also, a slug (qv) occupying six-points between lines; see quad, leading, furniture.

non-standard :
Usage that does not conform in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and the like, to what is considered to be characteristic and acceptable by most educated native speakers of a language. See slang, colloquialism, vernacular, dialect, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, mannerism, language.

notation / typographic notation :
A system of graphic symbols or signs for a specialized use, and the process of annotating with such a system; including abbreviation, acronym, shorthand. Reference notations include: aka [(also known as)], c [circa (exact date)], ca [circa (about, inexact date)], cf [confer (compare)], eg [exempli gratia (for example)], et al [et alii / et alia (and others)], etc [et cetera (and so forth, and so on)], et seq / et seqq [et sequens (and following / and those following)], ff [(and following)], ibid [ibidem (in the place already cited)], ie [id est (specifically)], inter alia [(among other things)], mutatis mutandis [(the necessary changes having been made)], nb [nota bene (note well)], opcit [opere citato (in the work previously cited)], passim [(here and there; spread, extended)], qed [quod erat demonstrandum (to be shown / proven)], qv / qqv [quod vide / quae vide (which see / which things see)], re [res (regarding)], sic [(thus, precisely, unaltered)], seqq / sqq [sequentia (the following ones)], ss [scilicet / scirelicet (to wit)], v [(volume, version, verse, verso, vide, versus/vs, voice, verb, vowel)], verbatim [(exactly)], vide [(see)], viz [videlicet (namely)]. See proofreader's marks, dingbat, asterisk, ampersand, at sign, caret, obelus, ligature, footnote, shoulder note, side note, marginalia, gloss, hanging, type, typeface, typology, diacritic, punctuation, reference marks.

notch binding / knotch binding :
See burst binding; compare perfect binding.

novel :
A fictitious prose narrative of considerable length and complexity, portraying characters and usually presenting a sequential organization of action and scenes. Derived from "new kind of story". See novella, dime novel, hypernovel, dialogue, picaresque, belles-lettres, roman a clef, metafiction, classic, literature, dramatis personae.

novelization :
To put into the form of a novel, as by adapting a play or film.

novella :
A fictional prose narrative that is longer and more complex than a short story; a short novel. Also called "novelette".

number sign :
A hatch-mark symbol (#) used to denote a number, a numbered sequence, or a numbering series; and also used to signify the substitution or replacement of any numeric value. Also, the space-mark sign indicating the need to insert space, as between words or sections; see section sign, proofreader's marks. Also, a symbol for pound(s), as a unit of avoirdupois weight or mass. Also, a computer character assigned special values for various markups and encodings. [nb: sometimes called 'hash' mark by association with dice or mince, but actually a haplologic mispronunciation of "hatch", from which hash is derived]

num-pad / numpad :
A contraction of number pad, being the separate group of numeric keys arranged similar to a calculator [nb: inverse of telephone number pad] for computational coprocessing. By toggling the "num lock" selector, the num-pad can function as an auxiliary keyboard, with properties assigned by scripts, subroutines, or plug-ins. See six pack, keyboard.

nuts :
Printer jargon, coined to differentiate the pronunciation of "en quad" from "em quad". See en, quad, dash; compare em, mutton.

nybble :
Half a byte (qv), or four bits; alternate spelling of 'nibble'.

- O -

obelus :
A mark (- / ? used in ancient manuscripts to point out questionable words or passages. See notation. [nb: not to be confused with dagger / obelisk] [cf: sic]

obituary :
A public notice of the death of a person [v: necrology] that is published in a newspaper or magazine, often with a biographical sketch. The obituaries of prominent public figures are usually researched and written in advance of the person's death, so as to be printed on short notice. Obituaries are indexed by surname of the deceased in biographical indices of most large libraries. See eulogy, elegy.

object code :
The machine code, directly executable by the computer system's central processing unit (CPU), generated by a compiler or an assembler, that was translated from the source code (qv) of a program.

Objective C :
An object-oriented C programming language released in slightly different versions by Stepstone, NeXT, and GNU. It is available for MS-DOS, Macintosh, VAX/VMS, and UNIX operating systems. See C/C++, language, program.

Objective Pascal :
An extension of Pascal which has object-oriented programming features. See Pascal, language, program.

object-oriented graphics :
Also called "object-oriented image". See vector graphics; compare bitmap graphics.

object-oriented programming :
An approach to programming in which each data item with the operations used on it is designated as an object; the routines used to operate on the data item are called methods; and objects are grouped in a hierarchy of classes, with each class inheriting characteristics from the class above it. Some uses of object-oriented programming are simulation; work with vectors and other mathematical objects; and work with graphic objects. Examples of object-oriented programming (OOP) languages are SIMULA, Smalltalk, C++, Objective C, Oblog, Object Pascal, Eiffel, ESP, ACTOR, Python, and Loops.

oblique type :
Slanting or sloping, being neither perpendicular nor parallel to a given line, as a font distorted by a computer to emulate an Italic typeface. See hint, type family.

OC :
Abbreviation for "set in small capitals"; see proofreader's marks.

Occam's Razor :
The philosophical and scientific principle that propositions or assumptions introduced to explain something must not be multiplied beyond necessity, hence the simplest of several hypotheses is always the best when accounting for unexplained facts; eponymously derived from William of Occam, and also called the "law of parsimony". When rendering problem solving designs, as in HTML or CSS, such simplicity of structure and style is preferred. [nb: not "Ockham"] [cf: Parkinson's Laws, Peter Principle]

occasional type :
Category of decorative, novelty, and miscellaneous typefaces. See type, type family, font.

The abbreviation for Optical Character Recognition / Reader; being the process or technology of reading printed text by means of electronic scanning, and converting it into digital data. See e-pub.

octavo :
A book size of about 6 x 9 inches (16 x 23 cm), determined by printing on sheets folded to form 8 leaves or 16 pages; symbol: 8vo. See sheet.

octodecimo :
A book size of about 4 x 6 inches (10 x 16 cm), determined by printing on sheets folded to form 18 leaves or 36 pages; symbol: 18mo. Also called eighteenmo. See sheet.

oeuvre :
The works of a writer, painter, or other artist, taken as a whole, the complete body of work; derived from "operate", work. See opus, aesthetics.

offprint :
A run-on or reprinted article that originally appeared as part of another or larger publication. See one-shot, backlist, escalation, reprint permission.

offset / offset printing :
A process in which a lithographic stone, metal, or paper plate is used to make an inked impression onto a rubber blanket, that then transfers (offsets) it to the paper being printed. Every offset unit comprises cylinder, dampening, and inking systems. As a refinement of lithography innovated by Ira Rubel, offset printing commenced in 1907. Also, the impression itself, which unit cost decreases as production increases (unlike xerography). See duplicator, press.

off-shore sheet :
Term used in the United States and Canada for paper made overseas. See paper.

off the record / off-the-record :
Confidential information that is either not for publication, or is not for attribution when used as background or context in an article or essay. Journalistic ethics require that the source be aware of the reporter's intent, and that any caveats be negotiated before the interview commences. See non-disclosure agreement, copyright, intelligentsia.

The abbreviation for Object Linking and Embedding, being a way of connecting a file with objects from other applications; such as a page layout file with a spreadsheet chart, a word processing file, and a graphics file included. An embedded object becomes part of the document into which it is embedded, and is no longer linked to the source document. A linked object is displayed in the destination document but remains in the source document; when a change is made in a linked object, all files connected with it are automatically updated. See link, hotlink.

one sheet :
Posters advertising movies or films, sized about 27" wide by 40" high to fit into standard theater display boxes. This very collectible memorabilia is now illustrated on both sides so the image seems to alter when backlit, and may be printed on material other than paper. See poster, broadside, bill, banner, blanket sheet, advertising.

one-shot :
A slang expression for a periodical which only produced a single issue. Also, slang for a special edition of a regularly published magazine. Also, refers to a full text reprint, or a single volume abridgement, of a complete periodical serialization or of an entire book; see offprint. Also, a slang reference to the hot melt adhesive used to bind a book in a single application. Also, a slang term for condensed training or concentrated instruction, especially computer usage in a single formalized short-course; as opposed to multiple classes or incremental sessions.

onionskin :
A thin, lightweight, translucent glazed paper, used especially for making multiple copies; also called flimsy. See manifold, NCR paper, copy, cc, paper. [nb: both onionskin and manifold are 9# flimsy papers, but onionskin is stronger due to its cotton fiber content]

onomatopoeia :
The formation of a word by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent (eg: cuckoo, boom, etc); derived from "making of words". Words imitating violence (eg: crash, whack, etc) tend to have double or triple consonants. See cliche, morpheme, phoneme, rhetorical forms.

opacity :
Characteristic of paper that prevents printing on one side from showing through to the other side[nb: recycled 2% more opaque than virgin]; see paper, paper coating. Also, characteristic of ink that prevents the substance from showing through, color hold-out; see strike-through. Also, the proportion of light absorbed by the emulsion on an area of a photographic film or plate; see illustration.

opaque paper :
A grade of improved offset paper that allows relatively little light to pass, which prevents show-through (qv) on double-sided printing. See paper.

Op-Ed :
A newspaper section or page devoted to signed articles by commentators, essayists, and selected letters from readers. Although this public forum of propositions and rebuttals is believed to represent a platform for the "loyal opposition", as in "opposed to the editor"; it actually derived from "OPposite [the] EDitorial [page]". See think piece, editorial.

open-source :
The preferred term of reference for non-commercial software that retains copyright, but is freely distributed under single user licensure; it attempts to remedy confusion over meaning of 'free' as "without charge" as opposed to "without restriction". Compare public domain software; see shareware, freeware, software.

OpenType :
The trademarked name for scalable fonts specifically designed for enhanced clarity on the internet, as the successor to both TrueType and Type 1 PostScript libraries, with multi-lingual typesetting features, under a collaborative project by Adobe, Apple, and Microsoft. See scalable font, font.

optical center :
A point approximately 10% higher than the geometric center of a page, being the point of natural focus, when no more prominent feature captures the viewer's attention; also called "primary optical spot". If nothing captures the viewer's attention at the optical center of the page, the viewer's attention will then be directed to the upper-left quadrant. When scanning, most people (being right-handed) tend to notice the contents of recto pages first. Layout position should utilize these tendencies when attempting to capture or direct the viewer's attention. See MPX, attic, sinkage, horizon line, sequence, z-path, readability.

opus / opuses / opera :
A literary work or other composition, usually numbered in order of publication; derived from "work", with the plural derived from "service" or 'willing work' (ie: a labor of love). A "magnum opus" is the retrospective designation for the greatest or chief work of an artist. See desideratum, oeuvre, recast, book, drama, literature.

orality :
The pre-literate and non-literate rhetorical convention of spoken communication, oral tradition, and verbal legacy (eg: Hawaiian); which is probably the source of word games and poetic rhythms. Contrary to conventional wisdom, illiterate is not synonymous with ignorant. See vernacular, colloquialism, prose, prosody, verse, language, rhetorical forms, literature, intelligentsia. [nb: derivative distinction: oral from "mouth", verbal from "word"] [v: cantor, precentor, lector] [cf: aphasia]

organ :
A means of communicating information, thoughts, or opinions on behalf of some organization or group, such as a political newspaper, a trade magazine, an academic journal, or an association newsletter. Also, an instrument or means, as of action.

ornament :
An object or feature intended to beautify the appearance of that to which it is added or of which it is a part, as embellishment, decoration, adornment, filigree, tracery, including borders, panels, tool lines, midlines, crests, cameos, cartouches, cornerpieces, corner motifs, rules, separators, flourishes, vignettes, foils, bullets, dingbats, end devices; also called "calligraphic ornament".

oronym :
Speech resembling strings of sound that can result in more than one interpretation of its content (eg: stuffy nose vs stuff he knows; pull it surprise vs Pulitzer prize; smothers vs some others; good can decay many ways vs good candy came anyways), which is most apparent in second languages or non-native tongues. Often used creatively in puns, doggerel, and other wordplay. See accent, diction, dialect, idiolect, vocabulary, word, homonym, heteronym, language. [see Confusing Words]

orphan :
In written composition or word processing, the first line of a paragraph when it appears alone or abandoned at the bottom of a page; derived from "destitute", as devoid or deprived. Compare widow; see copyedit, stylesheet, stylebook, word processor, DTP, text editor.

orthographic projection :
A two-dimensional image drawn to simulate a three-dimensional perspective, including exploded and cutaway views; also called "orthogonal projection". Compare isometric projection.

orthography :
The art of writing words with the proper letters, according to the accepted usage of language study. Also, a method of spelling, as by the use of an alphabet or other system of symbols. See punctuation, syllabary, dictionary, neologism, typology, semiotics, alphabet; compare cacography.

OULIPO / Oulipo :
The abbreviation for Ouvroir de Litt閞ature Potentielle, which is generally translated as the Workshop for Potential Literature, was founded in 1960 as a laboratory to study the rules and constraints of story construction, of prose types, and poetic forms, including experimental characterization, plot catalogues, and media/hypermedia structures. The OULIPO sponsors symposia and publications, as well as Oulipian Games (acrostics, ambigrams, combinatorial engines, perverbs, etc). See poetry, prose, rhetorical forms, literature, language.

outline :
An open typeface structural style in which strokes and shapes are represented by unfilled outlines. Formerly, type or font character glyphs either existed as solid "inline" letterforms, or as unfilled "outline" letterforms. With modern font technology, letterform shapes are described by resolution-independent outlines; and these outlines can be filled by paint or halftone, or outlined by adjustable lines. Because of this capability, very few modern fonts are available in outline styles. See reverse, cameo, knockout, cutout; compare silhouette, drop out.

out of print :
An out of print (OP) title is one that will never be reprinted with the same ISBN. A book that will be replaced by a new edition is declared to be out of print. Also called deadlist.

outsource :
To subcontract for procedures or processes with specialized vendors outside the printing house, especially non-union outlets or foreign resources; also called "farm-out", "out-of-house", or "buy-out" / "bought-out". See freelance, work for hire.

overhang :
A cover that protrudes, juts, or extends beyond the trimmed signatures it contains; a projecting cover. Compare cut flush; see cover paper, separate cover, self-cover, binding, crop, trim, finish, post-press.

overlay :
To overlap transparent colors to form a new color; also called a color build or "build". Compare knockout; see illustration.

overlay proof :
Color proof consisting of clear plastic sheets laid on top of each other, with their images in register; also called "layered proof". See proof, illustration.

overprint :
To print additional material over something already printed, or onto an existing template or format. Also, an alteration that denotes a changed function or a new authority. Also called surprint (qv). Compare ink-trap, pre-print, mortise; see illustration.

overrun :
A pressrun or production run beyond the quantity ordered; to receive more copies than requested, due to flawless printing, which permissible variant should be factored into the purchase order agreement. Also, an instance of unanticipated extra, additional, or excessive cost, which estimate contingency should be factored into the contract.

over-set :
Material that exceeds the allocated space, which allotment must be adjusted to fit. Compare cast off; see edit, layout, grid, template, modular make-up, pre-press.

over the transom :
See slush pile, manuscript.

Oxford comma :
The placement of a comma between each item in a series to prevent confusion about inclusive meaning or exclusive intent; seemingly derived from an inheritance case in England. See comma, British quotation, punctuation, stylebook.

Oxford rule :
Printed parallel lines, being thick and thin or heavy and light; which are reversed when paired in separators (eg: end device, midline) or borders. See ornament.

oxymoron / oxymora :
A figure of speech that entails contradiction (eg: just about, conspicuously absent, thunderous silence, to make haste slowly); derived from "pointedly foolish". See contranym, euphemism, balderdash, pap, rhetorical forms.

- P -

page :
One side of a leaf of something printed or written, such as a book, manuscript, or letter; see sheet. Also, a block of computer memory, up to 4,096 bytes long; or a portion of a program that can be moved to a computer's internal memory from external storage. Derived from a "column of writing".

page count :
The total number of pages contained in a publication; also called "extent". Compare pagination.

page marker :
A visual cue, such as an ornament, which informs the reader of the continuation of a story or article, or signals the viewer of a queued or concatenated presentation; used in lieu of an oral or verbal notification. See dingbat, bullet, guillemet, fist, continue line, read through, end sign.

page printer :
The general (and more accurate) name used to describe non-impact printers which produce a completed page in one action, such as laser, ion deposition, LED and LCD shutter xerographic printers, electro-erosion and electro-photographic printers. See printer.

page proof :
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page, complete with elements such as headings, rules, and folios. See illustration.

page spread :
The layout of facing pages for checking continuity, format, style, etc. See folio, backup, crossover.

pagination :
The figures by which the leaves of a book, manuscript, or the like are marked to indicate their sequence; see contents, headword. Also, to subdivide an electronic document into pages for printing. [nb: the body of a book is usually numbered in a different sequence from front / back matter in the same volume; although the frontispiece, title page, and flyleaves are counted, their numerals are not displayed]

palette :
The set of colors mixed for use and held in readiness on a board or tablet; derived from "small shovel". Also, the full range of colors made available by a computer graphics card, from which a user may choose those program hues, patterns, and tools most appropriate for display; see transparent palette, graphics, illustration. Also, a set of predefined colors that ensures a unanimity of brand from issue to issue for periodicals, and consistency of style for publications under the same imprint.

pallet :
A small, low, portable platform for storing or moving goods; see skid. Also, a painter's palette (qv).

pamphlet :
A short treatise or disquisition, often on a contemporary or controversial subject, published informally, variously sized and illustrated, and bound by staples or stitching. See brochure, booklet, chapbook, monograph, tabloid, newsletter, leaflet, journal, catalog, news book, collateral. [nb: Daniel Defoe is recognized as the "Father of Pamphleteering"]

The abbreviation for Personal Area Network, being a wireless data link among computers and communications equipment within a single office or building for autonomous individuals or independent professionals using cordless integration; such systems are convenient for remote access to information and resources, but compound the security issues extant with cable devices. See intranet, MAN, WAN, LAN.

panel :
A distinct section that is sunk below or raised above the surface, or enclosed by a frame or border; see tool line, emboss. Also, one page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack flier. One panel is on one side of the paper; and a letter-folded sheet has six panels.

pantograph :
An instrument for the mechanical copying of maps, diagrams, line drawings, or letterforms on any desired scale. See plotter, Benton pantograph; compare hint.

pantomime :
The representational art of conveying actions, emotions, and thoughts by gesture without speech, as practiced by a "mime" or "pantomimist". Also, a play or entertainment in which the performers express themselves by gesture, often to the accompaniment of music, as a common theatrical spectacle in England at Christmastime. Also, a dramatic performance by a masked dancer accompanied by a chorus in ancient Roman times. ["Pantomime: A play in which the story is told without violence to the language. The least disagreeable form of dramatic action." by Ambrose G. Bierce]

pap :
Words, writings, or ideas that lack substance or real value; derived from "nipple". See euphemism, ad diction, puffery, balderdash, boilerplate, oxymoron, jingle, doggerel. [nb: "bunkum": after 16th Congress (1819-21) speech by F. Walker, who said he was bound to speak for Buncombe (county in NC district he represented), insincere political speechmaking became the paradigm for all claptrap and humbug, prate and twaddle. Also called "wish-wash" and "eyewash" by Jack London, and "wind music" and "crooning by H.L. Mencken. Compare origin of 'dunce' from John Duns Scotus.]

paper :
An absorbent material made from plant pulp or fibrous substances, usually in thin sheets or leaves, dyed or bleached to a desired hue, pressed or polished into a desired texture, and variously sized for writing or printing. Paper quality is determined by content (eg: cotton rag, wood pulp, or recycled paper), with acid-free archival stock being the most enduring. The standard estimate for calculating the average thickness of paper is: 100 pages = 1 centimeter. Paper thickness is a factor of the basis weight on a ream of identical pages; but dissimilar types of paper (eg: bond vs newsprint) are not easily compared. The word 'paper' derives from "papyrus", which was formerly used as a writing surface; despite the papermaking process having been invented in First Century China. Types of paper include: art paper, bible paper, bank, board paper, body stock, bond paper, dual-purpose bond paper, book paper, Bristol board, Bristol paper, cardboard, cartridge, catalog paper, chipboard, corrugated board, cover paper, demy, duplex paper, equivalent paper, fine papers, flimsy, foolscap, form bond, free sheet, glassine, groundwood paper, house sheet, ivory board, job lot paper, kraft paper, laser bond, ledger paper, legal paper, letter paper, lightweight paper, manila, manifold, monarch, NCR paper, onionskin, opaque paper, parchment, pasteboard, publishing paper, recycled paper, royal, strawboard, supercalendered paper, vellum. Paper sizes include: A sizes, A4 paper, B sizes, basic size, caliper, C sizes, cut sizes, ISO sizes, JIS sizes, legal-size, letter-size, parent sheet, P sizes. See sheet, quire, ream, basis weight, substance weight, grammage, CWT, hundredweight, M weight, ruleup, recto, verso, backtrack, opacity, grain direction, grain long / short paper, cross grain, with the grain, felt side, wire side, grade, condition, pulp, swatchbook, off-shore sheet, mill order, making order, make-ready, carton, carload, pre-consumer waste, broke, post-consumer waste, waste, spoilage. [nb: papyrus was displaced by parchment for economic reasons before paper, which had been traded through the Middle East, was finally established in Europe during the 12th century]

paperback :
A paperbound book, also called "softcover". Paperbacks come in two types: trade and mass market. Trade paperbacks are the higher end model, printed on better quality paper and larger in size. A common trim size for trade paperbacks is 6" X 9". Mass market books are smaller, generally around 4" X 7", and are often printed on lower grade stock. While large commercial trade presses usually release their books in hardcover first, independents increasingly go straight to paperback because they tie up less capital in inventory. However, going straight to paperback has its downsides: It is often harder to attract review attention for a paperback original; and you cut out the option of later selling the right to reprint the book in a paperback edition. See split edition, trade edition, fillet, separate cover, self-cover, binding, perfect binding, dime novel.

paperclip / paper clip :
The temporary fastening of papers has been accomplished by 13th Century ribbon attachments [v: "red tape"], by the 1835 John Ireland Howe design of solid-head straight-pins, and by the 1899 Johan Vaaler paperclip invention. Vaaler, of Aurskog Norway, patented several paperclip pattern variations in Germany. The "Konaclip" was patented by Cornelius J. Brosnan of Springfield Massachusetts in 1900. The "Gem Clip", a double-oval shape, was then produced by Gem Manufacturing Limited of England. In addition to the standard double-oblong design, paperclips are triangular and owl-eye shaped, ribbed and coated. The paperclip is used in a variety of ways, including: bookmark, picture hanger, money clip, staple remover, sewing aid, curtain hook, and cord guide. [nb: during its WW2 occupation, Norway was prohibited from displaying traditional national signs, so Norwegians resisted by wearing paperclips as symbols of solidarity and patriotism]

paper coating :
Paper is finished wet or dry to obtain surfaces from dull to premium gloss, and is coated with clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. See anti-offset powder, antique finish, aqueous coating, art paper, blade coating, book paper, bronzing, C1S / C2S, calender, cast-coated paper, chalking, coated paper, cockle finish, dandy roll, deboss, dull finish, English finish, felt finish, film coating, finish, flood, genuine finish, gloss finish, grade, ink holdout, laid finish, linen finish, machine glazed, matte finish, opacity, parchment, satin finish, scent, slick, text paper, uncoated paper, UV coating, varnish, vellum finish, wove finish.

PaperNet :
Computer slang for the communications system employed by the electronically challenged, who are resistant to the "paperless office" concept, especially referring to written correspondence conveyed by "snail mail" ("USnail"). See hard copy; compare e-mail, UseNet, internet.

papier-mache / papier-m僣h?:
Moistened paper pulp, mixed with glue and other materials, or layers of paper glued and pressed together, then molded to form various articles, and becoming hard when dry. Literally derived from "chewed paper"; see pulp. Also, something false or illusory that may be easily destroyed or discredited. [cf: papier coll俔

paragon :
Approximately a nineteen-point type; see font, type.

paragraph :
A distinct portion of written or printed matter dealing with a particular idea, beginning on a new line that is usually indented. Paragraphs are used where there's a greater break in the subject than between sentences. Stylistically, paragraphs of copy should either be indented or line separated, but not both. See punctuation, syntax. Also, a brief article or notice, as in a newspaper; see paragrapher, squib, snippet, filler, bite. Also, in microprocessor parlance, a 16-byte section of computer memory beginning at an address that is evenly divisible by 16 (hexadecimal 10); such that a new paragraph begins at every hexadecimal address ending in 0/zero.

paragrapher :
A person who writes very short pieces or fillers for a newspaper. See squib, snippet, filler, bite.

paragraph sign :
The special symbol (pilcrow / ) indicating the need to edit or reform the text into one or more paragraphs; also called "paragraph mark". Also, the same sign used to demarcate unindented block-style text. See bullet, dingbat, hanging, proofreader's marks.

parallel-fold :
A folding method, in which two parallel folds will produce a six page sheet. To improve appearance and durability, materials to be parallel-folded should always be laid-out with the grain of the paper. Compare French fold; see foldout, accordian-fold, concertina-fold, wrap-fold.

parameter :
A variable, such as a number or text, that must be given a specific or constant value during the execution of a computer program, or a routine/subroutine procedure within a program. Also, a variable entering into the mathematical form of any statistical distribution, such that the possible values of the variable correspond to different distributions. See algorithm, subroutine, switch.

paraph :
An ornamental flourish added to a signature or autograph, used especially by notaries to protect official documents against forgery.

parchment :
A stiff off-white paper that has been treated to resemble the original animal skins (ie: sheepskin, goatskin, etc) prepared for writing, and used for manuscripts and other documents. See vellum, paper.

parent sheet :
Any sheet larger than 11" X 17" or A3. See sheet, paper.

parse :
To grammatically analyze and describe a word or sentence, identifying the parts of speech, inflectional forms, syntactic functions, and so forth. See syntax, punctuation.

Parthian shot :
A sharp but telling remark or gesture made in closing or when departing, that's used as a literary or theatrical device; also called "parting shot", from the arrows (dart) cast in retreat by the Parthian cavalry. See rhetorical forms, imagery, editorial, Op-Ed.

parts of speech :
Of the eight parts of speech in English, the class of form words (ie: noun, verb, adjective, adverb) is dynamic, and the class of function words (ie: preposition, article, pronoun, conjunction) is static. The two tenses in English are past and present, with all other forms being inflected. Although the derivation of loanwords tends to instill exceptions, language attempts to evolve anomalies toward standardization. See modal auxiliary, clause, phrase, elliptical sentence, appositive, copula, verbal, constituent, parse, gender, form class, word class, grammar, punctuation, syntax, language, stylebook.

Pascal :
A high-level computer language designed to facilitate structured programming. It is named after Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician, who developed a calculating machine in 1642. Pascal, known for its highly structured simplicity, was designed for teaching programming. Its restrictive nature makes it a safe tool for students, but can be a handicap in general-purpose programming. Nevertheless, Pascal became a widely used programming language, and was the basis for many later languages including Modula-2, Ada, dBASE, and PAL. A descendant simplification of ALGOL, Pascal was designed by Niklaus Wirth in the early 1970s. See Objective Pascal, language.

pass :
One complete sequence of activities, such as a pass through a manuscript to check spelling, or a pass through a press to lay down varnish.

pass-along :
The informal sharing of publications among non-paying readers, such as friends and associates, forming an incalculable secondary audience (as distinguished from lending library borrowers). See universe, audience. [nb: free distribution of photocopied materials in academic or research settings is a form of pass-along that violates copyright]

password :
A secret sequence of alphanumeric characters and other symbols used for necessary authentication prior to log-in onto a computer system. Password protection allows a system to assign log-in names to users for file or program access. The Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is a means of restricting access to authorized users by validating their input code during log-in; this is often called a "handshake". Most log-in environments display bullets or asterisks instead of the password, and leave the field uncalibrated so crackers cannot predict the code count. A computer account whose password is the user's name, called a "Joe account", is easily invaded by crackers, because the security access code can be readily guessed. Password accountability can also trace user activity, since each increment of access is recorded; this demonstrable trail is often called a "footprint". See RSA, PGP, Secure MIME @MIME, SSL, firewall, proxy, trap door, escrow key, Clipper.

pasteboard :
A stiff board made of sheets of paper pasted together, or layers of paper pulp pressed together. See cardboard, paper.

paste-up :
To mount copy to art boards and, if necessary, to overlays so it is assembled into a camera-ready mechanical. See mechanical, art board, artwork.

pastiche / pasticcio :
A literary or artistic piece consisting wholly or chiefly of motifs or techniques from borrowed sources, as a hodgepodge assemblage; derived from "paste", to strew or sprinkle. See compilation, collage, montage. [v: omnium-gatherum; cf: satire, burlesque, harlequinade]

patch :
An interim modification of a program, designed to repair a bug or glitch on the current version, so as to prevent a software recall, and show manufacturing responsiveness to customer satisfaction. The revised version of the patched program will improve and incorporate the repair, but new and different bugs will probably occur in the upgrade. See kludge, debug, plug-in.

patent :
The exclusive ownership of an invention or process, and the protected right to manufacture, license, or sell said invention or process for a specified period of time; as manifest by the "letters patent", being the legal instrument issued by government authorization to the patentee. See intellectual property; compare copyright, trademark.

path :
A route from one point to another. The logical route listing through a computer's hierarchy of structured files and subdirectories that locates specific data within a particular system; also known as "pathway", "pathname", "access", or "address". Also, a link between two nodes or stations in a communications network. Also, in graphics, the accumulated segments that will be overwritten by a stream of text. See internet address, filename, slash, backslash, pipe.

pathos :
The power in life or the quality in art of evoking a feeling of compassion or pity; derived "suffering". Compare bathos; see tragedy, drama.

pauper press :
Cheap and unofficial newsletters with popular support, which were inspired by the dynamic and voluble American Revolutionary War press. These unregistered and tax-resistant "penny dreadfuls" sought high circulation, rather than the high advertising of conventional newsletters; and were the precursor of the sensational tabloid. This periodical form disappeared when the Stamp Act (1765 - 1855) was repealed. See newsletter, news book, tabloid, pulp, rag, zine, newspaper. [nb: one ingenious evader printed on plain calico, and entitled it the "Political Handkerchief" ... possible origin of "the rag"?!]

The abbreviation for Per Column Inch, as used to compute advertising rates; see fractional ad, advertising, .

The abbreviation for Printer Control Language; being the control language for HP LaserJet printers, and supported by many other printers and typesetting machines. PCL tells the printer how to print a page, as does a Page Description Language. See printer driver.

The abbreviation for Portable Document Format, being a cross-platform publishing protocol for both pre-press / print and electronic media output devices; also called "page description format". Although any configuration can be imported into PDF, the graphical output can only be viewed with Acrobat Reader, an application freely distributed by Adobe Systems. If a document is reconverted through the Acrobat exchange interpreter to/from its original source, it will probably develop translation glitches. In conformity with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, PDF can also be converted to HTML or ASCII formats for access by adaptive devices.

The abbreviation for Page Description Language; being a high-level programming language for determining the output of a page printer designed to work with it, independent of the printer's internal codes. The applications software is independent of the physical printing device, as with imPress, Interpress, PostScript, and DDL. See printer driver.

PE :
Abbreviation for printer error, which correction is not accountable to editorial expenses; see typographical error, AA, proofread, underrun. Also, abbreviation for Percent Enlargement of images, used when a size or density conversion must be proportional.

pearl :
A five-point type; sometimes classified as agate (qv). See font, type.

pen :
Any of various instruments for writing or drawing with ink or a similar substance; term derived from 'feather'. See fountain pen, ballpoint, pencil, quill, writing instrument; compare puck. Also, a penpoint, integral or detachable, with or without penholder handle or shaft; see nib, penpoint, ink. Also, Also, metonym or symbol for a writer or author. Also, organizational abbreviation for the International Association of Poets, Playwrights, Editors, Essayists, and Novelists (P.E.N.).

pencil :
A slender stick of wood or tube of metal containing a core of a solid coloring material, such as graphite or the like, used for writing or drawing. Also, an artist's paintbrush (archaic) used for fine or detail work; derived from "little tail" (penicillus). See pen, writing instrument.

pen name :
See allonym, samizdatchik, ghostwriter. [nb: "I name no one; it is enough to point out the kind." by Publius Cornelius Tacitus (neminem nominabo, genus hominum significasse contentus)]

penpoint :
The tip of a ballpoint pen or the split point of any other writing instrument (qv), being a small tapered end for the controlled dispensing of ink. See nib, ink, stroke, calligraphy.

perf :
Abridgement of perforation, being a hole or series of holes made by (or as if by) boring, punching, or piercing through paper or some other material, and used as a border or divider, or an aid to partition; derived from "drill".

perfect binding :
A method of binding books in which the backs of the sections are ground off (resulting in textured surface for adhesion), and the leaves glued to a cloth backing or wrapped paper cover; also called "adhesive bind", "cut-back bind", "glue bind", "drawn-on binding", "paper bind", "patent bind", "soft bind", and "softcover". Compare burst binding; see binding, burst binding, paperback.

perfecting :
The process of printing on both sides of the paper during a single pressrun on either a sheet-fed or web press; especially useful on uncoated text-weight paper printing long copy with few illustrations, such as books. Compare work and turn, work and tumble; see duplex.

perfect press :
Sheet-fed or web press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass; also called "duplex press" and "perfector", as invented by Friedrich Koenig / Konig. See press.

perfect rhyme :
The rhyme of two words which are pronounced identically but differ in meaning (eg: rain/reign, soul/sole); also called "rime riche". Also, rhyme in which the stressed vowels and all following consonants and vowels are identical, but the preceding consonants are different (eg: chain/brain, dole/pole); also called "full rhyme". See rhyme, meter, foot, scansion, prosody, verse, poetry.

period :
The point, dot, or character (.) used to mark the end of a declarative sentence, or to indicate an abbreviation; also called "full point" or "full stop". Also, a well-balanced or impressive sentence. Also, a group of two or more cola. Also, the same mark used as a decimal point when fractionating numbers for mathematical calculations or monetary computations. Compare comma; see foot, ellipsis, elliptical sentence, sentence, punctuation, stylebook.

periodical :
A publication, such as a journal or newsletter, that is issued under the same title at regular intervals. See magazine, e-mag, e-pub, little magazine, regional edition, newsletter, trade journal, public relations magazine, gazette, journal, organ, zine, tabloid, tabazine, magapaper, newspaper, series, feature, violin piece, department, umbrella, constant, running head, running foot, dateline, publication date, volume number, back issue, key title, ISSN, Gresham's Law.

The abbreviation for Practical Extraction and Reporting Language; see UNIX, language.

The abbreviation for Pretty Good Privacy, which was developed by Philip Zimmermann, and is distributed in both freeware and commercial versions. PGP is an encryption program based on RSA (qv) public-key cryptography. PGP allows users to exchange files and messages, with both privacy and authentication, over all kinds of networks. The messages are unreadable unless the receiver has an encryption key. PGP encrypts data using the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) with a randomly generated key, then encrypts the key using the receiver's public key. After the message is transmitted, PGP uses the receiver's private RSA key to decrypt the IDEA key, then decrypts the message using that key. PGP features keys longer than 128 bits, and can be used with UNIX, MS-DOS, Windows, and Macintosh. Because PGP is based on public-key cryptography, no secure channels (cf: SSL) are needed to exchange keys between users. PGP can also provide digital signatures for files or messages. Because of its effectiveness and access, it is illegal to use PGP in many countries outside the USA. See proxy, firewall, password, escrow key, Clipper, steganography.

phoneme :
Any of the minimal units of speech sound in a language that can serve to distinguish one word from another, by the relationship between sounds and letters. Any combination of phonemes which regularly occur together and which, as a group, are associated with some point in the content structure is a morpheme. See digraph, morpheme, syllabary, syntax, language, alphabet. [v: phonology, toneme, etic, emic; cf: allophone]

photocopy :
A photographic reproduction of a document, print, or the like, including photostat. See reprography, xerography.

photogenic :
An appealing subject or attractive feature for photography; see mediagenic. Also, causing, producing, or emitting light, as luminiferous or phosphorescent.

photography :
The process of producing images of objects on sensitized surfaces by the chemical action of light or by other forms of radiant energy. This process, originated by J. Nicephore Niepce, was made practical in 1837/9 by Louis J.M. Daguerre, inventor of the "daguerreotype"; by developing a picture onto a sensitized silver iodide surface through exposure to mercury vapor. Louis Ducos du Hauron advanced the principle of color photography in 1862 by the superimposition of three basic colors (ie: red, yellow, blue) that would be combined in different proportions to give an infinite variety of shades and tints; then designed a camera to take three separate impressions of the same image [v: progressives] to implement this theory by 1869. See bromide, cinematography, film, gamma, illustration. [nb: the first authentic photograph was a still-life, the second was a landscape, and there is considerable evidence that the third was of a nude model!]

photogravure :
A process, based on photography, by which an intaglio engraving is formed on a metal plate, from which ink reproductions are made. This method, which requires screens for both text and image copy, has the advantage of high speed and long run capability needed in publishing. See gravure, gravure press.

phototypesetter :
Since 1946, a high-resolution printing plate with a relief printing surface produced by photography. See Imagesetter, typesetter.

phrase :
Any sequential arrangement of two or more words, lacking the characteristics of a clause, usually serving as a construction in a grammatical unit. Compare clause; see catch-phrase, appositive, elliptical sentence, sentence, parts of speech.

phreak :
A person, also called a "phone phreak", who uses computers or other electronic devices to tamper with telecommunications systems, and to place long-distance telephone calls without paying toll charges. See hacker, cracker, script kiddie, turist, software.

Pi fonts :
Special characters, such as scientific symbols and mathematical signs, not usually included in a font, but which are added as coordinated supplements. See dingbat, wingding, font.

pica :
The Anglo-American unit of typographic measure, equal to 0.166 inch (4.218mm) or 12 / 12.2 points, used as a linear gauge for type, pages containing type, and so forth; see measure, pitch, compare point. Also, a 12-point type, widely used for typewriters, having 10 characters to the inch, sized between small pica and English; compare elite, see typeface, font. [nb: the em square measure is both height and width, while the en measure is full height but half the width of em; both pica and point are linear measures, with pica of line length, and point of line height]

picaresque :
A form of prose fiction that describes a series of humorous or satiric episodes of a roguish adventurer; derived from "rogue" or "vagabond" (picaro). See prose, novel, literature. [nb: not 'picturesque']

picking :
The lifting of fibres out from the paper as a result of ink being too tacky, which shows as small white dots on areas of solid color. Compare hickey, slur, mottle, scum, setoff.

A Macintosh format for defining images. See graphics, illustration.

pictography :
A method or system of recording events or expressing ideas by pictures or pictorial symbols; also called "picture writing". Also, any diagrammatic record consisting of pictorial symbols. See ideogram, hieroglyphics, rebus, semiotics, alphabet, typology.

pidgin :
An auxiliary non-native language, that has developed from the need of speakers of different languages to communicate, and is essentially a simplified and short-lived form of a prominent language, with a reduced vocabulary and grammatical structure; origin may be a variant of "business talk" in Chinese pidgin English. A pidgin evolves into a creole when it acquires syntax (eg: Krio). Both "baby talk" (preconstructive) and "telegraph speech" (deconstructive) may be classified as pidgin due to their discordance. See creole, lingua franca, jargon, vernacular, pig Latin, language.

pig Latin :
An informal or juvenile language derived from ordinary English by moving the first consonant or consonant cluster of each word to the end of the same word, and adding the sound (long-a) [eg: Eakspay Igpay Atinlay = Speak Pig Latin]. See pidgin, creole, vernacular, language.

pigment :
An insoluble dry substance, usually pulverized, that becomes a paint, ink, dye, or stain when suspended in a liquid vehicle. Also, a coloring matter or substance. See carbon black, ink, dye, hue, tint.

pipe :
A portion of memory that can be used by one process to pass information along to another; also called "pipelining". Two computer processes are connected so that the output of one can be used as the input to the other. Pipelining refers to the use of pipes in passing the output of one task as input to another until a desired sequence of tasks has been carried out. Pipes are symbolized in the MS-DOS and OS/2 operating systems by the vertical-bar or stem (|) character, as in the command: DIR | SORT | MORE, which calls for a directory listing, pipes the output to the sort command, and then pipes the results of the sort command to the more command, which displays its output one screenful at a time. See slash, backslash, path, filename.

pipeline :
A developmental process or delivery channel, such as directing or re-directing the flow of data automatically into jumps or templates. Compare pipe, stream; see layout, grid, template, read through, text editor.

pitch :
A unit of typographic measurement indicating the number of characters to a horizontal inch; as based upon the regular distance between any two adjacent things in a series. See pica, point, em, en, measure, typeface, font.

pixel :
The smallest element of an image that can be individually processed in a video display system; abbreviated "px", as derived from "picture + element" or "picture + cell". Compare vector, lpi / lpcm; see ppi / ppcm, bitmap, interpolation, illustration.

pixelated / pixellated :
Visible as a pattern of pixels, such that the details of the bitmapped image are distorted, and the presentation detracts from the effect of the created impression. Pixelation most often occurs as a result of over-enlargement, but is also affected by software format and screen interlacing. See pixel, moire, mottle, dithering, web pox, illustration.

pixel map :
A three-dimensional array of bits represented as a two-dimensional array of pixels, in which each pixel has a depth of a certain number of bits.

plagiarism / plagiary :
The unauthorized use of the language and thoughts of another author, and the representation of them as one's own; derived from "to snare", as kidnapping. See fair use, public domain, non-disclosure agreement, credit line, byline, ghostwriter, copyright, appropriation. [nb: "If you steal from one author, it's plagiarism; but if you steal from many, it's research." attributed to Wilson Mizner. Attribution also depends upon the identity of the thief; as Daniel Defoe hired hacks to counterfeit works pseudonymously, and as Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens) has been "excused" for stealing from Washington Irving, Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), Samuel Butler, Robert Richardson, Alexandre Dumas, Andrew Carnegie, and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Plagiarism is not the same as misquotation (qv), especially when credit is disclaimed, as by Greeley for Soule.]

planography :
The art or technique of printing directly from a flat surface or by offset. [nb: not "planigraph"] See press.

plate :
Piece of paper, metal, plastic, or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press. See digital plate, flat, burn, emulsion, fountain solution, screen, halftone, intaglio, flexography, lithography, offset, gravure press, hologram, register marks, strip, sheetwise, step and repeat, opacity, hickey, film.

platen :
A cylinder or flat plate in a printing press for pressing the paper against an inked surface to produce an impression; compare bed. Also, the roller of a typewriter or impact printer used for guiding paper through the device.

plate-ready film :
Stripped negatives or positives fully prepared for platemaking. See working film, flat, illustration.

platform :
A threshold level of computer environment, such as an operating system or a data base, which enables software applications to function; see program. Also, any group of compatible computers that can run similar software, therefore, "cross-platform" is software compatible with any computer system or hardware; see POSIX.

play :
Dramatic performance; see drama, pantomime, dramtis personae, broadcast, script, dramaturgy, recast, writer. Also, attention or coverage; see feature, story. Also, a pun. Also, enterprise or venture (qv).

pleasing color :
Any color that the customer considers satisfactory, even if it may not match the samples or originals. See contract proof.

pleonasm :
The use of more words than are necessary to express an idea, a circumlocution; a redundancy (eg: for free, free gift, true fact, false fabrication, terrible tragedy, concede defeat, ways and means, close proximity, now pending, just exactly, near approximation, revert back, more perfect, advance registration, in order to, at the present time, numerous myriad, few in number, in the course of, consensus of opinion, possible suspect, minimize as far as possible, with the exception of, with the result that). See puffery, balderdash, prolixity, sesquipedalism, tautology, rhetorical forms. ["Pleonasm: An army of words escorting a corporal of thought." by Ambrose G. Bierce]

plot :
The main story or principal theme of a literary or dramatic work; also called "motif". See story line, deus ex machina, foreshadowing, denouement. [v: leitmotif]

plot summary :
Synopsis. See scenario, story line, storyboard.

plotter :
A device or instrument for calculating lines and measuring angles on a chart. Also, a type of computer printer that draws a graphical representation on paper with one or more attached pens. See graph plotter, pantograph.

plug :
A slang term used in publishing to refer to a new book that is not selling well, hence the use of promotion in an attempt to boost readership. Compare puff, see rums.

plug-in / plugin :
An accessory program that augments a main application with extended features or special capabilities, especially for multimedia environments. Plug-ins are sometimes distributed by a software manufacturer as an interim upgrade of primary programs. The advantage of plug-ins, most of which are made by third-party vendors, is that the user only needs to install a small piece of software to a larger program in order to obtain a new feature. The pool of possible derivatives is usually too large for the original program publisher to incorporate all of the plug-in options into each revision. See patch, program, software. [nb: a plug-in is known as a "Java Bean" by Java and an "Xtension" by Quark]

pluralia pantum :
Irregular nouns that are always plural; are not derived from a singular affect (eg: amends, annals, jitters, shenanigans, doldrums, delirium tremens, etc). See word, vocabulary.

PMS / PMS Colors :
The obsolete abbreviation for Pantone Matching System, being a set of standard colors, with each color designated by a number. Printers use PMS sample books to pick colors and then mix the inks to the exact specifications. On the computer, many graphics programs allow the user to pick colors by PMS number and display the chosen colors (or their nearest calibrated monitor approximation) on the VDT screen. The correct tradename for the colors in the Pantone Matching System is PANTONE Colors. Other suppliers, such as Toyo, compete with PMS, but availability is a cost factor in production. See four-color process, swatchbook, illustration.

The abbreviation for Portable Network Graphics; a low-loss compression bitmap graphics file (*.PNG) format, offering both partial and fully transparent palettes, gray scale template, but no animation. As approved by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1996, PNG is patent- and license-free, and is therefore a good substitute for *.GIF format, which utilizes the proprietary LZW data compression algorithm. PNG is widely supported by the latest graphics software and current browsers. Compare GIF; see graphics, illustration.

pochoir :
A method of hand illustration, used primarily in deluxe editions, in which color is applied by dabbing ink or paint through a stencil made of paper, metal, or celluloid to produce a handcrafted effect. This same technique may be used to add color to a preprinted design; derived from "stencil". See illustration.

poet :
See writer, muse.

poetic license :
Liberty or latitude, especially as taken by a poet or other writer, in deviating from conventional form, logic, fact, or the like, to produce a desired effect. Also called "literary license"; see anachronism, grammar.

poet laureate :
An eminent poet whose work has been recognized and proclaimed as notable or representative of a people or region; which in Great Britain is a lifelong appointment, and in the U.S.A. (since 1985) is an annual term of office. A Medieval Italian scholar named Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca) was the first poet to be crowned with a laurel wreath since Virgil. See literati, intelligentsia, immortals.

poetry :
Literary work in metrical form, as poetic works, poems, and verse; also known as poesy. Also, prose with poetic qualities. See prosody, verse, rhetorical forms, OULIPO.

point :
A unit of type measurement equal to 0.013875 inch (1/72 inch), or 1/12 pica (0.351mm); see pica, pitch, em, en. Also, a diacritic, as a dot or line, indicating a vowel or the modification of a sound in a writing system; see accent. Also, a unit of measure of paper or card thickness, equal to 1/1000 of an inch (0.001"). See typeface, font. [nb: letters over 72-points are always sized by inches or centimeters]

pointer :
A pointing device that enables the user to select menu items or command options on a display screen for input or output; examples include mouse, trackball, joystick, touchpad, puck, stylus, and light pen. A pointer may be variously represented as an arrow, cross, I-beam, hand, or other object, depending upon the content and application; and may also be known as a "mouse cursor". See image map, insertion point, console. Also, a programming variable that contains the encoded instruction or memory address to jump processing into another part of the data structure. Also, a hypertext link or cue on a webpage; see link.

pointillism :
The application of primary colors painted in small dots and brush strokes laid proportionately on a neutral field, employed as a Neo-/Post-Impressionist technique. See stipple, color build, color shift, hue, tint, value; compare mezzotint, tesselate, reticulate.

point of view :
The specified manner of presentation, or the perspective of appraisal for a literary or dramatic work; the position of the character or standpoint of the narrator in relation to the story. [v: mood, tone]

poison-pen :
An acrimonious or malicious composition, usually sent or posted anonymously. See flame-bait, flame, screed; compare euphemism.

polyglot :
A book containing the same text composed in several languages, as a bilingual edition or scholarly translation, as derived from "many + tongued"; see edition, vulgate. Also, facility or fluency in several languages, being multilingual; see creole. Also, a mixture or confusion of several languages; see pidgin.

polysemy :
Words with several or multiple meanings, as having a diversity of meaning rather than a vague ambiguity of intent; derived from "many + signs". See word, vocabulary, counterword, pleonasm, tautology, puffery, prolixity, sesquipedalism.

POP / P.O.P. :
The abbreviation for Post Office Protocol; being a protocol used by mail clients to download messages from a mail server on the Internet. The older version, POP2, a standard since the mid-1980's, requires SMTP to send messages. The newer version, POP3, can be used with or without SMTP. Some e-mail applications can use the newer Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). Also, the abbreviation for Point of Presence; being the closest site where a user can connect to an Internet server or other remote server; or, the location where a line from a long-distance telephone carrier makes a local connection. Also, a slang term meaning to remove or retrieve data from a stack of work in progress; the opposite of "push", for adding to the data stack. Also, the abbreviation for Point of Purchase; being a computer terminal or vending machine situated in a store or shopping mall where a customer can view products with their prices and select items to buy. See e-mail.

pop-up :
A type of child-sized window that appears on top of (over or above) the browser display of a visited webpage. This overlay window pane frequently advertises a product or service, but may contain accessibility specifications or important announcements regarding the visited website. The pop-up box covers a portion of the primary display, necessitating a "click through", which intrusion and delay annoys many visitors, and can alienate potential clients or customers. A similar "pop-under" box, which appears in back of (behind or under) the browser window, will only be revealed during the sequential disconnection from the Internet. Blocking software can eliminate pop-ups (and pop-unders), but loading of a webpage can be delayed due to suppression of a necessary dialog box; furthermore, some child windows will not display if pop-up blocking is active. See box, adware, spyware, spam.

pop-up utility :
A program installed as memory resident, and launched during start-up or coincident with another application, so as to be immediately available whenever a "hot key" keyboard combination is executed. When activated, the pop-up utility overlays any other application until closed for later recall. It differs from task-switching in that the primary program remains displayed, and the pop-up utility often interacts with that program, such as in a dictionary or search procedure. In MS-DOS systems, this utility is known as a "terminate and stay resident" (TSR) program.

pore :
To steadily read or attentively study some subject or material. Also, to meditate upon or ponder over intently. Also, to earnestly or steadily gaze. See edit, redact, recension, blue- / red-pencil, proofread, copyedit, rewrite, stylebook.

pornography :
Pictorial or verbal depictions intended to arouse sexual excitement, or tending to deprave or corrupt; also known as "porn", as derived from "writing about harlots". Pornography is generally considered to be venery or obscenity that panders to lewd, lascivious, salacious, or prurient interest without artistic merit or other redeeming value. See curiosa, photography, expurgate, censorship. [cf: eros, erotica, exhibitionism, masturbation, onanism, exotica; v: nihil obstat, bowdlerize, vulgarity, smut, dirty, hot stuff, adult, soft- / hard-core, X- / XXX-rated, blue movie, skin mag / flick, snuff film, stripper, stag show, striptease, girlie mag / show, burlesque, "burley-cue" (with "girlie-cue"), bawdyhouse, brothel, bordel / bordello, bagnio, house of ill repute, house of ill fame, cathouse, stews, maison de passe, maison close]

portal / portal website / web portal :
A website serving as an entrance to the internet or as a starting point for "web surfing", usually offering a broad array of resources and services, such as e-mail, e-pubs, forums, search engines, and on-line shopping malls; derived from "gateway", especially an impressive or imposing one, or one leading into a tunnel or mine. Compare homepage; see website.

portfolio :
A flat portable case for stowing loose pages, as a manuscript, documents, illustrations, or other work product. See slipcase, loose-leaf, jacket, boustrophedon.

An acronym created from the phrase Portable Operating System Interface, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard that defines a set of operating system services. Programs that adhere to the POSIX standard can be easily ported from one system to another. POSIX was based on UNIX system services, but was created in a way that allows it to be implemented by other operating systems. See file system, program, platform, computer.

post-consumer waste :
Paper that has been printed and returned to a paper mill for recycling, instead of disposal into a landfill. Compare pre-consumer waste, spoilage.

poster :
A broadsheet or placard designed for display in a public place, as for advertising or propagandizing; see one sheet, broadside, eight sheet, bill, blanket sheet, banner, fly sheet, leaflet, handbill, advertising.

poster make-up :
A newspaper or tabloid layout pattern, with large headings, short articles, and numerous pictures. Compare well, frame; see news.

post-press / postpress :
The necessary assembly, trimming, binding, and packaging of a publication preliminary to distribution; compare pre-press, see finish.

PostScript :
A page description language from Adobe Systems that controls desktop printers and imagesetters. PostScript translates the text and graphic images that appear on the computer screen via Display PostScript into instructions for the printer. PostScript must be used with a printer that can interpret it using a PPD file. See PostScript Level 2, EPS, streambedding, preflight, GhostScript, illustration.

PostScript Level 2 :
An enhanced version of PostScript which has improvements in color halftone screening, color matching, and memory management, built-in image file decompression, and the ability to work with extended character sets.

potboiler :
A mediocre work of literature, or any other art, produced merely for financial gain. See dime novel, yellow journalism, writer.

pounce :
A fine powder, as of cuttlebone, formerly used to prevent ink from spreading in writing, or to prepare parchment for writing. Also, a fine powder, often of charcoal, used in transferring a design through a perforated pattern. Derived from pumice. See anti-offset powder.

PPD file :
The abbreviation for PostScript Printer Description file, being a file that gives the PostScript driver information about a printer. Compare EPS; see printer driver.

ppi / ppcm :
The abbreviation for pixels per inch/centimeter, being a unit of measurement for input resolution and display on monitors; compare lpi / lpcm. Also, the abbreviation for pages per inch, being the relative thickness of a book, as a volume prepared for sale in competition with similar treatments or to a select audience giving the impression of increased content.

The abbreviation for Point-to-Point Protocol; being a protocol for communication between computers using TCP/IP, over standard telephone lines, ISDN, and other high-speed connections. PPP was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and is defined with graphical fronts (like Mosaic and Netscape) in RFC 1171. It can be used to connect a computer to the Internet, for services such as the World Wide Web and e-mail. PPP is faster than SLIP, includes error detection and data compression; it can be used for router-to-router and host-to-network connections with both synchronous and asynchronous transmission. A Macintosh control panel, called "Config PPP", is opened by the user to establish a connection containing PPP instructions, such as port speed, modem string, telephone number, server identity, and the like. See SLIP, TCP/IP.

PR :
A UNIX text formatter, which is defaulted to produce documents headed with the file name, date, and page number. Multi-column output is among the available options; and PR can run within a screen-oriented editor, such as "Vi". See text editor.

pre-consumer waste :
Paper that has not been printed, including trimmings leftover from converting paper into products (such as envelopes), from roll ends, from unusable damaged paper, and from mill waste. See broke; compare post-consumer waste, spoilage.

preface :
A preliminary statement, especially by the author or editor of a book, setting forth the purpose, establishing the perspective, and acknowledging contributions or assistance. A preface usually follows a foreword, if both are used. Derived from "to say beforehand"; may also be known as "prolegomenon". See front matter.

preflight :
The initial print job in-take process, often performed by preflight utility software, which determines the completeness of documents or files before any actual work begins; also called a "flight check". The utility analysis program detects problems (eg: missing images) or omissions (eg: absent fonts) prior to being sent to a PostScript RIP; and such a utility may also contain a previewer. See pre-press.

preliminary proof :
Any proof examined prior to making a contract proof. See composite proof, integral proof, galley proof, bombproof.

premium :
An added incentive to subscribe, renew, or donate; it's always something concrete like a special issue, tote bag, or t-shirt. Promotions to increase patronage based upon discounts and premiums usually attract short-term clientele, alienate or annoy regular subscribers subjected to the price disparity or frequency of solicitation, and fail to garner high subscription renewals. See testing, blow-in card, reply coupon, self-mailer.

pre-press / prepress :
The setup and checking of print design before production to ensure that text and illustrations are camera-ready; functions performed by the printer or pre-press service prior to printing may include: color correcting and separating, stripping, and platemaking. With mixed media production, this term is evolving into "electronic pre-press" (EPP) or "pre-media" for spectrum coverage. Compare post-press, preflight.

pre-print :
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting. Compare overprint, surprint.

prequel :
A sequel to a film, play, or piece of fiction that prefigures or foreshadows the original. See series; compare sequel.

press :
All presses are composed of the following units: feeding, registration, printing, delivery. See bed, chase, cold-set web, cylinder press, demand printing, duplicator, feeding unit, flexography, form web, frisket, full web, galley, gravure press, guide edge, half web, head stop, heat-set web, impression cylinder, ink fountain, ink-jet printing, letterpress, linotype, lithography, mimeograph, mini web, monotype, offset, perfect press, planography, platen, quick printing, reprography, rotary press, sheet-fed press, three-quarter web, tympan, web press, xerography; anti-offset powder, pounce. [nb: "Our inventions are wont to be pretty toys, which distract our attention from serious things. They are but improved means to an unimproved end." by Henry David Thoreau]

press check :
Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before authorizing production to begin; also called "on-site inspection". Optional press checks may include determinations of specific materials, true color, separation quality, image consistency, registration accuracy, fold sequences, trim measurements, and physical flaws. Press check sheets should be compared with marked proofs to ensure that corrections were made.

press kit :
An information packet compiled on a specific subject, person, or event, which is also called a media kit; and usually contains a news release, a story summary, background details (eg: resume/r俿um? biography, statistics), and any related materials (eg: jacket illustration, white paper). See advance, publicist, blad, advertising.

press proof :
Proof made on production press, using the plates, ink, and paper specified for the job; also called "strike-off". See proof.

pressrun :
The quantity from a printing press for a specified job; also called "run". See long run, short run, gang, overrun, underrun, tail-in.

preview :
A feature in text-based or command line (non-WYSIWYG) DTP and word processing software that simulates (or approximates) the appearance of a document before printing. See GUI, graphics.

price break :
Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops. In the United States and Canada, price breaks for paper are typically at 4 cartons, 16 cartons, 5,000 pounds, and 20,000 pounds.

printer :
A person or firm engaged in the business of printing; see tramp printer, printery. Also, a machine used for printing; see press. Also, a computer peripheral or output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics; see page printer, printer driver, plotter.

printer driver :
A software routine that describes the physical characteristics of a particular printer, and converts output data for printing into a form that the printer command controls can utilize. Most modern operating systems come with printer drivers for the most common types of printers, but they must be installed before the printer can be used. Updated drivers can also be downloaded from the printer manufacturer's Web site. See PCL, PDL, PPD, Epson emulation, Express, escape sequence.

printer font :
Font converted from display device and produced by software in an output device. Compare screen font; see font.

printer's devil :
A young or inexperienced worker in a printing shop, ranked below the level of apprentice. See demon letters.

printer's pi :
The jumbled disarray of type spilled from its case, or unsorted from disassembled chases; hodgepodge, m俵ange. See demon letters, type case.

printer spreads :
Files prepared so they are imposed for printing. See crossover, spread.

printery :
An establishment for the production of printing; a print shop.

printing :
Any process that transfers to paper, or another substrate, an image from an original, such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die, or plate. The three types of printing are: relief or block (letterpress); recessed or intaglio (gravure); flat or offset (planography). The six steps of printing are: design, image assembly, image conversion, image carrier preparation, image transfer, finishing. Quality is usually classified: basic, good, premium, showcase (qv).

printing plate :
The surface carrying an image to be printed. See cliche.

printing unit :
Assembly of fountain, rollers and cylinders that will print one ink color; also called deck, tower, color station, ink station, and printer station.

privilege :
A right, immunity, defense, benefit, or exemption granted to special group of people, especially persons in authority or office, to free them from certain obligations or liabilities; notably including: "absolute" (public official), "congressional speech and debate" (constitutional exemption), "public personage / figure" (no shield beyond specific area), "practitioner's" (physician, psychologist, chaplain, etc), "employer's" (to communicate with employees about work), "whistleblower's" (expose corruption without trespass or intrusion), "qualified" (opinion clause beyond profession or issue). In publishing, "comparative advertising" (contrast recognizable products, not opinion), "reporter's" (fair comment immunity), "editor's" (alter grammar and quotes without changing meaning; no defamation or infringement). The Supreme Court (Pittsburgh Press Co. v. Human Rel. Comm'n, 1973) emphasized the importance of independent editorial judgment. It prohibited "any restriction whatever, whether of context or layout, on stories or commentary originated by [the press], its columnists, or its contributors." The Court reaffirmed "unequivocally the protection afforded to editorial judgment and to the free expression of views on these and other issues, however controversial." The judicial decision (Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, 1974) averred that "[t]he choice of material to go into a newspaper, and the decisions made as to limitations on the size and content of the paper, and treatment of public issues and public officials -- whether fair or unfair -- constitute the exercise of editorial control and judgment." See edit, freedom of speech.

Abbreviation for Public Relations Official, a publicist; also known as Public Affairs Officer (PAO) or Public Information Officer (PIO).

process colors :
The colors used for four-color process printing: magenta (or "process red"), cyan (or "process blue"), yellow (or "process yellow"), and black (or "process black"). See CMYK, PMS, four-color process, subtractive primary colors, target ink densities, undercolor removal, swatchbook, illustration.

procurement cost :
Total cost of a printing job, including staff time, storage, and overhead.

production advance :
A publisher's payment to a writer to help defray the cost of producing the manuscript, including illustrations, indexing, and special features. The production advance is deducted from amortized royalty payments. A production grant will not be recouped by the publisher. See advance.

product mark :
A trademark (qv) used on only one product; see imprint, brand, collective mark.

program :
A performance or production, usually in broadcast media. Also, a list, prospectus, or syllabus: see catalog. Also, a sequence of coded instructions enabling a computer to perform tasks; see control character, algorithm, subroutine, macro, batch file, script, parameter, meta tag, search engine, plug-in, suite, interface, Linux, NetWare, UNIX, VMS, BeOS, Windows, DOS, CP/M, MP/M, POSIX; compare software, language, markup, database, graphics. [nb: derived from "a written public notice"; compare etymology of 'publish']

progressives :
Color proofs for each stage of printing, showing each color printed singly and then superimposed on the preceding color; also called "progressive proofs". See du Hauron's color theory @ photography.

prolixity :
Writing or speaking extended to an unnecessary or tedious length, as wordy, bombastic, periphrastic, or verbose. See pleonasm, tautology, puffery, sesquipedalism.

prologue :
An introductory part of a publication or production; any preface or preamble. Compare epilogue; see front matter.

prompt :
The symbol on a computer screen indicating readiness to accept input or instructions, or the point of focus in a message box requesting more information or a response. See cursor, mouse, pointer, insertion point, keyboard, box.

proof :
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, adjust settings, predict press results, and record trial as standard of comparison for finished print job. Proof images will fade from overexposure, and actual colors cannot be shown, but all defects, mistakes, and questions should be noted directly on the example. A contact print becomes a "color break proof" when varnish and colors are marked-up, and a "color proof" when builds are revealed. Since proofs are printed on coated paper, fluorescence must be added to simulate appearance on uncoated paper. Digital proofs only generate film or plates after corrections are ready to print. See blueline, Dylux, composite proof, integral proof, overlay proof, press proof, reproduction proof, galley proof, bombproof, proofread, DTP, samples; compare die strike.

proofread :
Reading of text after typesetting but before printing. A proofreader compares the compositor's typeset pages to the original manuscript -- which is always a smart practice even when an author supplies the manuscript on disk, since anomalous coding errors often occur. (nb: One annoying thing about QuarkXpress is that it strips out formatting when you flow in text.) Editors and authors read for stray typographical errors, and sometimes make more substantive changes. Compositors generally charge a fee for "author's alterations" (AA) or any editorial changes. However, in this age of desktop publishing, many publishers are setting their own pages, making it cheap and easy to produce round after round of page proofs. If you can't do your own typesetting, see if you can make a deal with your typesetter that includes one round of corrections. Some typesetters are willing to give you the computer file with your page proofs so that you can enter the corrections yourself. It is wise to give your authors only one crack at page proofs and give them a strict, tight deadline (a week should be enough); authors can get cold feet at the end and make disastrous last minute changes. For the publisher who has typeset her own book, the first time changes will cost money is after the disk has been sent to the printer or service bureau to be made into film. When you make changes on the blueline proof (that aren't correction of printer's errors), you will be charged for a new piece of film on each page you make an author's alteration (or AA). Therefore, make sure to mark any printer's errors clearly with the letters "PE". In the digital age, broken type and weird blots are becoming a thing of the past, but check carefully for them anyway, as well as cropping problems and anything else that diverges from your vision of the book. See copyedit, redact, change order, typographical error, bombproof, sandwich, strike-through, proof, recension, pore, edit.

proofreader's marks :
With more editing and typesetting being performed on computers, the esoteric proofreader's marks are falling into disuse, but their principles still apply to blueline and galley proofs. Unlike corrections on manuscripts, corrections on proofs must always be put in the margin, left or right, next to the line of type in which the correction is to be made. A mark within the line -- a caret for an addition, a line through a letter or word to be deleted -- will indicate where the correction is to be made. A correction or addition should never be written above a line of type. The typesetters, who are responsible for making the corrections, only scan the margins, and will not look for writing buried between lines of type. When more than one alteration is to be made in a line, corrections should be marked in the margin in the order they are to be made in the line, reading from left to right; with a vertical or slant line separating one correction from the next. Every mark in the margin requires a mark in the line, and vice versa. Where many corrections occur in a line or two, it is best to cross out the whole passage containing the errors, and write it all correctly in the margin. A longer correction or addition should be typed onto a separate slip, and fastened to one end of the proof. A circled note in the margin reading "insert attached", with a caret in the line to show where it goes, will alert the typesetter. When correcting proofs, authors and editors should use an ink or pencil color (see blue- / red-pencil) different from that used by the proofreader. See AA, ALL CAPS, BF, C&IC, CAP, CAP&LC, CAP&SC, caret, end sign, H&J, ITAL, LC, ms, number sign, OC, paragraph sign, PE, ROM, section sign, SP, STET, (TK), TR, U&LC, WF, (00), typographical error, notation.

propaganda :
The deliberate and methodical spreading of ideas or information to promote or injure a cause, movement, policy, nation, or other entity. Derived from propagate ("to increase or enlarge by transmission or reproduction"), as an abridgment of the Congregation for Propagating the Faith ("congregatio de propaganda fide"), a committee of cardinals established by Pope Gregory XV in 1622. See freedom of speech, advertising, PSA, flackery, censorship, counterfactual, factoid, disinformation. [nb: the eponymous "dunce" was coined (ca1520) as an expression for any ignorant dolt or stupid dullard by reference to John Duns Scotus ("Doctor Subtilis"), whose writings were attacked by the humanists as foolish; hence the dunce cap, and its mark on paper. See foolscap; compare bunkum @ solecism.]

proportional font :
The characters within each set differ in width, and retain that distinctive ratio when scaled; contrasted with non-proportional fonts, having fixed widths or mono-spacing. See scalable font, raster font, font; compare en, em.

prose :
The ordinary form of spoken or written language, without metrical structure, as distinguished from poetry or verse; derived from "straight forward". In composition, the subjective form of timely and topical journalism observes the Five W's (ie: who, what, when, where, why); while the stylistic function of storytelling is patterned upon the ABCDE's (ie: action, background, consequences, development, ending) of systematic writing. See story, essay, picaresque, vernacular, novel, literature, rhetorical forms, orality, OULIPO. [nb: the closest that prose ever gets to poetry is the use of metaphor and allegory, but too often the metaphors are mixed ("mixaphors") and cliches are substituted for symbols] [v: bureaucratese, officialese, legalese, academese, journalese, computerese]

prosody :
The broad study or science of how language is handled in the composition of poetry. The term encompasses versification (meter, rhyme, traditional forms); Anglo-Saxon poetics; syllable-count methods and forms; free verse; distortion and dissonance applied to traditional methods; sprung rhythm; and any specific stylistic rules or requirements of special poetic movements. See foot, meter, verse, caesura, orality.

protasis :
The clause expressing the condition in a conditional sentence, usually beginning with 'if' in English constructions; compare apodosis, see rhetorical forms. Also, the first part of an ancient drama, in which the characters are introduced, as derived from "proposition"; see dramatis personae, drama.

protocol :
An original draft, minute, or record from which a document or annex is prepared. Also, a plan or regimen; may also be known as contents, agenda, docket, apercu, program, outline, summary. Also, a set of rules governing the format of messages that are exchanged between computers. Originally derived from a leaf or tag attached to the first sheet of a papyrus roll; see scroll.

proxy :
A mechanism allowing one system to "front" for another system when responding to protocol requests. Security applications in gateways and firewalls use proxy intermediary services to screen the secured network from external users. A proxy server provides access to files from other servers by retrieving them either from its local cache or from a remote server.

The abbreviation for Public Service Announcement, being a notice or warning published without compensation for community benefit by the mass media as a requirement for licensure; an unpaid ad by the avuncular government for the citizen's own good. See advertising, advertorial, infomercial, censorship, propaganda.

pseudonym :
See allonym. [cf: innominate]

P sizes :
Even though the ISO A series paper size formats were introduced by the Ontario Government in 1972, the standard Canadian "Paper Sizes for Correspondence", defined by CAN 2-9.60M, were adopted in 1976. The Canadian paper sizes are essentially the US paper sizes, converted to metric numbers and sometimes rounded to the nearest half centimeter. The six formats are: P1 (560 X 860 mm), P2 (430 X 560 mm), P3 (280 X 430 mm), P4 (215 X 280 mm), P5 (140 X 215 mm), P6 (107 X 140 mm). The Canadian pseudo-ISO system suffers the two major inconveniences of the US formats: no common height / width ratio, and significant difference from worldwide usage. See ISO sizes, paper.

psycholinguistics :
The study of the relationship between language and the cognitive or behavioral characteristics of those who use it; including pragmatics. Examines the determinants which vary acquisition (or effacement) rates, lateralization, cognitive processing, and comprehension. See slang, colloquialism, vernacular, dialect, non-standard, standard, language; compare sociolinguistics. [nb: psycholinguistics has been successfully applied to criminalistics and forensics]

publication :
The act of bringing before the public a book, periodical, map, engraving, piece of music, or other tangible creation. In the Information Age, where more than 65% of workers prepare, process, or preserve communications, a publication is simply a delivery system for its contents. The ideas embodied by this mission are better able to reach their demographic target if properly designed. See publish, design, mission statement, guideline, series, periodical, copyright, Gresham's Law.

publication date :
The scheduled circulation date for a publication, usually a series issue of a periodical, intended to reach subscribers and newsstands before the cover date. Dating a publication is important for both advertisers and readers, since surveys show that undated ads are not trusted, and undated copy is presumed to be worthless and is discarded unread. Some publishers use a projected publication date on the cover of their periodicals to prevent distributors from removing "outdated" material from the newsstand before it has a chance to sell; but this false date then becomes the new standard interval, so there is no lasting advantage. See deadline, dateline, expiration date, morgue day.

publication printer :
Printing company specializing in magazines, catalogs, and other products that are typically web printed and saddle-stitched. See saddle-stitch binding, web press.

public domain :
The legal status of tangible intellectual property, such as a literary work, which has lost copyright protection, by dilution or expiration, or for which there never was any protection. See copyright, fair use, subsidiary rights, volume rights.

public domain software :
A computer program, application, or adaptation that has been freely donated for public use by its owner or developer, including unlicensed copying and unrestricted distribution. Such practices are often a philosophical expression about Free Speech in cyberspace, and are a reaction against copyright and proprietary ownership. Compare freeware, open-source, shareware; see software.

publicist :
A person who publicizes, especially a public-relations consultant or press agent; the person who customizes book advertising, and arranges interviews. Derisive or disparaging reference to a publicist or press agent as "flak" (flak) may have something to do with the difficulties they create, but probably describes their ostentatious tumult with little effect (like the same term applied to antiaircraft fire). See press kit, news release, blad, flackery, puffery.

public relations magazine :
A periodical issued by a business, institution, association, or the like, for internal distribution to its employees, or for external distribution to its customers, shareholders, and other interested parties, presenting news about the organization and its personnel; also called "internal ...", "external ...", "promotional ...", "employee ...", or "house organ". Originating with "Lowell Offering" (Lowell Cotton Mills 1840), "The Mechanic" (H.B. Smith 1847), "The Travelerer's Record" (Traveler's Insurance Co 1865; became "Protection"), "The Locomotive" (Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co 1867), until currently constituting a majority of all periodicals. Copies of public relations magazines are filed with the company's or organization's annual reports, trade catalogues, and news clippings. References include: International Association of Business Communicators (IABC), American Society of Business Press Editors (ASBPE), Society of National Association of Publications. The IABC presents categorized "Golden Quill" awards for excellence in this trade publication field, including magapaper. See newsletter, magazine, periodical; compare trade journal.

publish :
The trade of issuing books, music, photographs, maps, and other material for sale to the public; which includes negotiating with authors and their literary agents, editing the author's manuscript, designing the tangible product, producing the finished product, publicizing the work, and arranging market distribution channels. The trade association of the publishing industry in the United States is the American Association of Publishers (AAP), and the industry's trade journal is "Publishers Weekly" (1872). As derived from "to make public", announce, proclaim, blaze. See publication, copyright, niche market, Gresham's Law; compare program.

publishing house :
Any of the large commercial publishers that purchase manuscripts from agents or authors, usually paying an advance on royalties before the book is released. Unless otherwise arranged in the book contract, publishing houses make all editorial decisions (eg: style, content, format), pay all development and production costs, and arrange all advertising and distribution. The author's copyright and subsidiary rights are usually purchased entire; but these options are negotiable. When the book sells, royalties earned will be deducted from the advance previously paid, and the publishing house may also charge administrative fees. The contract stipulates whether royalties are paid on the wholesale or retail price, and whether the author has the right to purchase any remaindered copies at discount for later resale. See subsidy publisher, self-publishing, assisted self-publishing, vanity press.

publishing paper :
Paper made in weights, colors, and surfaces suited to books, magazines, and catalogs. See paper.

puck :
A device used to draw on a digitizing tablet (qv); also called a "cursor pen". A puck is similar to a mouse, except that it has a window with cross hairs for pinpoint placement, and it can have as many as 16 buttons. A stylus (also called a cursor pen) looks like a simple ballpoint pen but uses an electronic head instead of ink. See pointer.

puff :
Exaggerated praise of a published work, usually written for advertising purposes by the publisher or a copywriter. A puff usually appears on the dust jacket of a book, and in review publications. Compare plug; see blurb, ad diction, puffery.

puffery :
Unduly exaggerated publicity, acclaim, or praise, as a tendency to extol fancifully by use of an "atomic flyswatter"; turgid, tumid, bombastic, hyperbolic, grandiloquent, magniloquent, verbose. See blurb, hook, banner, teaser, jargon, boilerplate, pleonasm, tautology, prolixity, balderdash, ballyhoo, pap, ad diction, flackery, publicist, advertising. [v: euphuism; cf: litotes, meiosis] [nb: Medieval alchemists were often referred to as "puffers" to distinguish their bogus propositions from the true knowledge and science of philosophers.]

Pulitzer Prize :
Any of the annual awards in journalism, literature, or music bestowed upon individuals or institutions for outstanding performance or meritorious public service. After Joseph Pulitzer endowed the Columbia School of Journalism, the trustees inaugurated the honorary Prize in 1917; which has since been expanded to include recognition for American history, biography, poetry, novel, drama, and music.

pull-quote :
Alternate term for call-out (qv); also called "pull-line" or "call-up". See sidebar, box, counterfactual, factoid.

pulp :
Any soft, moist, slightly cohering mass, as in the conversion of wood pith or other plant fibers in the making of paper. Alternatives to chipped wood and recycled waste include flax, hemp, coconut, kenaf, and bamboo; see paper, papier-mache, rag, broke, waste, remainder. Also, a magazine or book printed on low-quality paper, usually containing lurid material; see tabloid, zine, pauper press; compare slick.

pun :
The humorous use of a word or phrase, as a "play on words", so as to emphasize or suggest different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound [ie: heteronym, homonym (qqv)] but different in meaning; derived from "pound", as to mistreat [words]. See double entendre, rhetorical forms. [v: paronomasia] [see Confusing Words]

punctuation :
The systematic practice, in writing or printing, of using certain conventional marks and characters in order to separate grammatical elements and clarify the meaning. Punctuation marks are the mechanical means for making the meaning of a sentence easily understood. They indicate the proper relationships between words, phrases, and clauses when word order alone is not sufficient to make these relationships clear. No attempt should be made to redeem an improperly constructed sentence with punctuation; rather, it should be rephrased or recast. Formerly, internal punctuation marks, such as the semicolon and ellipsis, were separated like words with single spaces, and external punctuation marks, such as the exclamation point and question mark, were double spaced; but several factors led to a style change in the modern era. In an effort to conserve space that could be sold to advertisers, newspapers and tabloids reduced indentations and single spaced all punctuation. Contributing to this style change were the format conventions in HTML and SGML coding, which reduces all multiple spaces to a single space. The most significant contribution to altered punctuation spacing has been the proliferation of proportional fonts in word processing and DTP programs. The more sophisticated stylebooks give different recommendations for the spacing of monotype or typewriter type (TT) and of proportional fonts; making the appearance and readability of copy more crucial than the uniformity of invariable rules. See stylebook, orthography, Oxford comma, British quotation, quotation marks, ellipsis, hyphen, dash, swung dash, tilde, apostrophe, colon, semicolon, comma, period, exclamation point, question mark, interrobang, tittle, diacritic, paragraph, copyedit, proofreader's marks, syllabary, dictionary, notation, indent, hanging, typeface, syntax, parse, alphabet.

pushcart press :
Any small publisher with direct public sales and marginal advertising; as derived from street vendors of other products distributed by handcart.

put to bed :
Catch-phrase for finishing a publication prior to production and distribution; also called "put through". See deadline.

Python :
An object-oriented interpreted programming language developed by Guido van Rossum. Python is very portable since Python interpreters are available for most operating system platforms. Although Python is copyrighted, the source code is freely available; and unlike GNU software, it can be commercially re-sold. The name is derived from the television show "Monty Python's Flying Circus", one of Guido van Rossum's favorites. See object-oriented programming, language.

- Q -

quad :
An abridgement of quadrat, being a piece of type metal of lower height than the lettered types, serving to cause a blank in printed matter, used for spacing; see slug, leading, nonpareil, furniture; compare feathering. Also, the standard spacing interval for letters, words, and sentences in printed matter as sized by font; see nuts, mutton, letter spacing, stylebook.

quadding-out :
Slang for filling or closing a line of composed type with enough spacers to finish it to the margin or end.

quadtone :
A four-color halftone. See monotone, duotone, CMYK. four-color process, process colors, illustration.

quantum / quantum computing :
First proposed in the 1970s, quantum computing relies on quantum mechanics by taking advantage of certain quantum physics properties of atoms or nuclei that allow them to work together as quantum bits, or "qubits", to be the computer's processor and memory. By interacting with each other while being isolated from the external environment, qubits can perform certain calculations exponentially faster than conventional computers. Qubits do not rely on the traditional binary nature of computing. While traditional computers encode information into bits using binary numbers, either a 0 or 1, and can only do calculations on one set of numbers at once [v: "von Neumann architecture" @ IAS], quantum computers encode information as a series of quantum-mechanical states such as spin directions of electrons or polarization orientations of a photon that might represent a 1 or a 0, might represent a combination of the two, or might represent a number expressing that the state of the qubit is somewhere between 1 and 0, or a superposition of many different numbers at once. A quantum computer can do an arbitrary reversible classical computation on all the numbers simultaneously, which a binary system cannot do, and also has some ability to produce interference between various different numbers. By doing a computation on many different numbers at once, then interfering the results to get a single answer, a quantum computer has the potential to be much more powerful than a classical computer of the same size. In using only a single processing unit, a quantum computer can naturally perform myriad operations in parallel. Quantum computing is not well suited for tasks such as word processing and e-mail, but it is ideal for tasks such as cryptography, modeling, and indexing very large databases. See analog, cybernetics, computer.

quarter binding :
A book binding in which the spine is leather and the sides are cloth or paper. See binding.

quarter tones :
Tones between shadows and midtones (3/4 tones) and between highlight and midtones (1/4 tones). See tonal range.

quarto :
A book size of about 9 x 12 inches (24 x 30 cm), determined by folding printed sheets twice to form four leaves or eight pages; symbol: 4to (qq = quartos). See sheet.

question mark :
A punctuation mark (?) indicating a question, inquiry, rhetorical investigation, hesitation, or doubt; also called "interrogation point"; see interrobang, punctuation. Also, a symbol that can substitute in DOS and UNIX for any single variable character; see wildcard.

queue :
A sequence of ordered items awaiting processing, especially for some electronic action in a computer system. See pagination, gang.

quick printing :
Printing using small sheet-fed presses and cut sizes of bond or offset paper. See duplicator, demand printing, reprography, short run, press.

quill :
The feather of a bird formed into a pen (qv) for writing; see writing instrument.

quire :
A set of 24 uniform sheets of paper; see ream. Also, a section of printed leaves in proper sequence after gathering and folding; derived from a "set of four sheets". See binding.

quoin :
Wedge-shaped pieces of wood or metal for securing type in a chase (qv), which are locked (closed or set) and unlocked (opened or released) with a "quoin key". See reglet, key.

quotation :
To cite or represent a phrase or passage, as from a speech or book, also called "quote"; see epigraph, epigram, bite, squib, snippet, call-out, ear, misquotation. Also, the current price offered by a printer to produce a specific job; see estimate, fixed costs, variable costs, formula pricing, unit cost, specifications, ticker tape.

quotation marks :
The marks (") placed at the beginning and end of cited phrases or passages to indicate attribution other than the author, to identify dialogue in print, and to denote selected words or phrases for emphasis; also known as "quotes" or "quote marks". For quotations within quotations, or "inner quotations", the enclosed citation is demarcated with "half-" or "single-quotes" (apostrophe) to distinguish it from the external citation marked with "full-" or "double-quotes". In printing, the opening and closing marks are differentiated. Compare apostrophe; see punctuation.

- R -

rag :
To set copy or align text for a particular configuration, as when paper / image size or margin / header changes necessitate adjustments; also called "re-rag" for realignments; see RIP, copyfit, tweak. Also, a cloth-based pulp used in making high-quality paper, such as bond (qv). Also, a newspaper or magazine regarded with contempt or distaste; see tabloid, zine, pauper press.

ragged :
A column of text or a page of copy set with one or both sides unjustified, leaving one or both print margins irregular or jagged. Compare rag; see alignment, straight composition, flush, justify, feathering. [nb: Text lines that do not start at the same point are more difficult to read, but lines that do not end at the same point are considered more humanistic or personal; indented verse and center justified poetry is a stylistic exception or aesthetic variant considered acceptable for short works. See readability.]

The abbreviation for Random Access Memory, as distinguished from ROM in computer data retrieval. Compare flash memory, bento storage.

raster :
The scan pattern on a display, such as the computer screen or television cathode-ray tube, in which the images are formed by a scanning electron beam that moves in horizontal and vertical lines over the area. The images on a raster display are made up of many tiny dots called pixels. Derived from to scratch / scrape, as with a rake, to form a screen network (array). Also known as "raster display" or "raster format". Also, a bitmapped graphical image; see bitmap graphics, compare vector graphics.

raster burn :
Damage to a computer screen caused by leaving it on for long hours without a screen saver. Also, eyestrain from staring at a computer screen for too long; this can happen sooner with a low resolution monitor, or glare from improper backlighting; compare mogigraphia.

raster font :
A bitmapped font. A font in which each character is formed from pixels arranged to make the shape of the character. Such an arrangement of pixels is called a bitmap, and loses definition when scaled. Compare scalable font; see font, type.

raster graphics :
Bitmapped graphics; computer graphics in which the image is made up of tiny dots called pixels. See bitmap graphics; compare vector graphics.

raster image processor :
Hardware, software, or both which prepares images for output in rasterized format (*.RIP) on the computer screen or printer.

The abbreviation of Retail Display Allowance; being a sum paid to dealers who agree to display the entire cover or full face of a magazine. See newsstand, kiosk, BBS, banner, distributor. [nb: in a competitive display, each periodical has 2.7 seconds or less to capture the attention of potential buyers]

read :
To apprehend or translate signs and symbols so as to recognize their significance or understand their meaning, especially in written or printed form. Also [in academese], a processing skill of symbolic reasoning, sustained by the interfacilation of an intricate hierarchy of substrata factors, that have been mobilized as a psychological working system, and impressed into service in accordance with the purpose of the reader. See word, prose, prosody, language, semiotics, legibility, readability.

readability :
The characteristics of printed material that contribute to its ease of reading, including factors that reduce fatigue, such as the use of serif type, to direct the eye from one letter to the next throughout the body, and lines of text not longer than 50-53 characters, to reduce eye movement while increasing reading speed. Sans-serif typefaces normally read about 70% slower than serif types, which makes them more tiring for longer text. The optimum line width rule is that a line of text should be no longer than one-and-a-half times (1.5X) the point size of the lowercase alphabet used, regardless of font size. For text comprised of alphabetic letterforms, using a typical serif typeface designed to represent word gestalts and cultural cognates, a font sized approximately 11.25 points is optimal for mental processing of human visual geometry over an extended reading period; however, periodicals often reduce body text size by at least one point due to restricted space. Size and attribute changes should be infrequent to garner maximum style effect. A daunting "wall of text" [v: solid] can be both boring and painful if rests are not interlarded. Reading comfort increases comprehension. See ragged, raster burn, interlaced, MPX, optical center, sequence, legible, type noise, z-path.

reader profile :
Based upon theories of literary criticism that focus on reader response, instead of author intention, which is augmented by the commercialization of publishing, a sociometric or psychographic analysis of probable audiences and potential subscribers of specialized periodicals. Such categorical targeting appeals to advertisers and sponsors. See universe, circulation, CPM, audit, audience, mass market, crossover market, niche market.

reader spread :
Files prepared in two-page layouts, as readers would see the finished pages. See spread, wall walk.

read through :
A setup policy that forces the audience to turn the page in order to continue a story or article. This practice is implemented by a manipulation of art, spacing, and other page elements, such that a sentence in a continuing presentation never ends at the bottom of a page. This practice eliminates any potential confusion about whether a piece is finished; and also eliminates the need for continue lines or page markers (qqv) to signal a continuation. This setup is a joint effort, wherein the art department implements editorial style policy. See pipeline, layout.

real estate :
The available space in a publication which must be allocated for textual copy, illustrative images, and advertising. There is always competition for "prime real estate", and each form wants to increase its "holdings" at the expense of others. See cover positions, center spread, feature well.

ream :
A standard quantity of paper, consisting of 20 quires or of 500 sheets [formerly 480 sheets (ie: 20 X 24 = 480); alternatively 516 sheets]. Derived from "bale". See paper.

ream marked :
Sheets of paper in a carton or on a skid with markers placed every five-hundredth sheet.

rebus :
A representation of a word or phrase by pictures or symbols suggesting that word or phrase, or a pictorial riddle of its syllables; also used in heraldry. Term derives from a Latin phrase "non verbis sed rebus" (not by words but by things); but comic puns and satiric squibs published in Paris during carnival were called "de rebus quae geruntur" (on the things that are happening), which attempted to avoid libel actions for reporting such frolicsome follies by employing pictures instead of words. See glyph, hieroglyphics, pictography, ideogram, logogram, semiotics, alphabet, typology, language.

recall :
The withdrawal or revocation and retrieval of a product due to defect or other liability, as to order back or "callback" for public safety, consumer information, and the like. Retrieval summons for publications usually involve copyright infringement or libel litigation, since errors, omissions, and other misprints are remedied by revisions or reprints. See offprint, run-on, out of print, fair use, license, reprint permission, copyright.

recast :
To remodel or reconstruct a literary work, document, sentence, or the like; see redact, edit, copyedit, proofread, rewrite, recension, pore. Also, to provide a play or role with a new cast or different performer; see drama, play, opus.

recension :
A critical revision of a text, especially one based on examination of its sources; as derived from "revision of the censor's roll". See edit, redact, rewrite, pore.

recto / rectos :
A right-hand or odd-numbered page of an open book or manuscript; the front of a leaf. Title and contents pages are always recto, while frontispiece and acknowledgment pages are usually verso. Compare verso. [cf: dexter]

recycled paper :
New paper made wholly or in part from old or waste paper that's been pulped, blended, and bleached. Of the three types of paper (ie: wood, cotton fiber, recycled), paper made from reclaimed materials is the most expensive, most deficient, and least attractive ... being always off-white and frangible. See opacity, paper. [nb: the recycle symbol is intentionally misleading; since in its solid form means "made from recycled materials", but in its hollow form means "made of materials that can be recycled"]

redact :
To put into suitable literary form by editing; derived from "to drive back" or restore. See edit, copyedit, proofread, rewrite, recension, recast, pore.

red ink :
An important annotation or significant demarcation, such as a "red-letter day", as derived from writing in blood; see rubric. Also, indebtedness, unremunerative, or uneconomical, such as literary publications; distinguished from the "black ink" color used in profitable ledgers.

red-pencil :
To alter, edit, or delete with (or as if with) a red colored pencil. See blue-pencil, proofread.

reference marks :
Any of various distinctive symbols or superscript numbers used to direct a reader to further information in a bibliography, annotation, appendix, or other text. See asterisk, dagger, footnote, shoulder note, side note, marginalia, gloss, notation.

reflective copy :
Products, such as illustrations and photographic prints (including fabrics), viewed by light reflected from them. See illustration.

regional book :
A term used in the publishing industry for a book written to appeal to readers who live in, or have an interest in, a specific geographic area. Regional books are usually published by small presses, and are sold in local bookstores and by mail-order. They include local histories, biographies, genealogies, directories, cookbooks, travel guides, field guides, and the like.

regional edition :
A periodical tailored for a select geographical area, usually supplemented with advertising and editorial copy of local interest. Many consumer magazines issue discrete variants containing specialized advertising split into separate market regions, sometimes called "splinter-editions"; and there are more than 190 individual city and regional periodicals in existence. Originating with "Honolulu" (1888) and "Philadelphia" (1908), this mode continues with "Arizona Highways" (1925) and "Vermont Life" (1946). References include: City and Regional Magazine Association (CRMA). See magazine, periodical, issue, selective binding.

register :
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet, so as to be "in register". See repeatability, spread, choke, body copy. [nb: coloring text can be an effective stylistic motif, as long as the copy is clear and readable; but coloring individual words and phrases in the body copy (rather than using font attributes) will probably not register properly when printed, so will detract from the design intent]

register marks :
Cross-hairlines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register; also called "crossmarks" and "position marks". See keylines.

registration unit :
The place on any press where paper is accurately and consistently positioned for printing. See guide edge, head stop, gripper edge, press.

reglet :
A flat narrow strip, fillet, or molding used to adjust the fit and brace the tension of type set into a chase (qv); used like a shim. See quoin, furniture, key, tweak.

reissue :
A subsequent impression of an earlier edition, with a redesigned cover, jacket, and/or title page, and changes in the front and/or back matter, but body text that is substantially unchanged. See issue, copy, replica.

relative link :
A hyperlink on the same website, using an abridged URL; a complete internet address linkage is called "absolute". Compare target, see link, pointer, hot link, hot spot.

remainder :
Publications that are discounted from the inventory of the publisher because of overprinting, sluggish sales, or outdated material. An author's contract may entitle them to a "first right of refusal" to salvage remaindered titles; or the books and magazines may simply be pulped into recycled paper to save shipping and storage costs.

remarque :
A distinguishing mark, placed in the margin, indicating a particular stage of an engraved plate, which mark is later removed after proof prints; or a plate itself so marked.

renaissance :
The spirit and activity which typified the period of transition between the Medieval and Modern times, known as the "Revival of Learning". Conventionally characterized as a Catholic phenomenon, the Renaissance was transformed by the Reformation into the Enlightenment, immediately prior to the Industrial Revolution. See athenaeum, literature.

rendition :
To represent or depict something, as a rendered version. Also, to adapt or interpret something, as a translation. See edition.

renewal rate :
The rate of subscribers renewing annually. For example, if you're a quarterly you would look to the ratio of renewing subscribers to your total number of expires over the four issues. If a total of 4000 subscribers were up for renewal in a 12 month period and 3000 renew, your renewal rate would be 75%. When publishers talk about renewal rates, they will often separate first-time renewals (conversions) from long-term renewals because conversion rates are typically much lower. In a year of many marketing campaigns, conversion rates can truly skew renewal rates. See circulation, conversion rate, draw, fulfillment period, expiration date, subscription.

renewal series :
A sequence of solicitation letters, with incremental efforts encouraging paid subscribers to renew. Ideally, each series is comprised of four to seven efforts mailed at regular intervals, which vary depending on frequency. Typically, a renewal series will begin no later than three months prior to expire and will include at least one post-expire effort. Key coded response mechanisms and BREs are also essential components.

repeatability :
Ability of a device, such as an Imagesetter, to produce film or plates which yield images in register.

replica :
A work of art reproduced or supervised by the maker of the original; derived from "reply", repeat. Compare copy, near frame.

reply coupon :
A reply device for direct response promotions. This convenient mechanism provides a summary of the offer ("4 issues for $24"), allows respondent to fill in name and address information, and lists payment options ("check enclosed, credit card order, bill me later"). The publication's return address information should also be clearly listed. See premium, blow-in card, self-mailer, tracking, white mail.

reprint permission :
When reference or citation to a given work exceeds fair use (qv), and does not qualify for any derivative exception, permission for intended use must be obtained from the copyright holder in writing. The request should note the exact portion(s) of the work, and how it will be used. If for non-commercial use, the reprint authorization may request a waiver of any copyright reproduction fees. If more than one citation is held by a single copyright then the several reprint requests should be submitted simultaneously. There is no "blanket permission" for reprints, only specifics. See license, subsidiary rights, volume rights.

reproduction proof :
A high quality photo sample on coated stock of a hot type composition intended for cold type image assembly (eg: camera ready) and production. See hot type, cold type, proof.

reprography :
The reproduction of documents, drawings, and the like, by any process using light or photography, as xerography, diazo, or offset printing; contraction derived from REPROduction + photoGRAPHY. Reprographics is the broad category for all specialized (art, engineering, architecture) and general office copying; and is cost effective for small to medium quantity duplication in competition with commercial pressruns. See duplex, simplex, quick printing, demand printing.

resolution :
The degree of sharpness of a computer-generated image, as measured by the number of dots per linear inch in a hard-copy printout, or the number of grid pixels on a display screen. Also, the ability of a device to record or reproduce a sharp image. The finest images can be obtained on a gravure press, and the most inferior images are produced by silkscreen. See unsharp masking, illustration.

reticulate / reticulation :
Resembling or forming a net or network, as to mark with web-like or interconnected lines. Also, something ornamented with lines that appear, by layering or shading or other effect, to be interlaced. Also, any work composed of diamond shaped elements, squared elements set diagonally, or any other oblique layout on the bias. See mezzotint, tessellate, layout, design.

retouch :
To alter or improve an illustration by the addition or subtraction of content or tone. Reducing the amount of light for certain areas of an image is called "dodge"; and increasing the amount of light for certain areas of an image is called "burn". See airbrush, gamma.

return privilege :
The contractual right of the retail bookseller to send unsold copies of a book back to the publisher for credit, under certain conditions (eg: minimum shelf time, resaleable condition, prepaid freight). Publishers normally establish a "reserve against returns" fund, to avoid paying an author for unsold books, and then attempting to recover any overpayments; which entitles them to manage the royalty account for an extended time. This practice increases administrative costs, reduces royalty payments, and grants an interest-free loan to the publisher from their writers.

reverse :
Type and images reproduced by printing ink around their outline, thus allowing the underlying color of paper to show through, and form the image; also called outline or cameo. Type and color reverses require font sizes larger than normal display faces for an effective appearance. See cutout, knockout; compare silhouette, drop out.

reverse video :
A display mode on the video screen or monitor of a computer in which the colors normally used for characters and background are reversed or transposed. Many programs use reverse video to highlight items, such as selected text or menu options. Some systems allow the user to change the mode for all displays. Sometimes called a "negative image", or "inverse video". See screen.

revolving-door :
Euphemism for the high and rapid turnover of editorial staff and publishing employees, reflecting an exploitative industry that foments stress and disloyalty. See golden hello, golden handcuffs, golden key, golden parachute, headhunting, non-competition agreement, staff.

revue :
A form of theatrical entertainment in which recent events, popular fads, manners and customs are in skits, songs, and dances. See bathos, comedy, interlude, drama.

rewrite :
To write in a different form or manner; revise. Also, to write a news article from facts submitted by a reporter. See space writer, deskman.

The abbreviation of Request For Comment, being an invitation to analytic suggestion and constructive criticism. Compare FYI.

Radio Frequency IDentification, being an active form of "smart tag" that can respond to electronic inquiry and transmit select data without interruption of other processes. May be used to track movements, trace shipments, coordinate clearances, transfer funds, arrange adjustments, and signal for services; as embedded in products, "smart" credit cards, access licenses or passport cards. The most common application is in transportation through toll or way stations, which facilitates commuter and commercial traffic. A passive form of this "smart tag" is the Electronic Product Code (EPC). Compare bar code, UPC.

The abbreviation for Red Green Blue, being the additive primary colors. The category of two-digit hexadecimal representations of color is often abbreviated "RRGGBB", for Red Red Green Green Blue Blue ("COLOR=#RRGGBB") substitutions. See illustration.

rhetorical forms :
The use of stylistic devices and figures of speech, such as a rhetorical question or paradox, to create an effect in written or spoken communication. Rhetorical forms of expression include: abecedarian hymn, ablation, acrostic, agonist / antagonist, allegory, alliteration, allusion, amphigory, anacoluthon, anagram, analogy, anthropomorphism, anticlimax, antinomy, antiphrasis, antithesis, apodosis, assonance, bathos, catachresis, chiasmus, cliche / clich? climax, consonance, counterpoint, dissonance, double entendre, dysphemism, echolalia, euphemism, euphuism, figurative, gravamen, hyperbole, hypocorism, idiom, irony, litotes, malapropism, meiosis, metaphor, metathesis, metonymy, notarikon, onomatopoeia, oxymoron, paragoge, parody, paronomasia, pathos, periphrasis, perseveration, personification ("pathetic fallacy"), pleonasm, polysemy, prolepsis, protagonist, protasis, pun, sarcasm, satire, simile, spoonerism, solecism, syllepsis, syncope, synecdoche, synonymy, tautology, thesis, tmesis, trope, truncation, zeugma. See vernacular, elocution, diction, prose, poetry, literature, Parthian shot, OULIPO, language, alphabet, imagery.

rhyme :
Identity in the sound of some parts of verse, especially the terminal words or the end of lines; formerly "rime". Also, verse or poetry having correspondence in the terminal sounds of their lines. See perfect rhyme, meter, foot, scansion, prosody, verse, poetry.

right reading :
Any setup, plate, or image that can be easily prepress inspected, because it appears the same as its printout. Compare wrong reading; see illustration.

rim :
Formerly, the outside of the U-shaped copy desk (qv) where the copyeditors surrounded the editor, and processed work from copywriters and deskmen for submission to the art department to setup the current issue; being the publication's second echelon of operational control in the editorial hierarchy. Compare slot; see fishbowl.

The designation for raster image processor (qv); a pre-press stage performed after stripping. Also, the abbreviation for Rest In Proportion, being a layout designation for adjusting text and graphics to fit a given space, often in relation to a fixed object; see copyfit, rag, tweak.

river :
The appearance of white space, "flowing like a river" or "running like a white stream", through the interstices of justified text with poor hyphenation and shorter measures, creating a visual distraction in the page layout. See H&J, hourglass, trapped white space, white space.

Contraction of Run-OFF, being the standard UNIX text formatter using embedded commands, which require associated programs to be invoked to generate the desired output. The programs involved with ROFF are: nroff (to format text for display on a terminal or monitor); troff (to format text for display on a phototypesetter); ptroff (to format text for display on a PostScript device); tbl (to format tables for ROFF); eqn (to format mathematical equations for troff / ptroff); neqn (to format mathematical equations for nroff); checknr (to check ROFF input files for possible errors); checkeq (to check eqn / neqn input files for possible errors); col (to allow display of non-standard nroff output on a terminal). Embedded ROFF commands are prefixed by either a period (.) or a backslash (\), and macros may be invoked for consistency and efficiency. See GROFF, text editor.

rollout / roll-out :
The fanfare coincident with the initial release or general display of a new publication, especially the extensive campaign introducing a production or design, after preliminary test marketing. See testing, advertising. [nb: not to be confused with 'ink roll-out' (qv)]

Abbreviation for "set in roman type"; see proofreader's marks. Also, the abbreviation for Read Only Memory, as distinguished from RAM in computer data retrieval; compare flash memory, bento storage.

roman a clef / roman ?clef :
A novel that represents historical events and characters under the guise of fiction; derived from "novel with a key". Compare historiography. [v: "epistolary fiction" at journal]

Roman type :
Considered the normal or conventional style of any given typeface; abbreviated ROM. An oblique or "slant Roman" is not a true Italic typeface. See proofreader's marks, typeface.

rotary press :
A printing press in which the type or plates to be printed are fastened upon a rotating cylinder, and impressed on a continuous roll of moving paper (eg: flexography). Compare cylinder press; see press.

rotogravure :
A photomechanical process by which pictures, typeset matter, and especially magazine supplements in newspapers, are printed from an intaglio copper cylinder. On "shell cylinders", used to speed setup for the next publication, a nickel sleeve covers the copper cylinder, then is electroplated with copper for plate etching; thus permitting the sleeve to be stripped for later recovery, instead of refinishing the base cylinder each time. Process invented by Carl Kleitsch (1894); term derived from the name of a Berlin printing firm ("Rotogravur Deutsche Tiefdruck Gesellschaft"), which was formed from the merger of two other firms ("Rotophot" and "Deutsche Photogravur"). Compare photogravure; see gravure, gravure press.

router :
A device that connects multiple computer networks and finds the best path for a data packet to be sent from one network to another. A router stores and forwards electronic messages between networks, first determining all possible paths to the destination address and then picking the most expedient route, based on the traffic load and the number of hops. A router works at the network layer (layer 3 of the OSI model); a bridge works at the data link layer (layer 2). A router does more processing than a bridge, and provide more functionality than bridges. Routers provide network management capabilities such as load balancing, partitioning of the network, use statistics, communication priority, and trouble shooting tools that allow network managers to detect and correct problems even in a complex network of networks. Given these capabilities, routers are often used in building wide area or enterprise wide networks. Some routers are protocol-dependent, and some are protocol-independent. A router can be hardware or a combination of hardware and software. In internet terminology, routers are also called "gateways". See internet, WAN, WWW.

royal :
A size of printing paper, 20 x 25 inches (51 x 64 cm); a size of writing paper, 19 x 24 inches (48 x 61 cm). Compare monarch; see paper.

royalty :
An agreed portion of the proceeds for the use of an artistic work, which is paid to its author or copyright owner, usually based upon a percentage of the retail price of each copy sold; derived from the compensation for a royal prerogative. See advance, escalation, return privilege.

A public-key encryption technology developed by RSA Data Security, with the technique's abbreviation based upon the inventor's surnames: Rivest - Shamir - Adleman / Adelman. The RSA algorithm is founded upon the fact that there is no efficient way to factor very large numbers. Deducing an RSA key, therefore, requires an extraordinary amount of computer processing power and time. The RSA algorithm has become the de-facto standard for industrial-strength encryption, especially for data sent over the internet. It is built into many software products, including Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. The technology is so powerful that the USA government has restricted its export to foreign countries. A similar widely used technology is offered by a company called Cylink. See proxy, firewall, password, escrow key, steganography.

Abbreviation for Read The Damn Manual, also known as Read The Funny Manual (RTFM), being an axiom in computer science that the answer is in the book; it's the invariable response to human errors blamed on the machine. See debug, kludge, patch, GIGO, help.

rubric :
A title, heading, or the like, in a manuscript or book, written or printed in red, or otherwise distinguished from the rest of the text; sometimes called an "ornamented" or "illuminated" capital. See initial, swash, drop-cap, small-cap, majuscule.

ruby :
A 5.5 point type; sometimes classified as agate (qv). See font, type.

rule :
A horizontal or vertical line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy; rule thickness is measured by point or percent, and rule length is measured by pica, percent, inch, or centimeter. See column rule, header, footer, tool line, Oxford rule, black space, ornament, fillet, vignette, master page, illustration.

ruleup :
Map or drawing showing how a printing job must be imposed using a specific press and sheet size.

rums :
A slang term for a miscellaneous assortment of unsaleable books; as used by London booksellers of the 18th century, probably derived from the previous contents of the wooden barrels used to store them. See plug.

rune :
Any of the characters of certain ancient alphabets, as of a script used for writing Germanic languages, especially of Scandinavia and Britain, from about the 3rd to 13th centuries; see diacritic, alphabet. Also, a poem, song, or verse. Also, something secret or mysterious, as an aphorism with mystical meaning; derived from "secret writing"; see steganography.

runner :
A conversational thread, or a bit of subsidiary character business, that recurs during an episode as an amusing or humanizing filler. See dialogue, monologue, byplay, plot, story line.

running foot :
A descriptive word, phrase, title, or the like, usually repeated at the bottom of each page of a book, periodical, or other publication; also known as foot or footer (qqv). Compare running head; see foot and folio line, dateline, website.

running head :
A descriptive word, phrase, title, or the like, usually repeated at the top of each page of a book, periodical, or other publication; also known as "folio line" or header (qv). Compare running foot; see meta tag, dateline, website.

run-on :
Something added or extended, as an appendix, reprint, or reproduction. Also, a continuation, as a definition that extends onto the next column, a story that runs onto the next page, or a verse that flows onto the next line, especially one without a syntactic break.

- S -

saddle-stitch binding :
An overcast or spaced running stitch in heavy thread or cord, often in contrasting color, along the back-edge of a book; also called "side-sewn binding", "cleat-stitch binding", and "side-wire binding". In binding tabloid fold-overs, the retaining staples or stitches at the valley or gutter have likewise acquired this designation; also called "pamphlet binding", "saddle-wire binding", and "stitch binding". Compare side-stitch binding; see binding, sheet, signature.

The acronym for Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange, being a MicroSoft file format that specifies and enables the simultaneous presentation of text and multimedia, such as for closed captioning of audio output. Compare SMIL.

samizdat :
A borrowed Russian word, which was popularly introduced to the American language about 1960 by dissident reformers and disfranchised refuseniks, that means "unauthorized publication", and has become synonymous with "underground press". Such "unofficial literature" is often anti-propagandistic, and is usually pseudonymous or anonymous. See graffiti, imprimatur, disinformation, censorship, freedom of speech.

samizdatchik / samizdatchiki :
From the borrowed Russian word samizdat, the author, agent, or publisher of unauthorized writing; any disseminators of materials from an unofficial or underground press. See allonym, graffitist.

samples :
A small quantity of goods, or a selection from production, intended to show the quality, style, or nature of the whole; specimen, exemplification. Samples are concurrent with the pressrun, and are not proof copies; however, "advance samples" can be produced at additional expense for verification. A better sampling method would be ink roll-out and/or tail-in testing. See hand sample, advance copies, swatchbook.

sandwich :
An insertion or reference insinuated into a proof copy before it goes to press; see insert, AA, change order, proofread, interpolation, interlinear, trope. Also, a short notice placed in the body of text; also called a "reference line".

sans-serif :
A style of type without serifs (qv). See typeface, type family, font. [nb: sans-serif normally reads about 70% slower than serif typefaces, which makes it more tiring for longer text; see readability]

satin finish :
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper. See paper coating.

scalable :
The development of a product or business into new applications or derivations, as a book into seminars and films, or a play into festivals and scholarships; being diversification more than monopolistic expansion. See entrepreneurship, venture.

scalable font :
A font that can be used to print characters of any size. In a scalable font, the outlines of the characters are stored as vector graphics, rather than having a bitmap of each character. Because the outline can be scaled to any size and then filled in with dots, all sizes will print with the same quality. Examples of scalable fonts are the Adobe Type 1 PostScript fonts, Microsoft TrueType fonts, OpenType, Intellifont typefaces, and Speedo fonts. See font.

scamp :
A rough sketch of a design showing the basic concept. Also, any job done in a hasty or careless manner. See block-in, sketch, line drawing.

scanner :
A device that converts an analog image, such as a photo, into a digital image; furthermore, most text can be imported into ASCII characters, but style and misspellings will require editing in a word-processing program.

scansion :
A system for determining the meter of a piece of poetry; as derived from "climb". Based upon whether a syllable is accented or not, a verse so marked can be analyzed for its rhythmic pattern. See accent, foot, meter, prosody, rhyme, caesura.

scenario :
An outline of the plot, or sometimes the complete script, of a dramatic work, giving particulars of the scenes, characters, story development, and production directions. Also, any imagined or conjectured sequence of events, as from several detailed plans or possibilities; the brainstorming of options. See story line, storyboard.

scent :
A distinctive characteristic that may be introduced into a printing job, usually by flooding (like a varnish) the substance onto uncoated paper, to obtain a particular fragrance or aroma. Although the artistic effect is not unlike foil stamps or die cuts, scent impregnated paper may induce adverse responses in the reader recipient, including allergic reactions and respiratory distress, for which the printer and publisher can be held liable. See paper coating. [nb: "scratch 'n' sniff" is the trademark for a patented scent process]

schwa :
The neutral vowel sound typically occurring in unstressed syllables, as mid-central in English words. Also, the phonetic symbol (inverted e) used to represent this sound. Derived from "no vowel". See vowel, syllabary, diacritic, accent.

score :
A mark, line, or incision as denotation or demarcation. Also, to mark or cut surface ridges, usually in a pattern. Also, to facilitate bending or folding with a crease. Also, any group or set of twenty.

scrap :
Any small amount of data temporarily pasted from the clipboard or scrapbook onto the blank space of a program margin or computer desktop for later transfer into a permanent file. See squib, snippet. [nb: scrap and clipboard data is transitory, but scrapbook (qv) data is retained during shutdown and retrievable after reboot]

scrapbook :
An album or other repository for storing or displaying clips, images, mementos, or collectibles. Also, in the Macintosh computer environments, a desk accessory that enables the storage of multiple objects for future use; see scrap.

scratchboard :
A board prepared with black India ink over a China clay surface; also called "scraperboard". Drawings are produced by scraping away the ink to expose the clay surface, which may then be transferred.

screamer :
A sensational headline printed in very large type. See streamer, banner, heading.

screed :
Any long essay, discourse, or disquisition, especially a tirade, diatribe, philippic, or jeremiad; as derived from "torn fragment". See news, flame, flame-bait, balderdash, sleazy. [v: billingsgate]

screen :
A glass plate on which two sets of intersecting lines have been etched, used to make halftones and color builds. Also, a display component, computer monitor, video display terminal (VDT), or cathode-ray tube (CRT); see EGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, raster, ppi / ppcm, reverse video, soft copy, raster burn; compare console.

screen angles :
Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal line of the press sheet. The common screen angles for separations are black @45 degrees, magenta @75 degrees, yellow @90 degrees, and cyan @105 degrees.

screen font :
Font generated by font utility (eg: Display PostScript) to display on a computer monitor. Compare printer font; see font.

screen percentage :
Alternate term for dot area (qv). See illustration.

screen printing :
A method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil; also called "screen process printing". See silkscreen.

screen ruling :
Number of rows or lines of dots per inch (or centimeter) in a screen tint or halftone, representing a density ratio of fill to background; also called "line count", "screen value", "screen frequency", and "screen size".

screen shot :
The printout of an establishing shot or snapshot of the image displayed on a computer screen, usually taken in context for verification or troubleshooting. Since the screen shot may be documenting a glitch, provision is made in the operating system to execute this instruction by keyboard commands. The screen image may be saved as a file on the hard drive, which can later be opened with a diagnostics or graphics program.

screen tint :
Color created by dots instead of solid ink coverage; also called "fill pattern", "shading", "tint", and "tone". Compare watermark; see screen ruling, illustration.

screw-and-post bind :
To bind materials using a bolt that screws into a matching post, available in lengths ranging from quarter-inch to three inches. This durable assembly can be stylish, and has the advantage of user disassembly for renewable contents. See loose-leaf, side binding, binding.

script :
The cursive letters or characters used in writing by hand; a system of handwriting. Also, a handwritten manuscript or document. Also, text of the scene directions and dialogue of actors in a play, film, or other performance; compare novelization. Also, a plan, as a set of instructions for an application or utility program written in the same language as the program; see macro, batch file, subroutine, CGI script, Jscript, VBscript, language.

script kiddie :
A person, normally technologically unsophisticated, who randomly seeks specific weaknesses over the Internet to gain root access to a system for general exploitation. Because the weakness was discovered by someone else, the script kiddie doesn't understand how to develop the exploitation. Specific data or links cannot be targeted by the script kiddie, who must search for unlocked gateways or other vulnerable victims. See hacker, cracker, phreak, turist, software.

scriptorium :
A cloistered room, where manuscripts are stored, read, or copied; derived from "writing + place". See carrel, book press, bookstand, kiosk, script, incunabula, codex, volume, scroll, protocol, spine.

scroll :
A roll of parchment, papyrus, paper, or other writing material, especially for ancient documents or scriptures. See banderole, volume, protocol, codex, incunabula, artifact. [v: volumen, scrinium]

scum :
An undesirable film of thick ink in non-image areas; also called blush, catch up, haze, and toning. Scumming may appear on portions of a sheet or across the entire sheet, and results from poor ink/water balance. Compare setoff, slur, hickey, picking, mottle, cheater bar; see ghosting, illustration.

search engine :
A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a file list of corresponding matches. Although search engine is really a general class of programs, the term is often used to designate specific systems that enable users to search for documents on the World Wide Web and USENET newsgroups; including: All The Web, Alta Vista, Archie, Excite, Google, HotBot, InfoSeek, Jughead, Lycos, Veronica, WebCrawler, Yahoo!. Search engines typically work by sending out a spider (qv) to fetch as many documents as possible. Another program, called an indexer, then reads these documents and creates an index based on the words contained in each document. Each search engine uses a proprietary algorithm to create its indices such that, ideally, only meaningful results are returned for each query. Also called "webot" (contraction of web and robot) for obeying instructions to automatically retrieve internet data. See crawler, spider, meta tag, portal, program, software.

section sign :
The hatch-mark or number sign (#) used to indicate the need to insert space, as divisions between sections. Also, a special symbol, such as the interlaced Ss () mark, used to denote categorical subclassifications, to demarcate textual divisions, or to signify regulatory sections; sometimes abbreviated "sec". Multiple signs indicate additional spaces (###), or plural sections (). See bullet, dingbat, proofreader's marks, hanging.

selective binding :
The practice of placing signatures or inserts into magazines or catalogs according to demographic or geographic guidelines. With the development of online publications, the user (reader or researcher) will be increasingly able to self-select such tailored information. See e-pub, issue, regional edition, binding.

self-cover :
A printing (eg: brochure) or publication (eg: newsletter) that uses the same paper weight throughout the item, for both body and cover / wrapper; so the outside is less durable, and style effects (eg: overhang) are impractical. Compare separate cover; see cover paper, paperback, cut flush, binding.

self-mailer :
A fold-over or reversible reply mechanism, which retains the recipient's vital statistics, and exposes the pre-addressed return destination when completed; see blow-in card, reply coupon. Also, a brochure, booklet, newsletter, or other small publication designed for dissemination by secure folding without a separate envelope. See wafer.

self-publishing :
A book designed, edited, printed, distributed, and paid for entirely by its author. See assisted self-publishing, subsidy publisher, vanity press, publishing house.

sell line :
On newsstand periodicals, cover line (qv).

sell-through rate :
The percentage of magazines actually sold through retail outlets. For example, if your distributor sends various bookstores 100 magazines, and 20 are returned at the end of the selling cycle, your sell-through rate is 80%. See draw.

semantics :
A branch of linguistics dealing with the study of meaning, including the ways meaning is structured in language, and changes in meaning and form over time. Also, the branch of semiotics or logic dealing with the relationship between signs or symbols, and what they denote. Also, the meaning, or an interpretation of the meaning, of a word, sign, sentence, or similar representation. See morpheme, language, semiotics, noise. [cf: orthoepy]

semicolon / semi-colon :
The punctuation mark (;) used to indicate a major division in a sentence, as the division between distinct clauses or list items, when a comma will not suffice. It conventionally separates the two clauses of a compound sentence. Compare colon; see punctuation.

semiotics :
The study and analysis of signs and symbols as elements of systems of communication, as language, gestures, or clothing. Also, a general theory of signs and symbolism, usually divided into the branches of pragmatics, semantics, and syntactics. See ideogram, logogram, pictography, hieroglyphics, glyph, rebus, signifier, sign language, vocabulary, language, alphabet, typology. [cf: zoosemiotics, philology] [nb: "Symbols have one characteristic in common with signs; they point beyond themselves to something else. The red sign at the street corner points to the order to stop the movements of cars at certain intervals. A red light and the stopping of cars have essentially no relation to each other, but conventionally they are united as long as the convention lasts. The same is true of letters and numbers and partly even words. They point beyond themselves to sounds and meanings. They are given this special function by convention within a nation or by international conventions, as mathematical signs. Sometimes such signs are called symbols; but this is unfortunate because it makes the distinction between signs and symbols more difficult. Decisive is the fact that signs do not participate in the reality of that to which they point, while symbols do. Therefore, signs can be replaced for reasons of expediency or convention, while symbols cannot." by Paul Tillich, "Symbols of Faith, Dynamics of Faith" (1958)]

sentence :
A structurally independent grammatical unit of one or more words, typically consisting of a subject and a predicate containing a finite verb and expressing a statement, question, request, command, or exclamation, conventionally begun with a capital letter and concluded with end punctuation in writing, and usually separated by pauses in speech. As a connotative gestalt, even a denotative sentence is more than the sum of its parts. See elliptical sentence, phrase, parts of speech, punctuation.

separate cover :
A printing (eg: brochure) or publication (eg: newsletter) that uses a heavier paper stock externally than is used internally, so that the exterior wrapper protects the interior body. This more durable outside can also be styled (eg: die cut, emboss, gatefold, etc). Compare self-cover; see cover paper, paperback, overhang, binding.

sequel :
A literary or filmic work that continues or supplements the narrative of a preceding work, as a subsequence; abbreviated "seq". See series; compare prequel.

sequence :
The design principle that the arrangement of page elements or the layout pattern can direct the reader's attention in a particular direction or to a specific order of items, by using size, color, shape, and placement. See z-path, optical center, leader, readability; compare balance, contrast, jump article.

serialization :
To create or release a work in serial, installment, or episode form, as to publish or broadcast incrementally. If published in series before compilation, then the work is in "first serialization"; and if separated into series after being published whole, then the work is in "second serialization". See installment, fascicle.

series :
A set of successive issues or volumes of a periodical published in like form with similarity of subject or purpose. Also, two or more publications or broadcasts related by theme, format, or the like (eg: trilogy, tetralogy); see sequel, installment, fascicle. Also, a regularly scheduled program with a set format, a regular cast of characters, and a continuing theme or story.

serif :
A smaller line used to finish-off a main stroke of a letter. Categories include: square-serif, slab-serif, bracketed-serif. Compare stem; see ear, stroke, typeface, type family, font, typography.

serigraphy :
The silkscreen (qv) printing process; derived from "silk + draw".

service feature :
A late development in newspapers, recognizing that an audience could be retained with contents other than news and advertising. More than other published material, the service features present a more accurate portrayal of community character and interest. Services include legal notices, public announcements, scheduled events, affairs and activities, meeting reports, assorted listings, employment solicitations, and obituaries. See feature, newspaper, 30.

servicemark :
A proprietary term or symbol (ie: SM ) that distinguishes the provider of a distinctive service. Compare trademark.

sesquipedalism :
A word containing many syllables; see syllabary. Also, a person given to using long words; see prolixity, pleonasm, polysemy, writer, mogigraphia.

setoff :
The undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet to the underside of another as they lay in the delivery stack of a press; also called "offset". Compare scum, ghosting, slur, hickey, picking, mottle; see illustration.

set size :
The width of the type body of a given point size. Compare body size; see expanded type, baseline, measure, font, typeface.

The abbreviation for Standard Generalized Markup Language, being an information-management standard created by Charles F. Goldfarb and adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1986. SGML is widely used in the publishing industry, particularly for multimedia. See tag, DTD, HTML, markup.

shadows :
The darkest areas of an image or photograph; as distinguished from midtones and highlights. See key, illustration.

shareware :
Copyrighted software that is usually distributed free of charge, but includes a request by the owner or developer for a nominal license fee, if the software user finds the product valuable. An enhanced or upgraded version is often forthcoming to those satisfied users who have paid the registration fee. Shareware programs that have been compiled from code or feature contributions may alternatively be called "donationware". See freeware, public domain software, open-source, software.

sheet :
A piece of paper or some similar absorbent material, variously sized, as used for writing or printing. See broadside, blanket sheet, eight sheet, parent sheet, flyleaf, leaf, page, folio, quarto, octavo, duodecimo, sixteenmo, octodecimo, signature, form, quire, recto, verso, backtrack, paper.

sheet-fed press / sheetfed press :
Press that prints on sheets of cut paper, usually sized between 11" X 17" and 54" X 77". Compare web press; see quick printing, press.

sheetwise :
The technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates; also called work and back. Front-only or "one-up" jobs require sheetwise printing. Compare perfecting, work and turn, work and tumble; see stripping, imposition, template.

shell :
A separate piece of program software that provides direct communication between the user and the operating system; also called a "command interpreter". The Macintosh Finder is a shell, as is the command interface program (COMMAND.COM) in MS-DOS. Various other shells, including mouse-oriented or visual programs, can interface with UNIX and other command-based systems. Many applications allow the user to "shell-out" by a hot-key sequence to the operating system. See C shell, multitasking, TSR, subroutine, command line, task.

shingling :
The allowance made to compensate for creep (qv); also called "stair stepping" and "progressive margins". The art and text copy must be adjusted so placement and margins will remain consistent when signatures are trimmed. [nb: "push out" or creep is the problem; shingling is the solution]

short run :
A relatively small quantity to be printed in relation to the size and speed of the press used. Compare demand printing, quick printing; see pressrun.

shoulder note :
A note written or printed in the outer corner of the head margin of a page, usually in writing or type that distinguishes it from the text. See gloss, marginalia, reference marks, notation, corner snipe.

shovelware :
A slang reference to content transferred from an old to a new medium without modification or adaptation, such as when using pre-formatted conversion programs. See software.

showcase :
An exhibit, display, or special presentation of some excellent specimen or representative model. Also, a glass cabinet or case [vitrine] for the display and protection of articles; compare easel. Also, the best possible printing quality; rated highest in the ranking of basic, good, premium, showcase.

show-off :
The autographic sign, symbol, or device marked upon or embedded into a designer's or craftsman's product, including electronic media; also called "maker's mark". See signet, logo, brand, indicia; compare digital watermark.

show-through :
A problem that occurs when the printing on one side of a sheet is visible from the other side. See opacity.

shrink wrap :
The process of wrapping products or packages in clear plastic film, then using heat to tighten the film around the item.

sidebar :
A typographically distinct section of a page, as in a book or magazine, that amplifies, supplements, or highlights the main text. Compare call-out, squib, footnote; see box, bite, mortise, feature, byplay, counterfactual, factoid.

side binding :
See side-stitch binding, screw-and-post bind, loose-leaf, fan, mechanical binding, binding.

side note :
A note written or printed on one of the side margins of a page, adjacent to the passage to which it refers, usually in writing or type distinct from the text. A side note, also known as a "marginal note", may be cut-in or set into the text from the margin so that body copy wraps around it on three sides. See gloss, marginalia, notation, reference marks.

side-stitch binding :
To bind by stapling through sheets along one edge; also called "cleat-stitch binding", "side-sewn binding", and "side-wire binding". A very durable and potentially stylish form of this method, known as "Smythe sewn", is top-stitched with thread, often in multiple rows and in coordinated colors. Compare fan, saddle-stitch binding; see binding, sheet, signature.

sign :
See ornament, semiotics, glyph, graphics, signifier, sign language.

signature :
A printed sheet folded to page size (usually in multiples of four pages) for binding together, with other such sheets, to form a book, magazine, or the like. Also, a mark placed on the first page of every sheet to guide the binder in folding and gathering them. See form, lap, sheet, fold lines, insert, tip, inset, nested, binding.

signet :
A distinctive mark or impression, as if made by a seal or cachet. See indicia, imprimatur, logo, autograph, show-off, brand, trademark, hallmark, colophon.

signifier :
A pattern of sense impressions, such as a series of sounds or written symbols, that expresses a meaning. See phoneme, morpheme, semiotics. [nb: the thing or concept denoted by a signifier is "signified"]

sign language :
A communications system, employing symbolic gestures and other formalized hand-signs, as utilized by deaf persons, or speakers without a common language; not to be confused with pantomime or body language (qv). Ritualistic movements employed in communication are conscious acts, hence differ from body language and mannerisms. A related symbology, called fingerspelling, is actually a surrogate alphabet, that substitutes manual letters for printed or cursive glyphs. A signal code combines communication and signs to form language. See specialized format, accessibility, vocabulary. [nb: there is no universal sign language among deaf persons; sign languages are as culturally bound as spoken languages, with the most prominent in America being: American Sign Language (ASL), and American English Sign Language (AMESLAN)]

silhouette :
Eponymous term for an outlined shape or contrasting depiction, usually without depth; also refers to an image from which the background has been removed. See illustration.

silicon :
A nonmetallic element, having amorphous or crystalline forms, as used in alloys and semiconductors, especially for silicon wafers in electronic devices. See chip. [nb: not "silicone" polymer]

silkscreen :
A printmaking technique, in which a mesh cloth is stretched over a heavy wooden frame and the design, painted onto the screen by tusche or affixed by stencil, is printed by having a squeegee force color through the pores of the material in areas not blocked out by a glue sizing; also called "silkscreen process" and "screen print", but formally known as serigraphy (qv) or "mitography".

simile :
A figure of speech which explicitly compares two distinct objects or concepts by the direct use of "like" or "as" (eg: "She is like a rose." and "Now the chimney was all of the house that stood, Like a pistil after the petals go."); derived from "similar", as a likeness. Compare metaphor; see rhetorical forms.

simplex :
To print on one side of a sheet from a dedicated peripheral or a networked device, as in the remote queuing of corporate or institutional documents; compare duplex, see xerography, reprography, demand printing, quick printing. Also, a telecommunications system permitting transfer on only one channel or in only one direction at a time; compare duplex.

sine qua non / sine qua causa non :
An indispensable or essential condition, element, or factor, as a quiddity; derived from Latin "without which (thing) nothing". Compare tour de force; see constant, grid, template, design. [v: raison d'坱re / raisons d'坱re]

single-copy sales :
Those publications sold through retail outlets, either through a distributor or directly. Can also include bulk single copy sales to conferences and meetings. See sell-through rate, circulation, newsstand, audit.

sinkage / sink :
The amount of space left blank at the top of a page, additional to the normal margin, before the first line of type, usually to set apart the chapters or subdivisions of a publication. See attic, horizon line, headpiece, heading, title page, optical center.

six pack :
Slang for the group of keys clustered together on a computer keyboard, usually functioning as DELete, INSert, End, Home, Page Up, and Page Down; with allusion to adult beverages similarly packaged. See num-pad, keyboard.

sixteenmo :
A book size (about 4 x 6 inches; 10 x 15 cm) determined by printing on sheets folded to form 16 leaves or 32 pages; symbol: 16mo. Also called sextodecimo. See sheet.

sketch :
Any rough draft, plan, or design; see thumbnail, FPO. Also, a simple drawing or hasty painting giving only essential features, often used as a preliminary work; see line drawing, block-in, scamp, illustration. Also, a short piece of descriptive writing; sometimes as an outline for a longer work. Also, a short comic routine, or a brief dramatic scene, as an episode; see vignette.

skid :
A low mobile platform for ease of handling goods. See pallet.

skyline :
A headline, cover line, bulletin, teaser, hook, or story set above the nameplate on the front-page of a publication for maximum visibility. A significant story which is text dominant, such as fact or emotion, will be used in this manner, because it lacks the visual elements that will draw a reader into the account. Compare strap, kicker, attic, corner snipe; see subhead, heading, horizon line, optical center.

slander :
A defamation or calumny; as a malicious and false statement or report by oral utterance rather than by writing, pictures, and so forth (libel); derived from scandal. Speech proposing a transaction or exchange is commercial or contractual, and does not enjoy the Free Speech protections of debate.

slang :
Informal idiom and vocabulary usage that is characteristically more metaphorical, elliptical, and ephemeral than ordinary language; a nonstandard vocabulary composed chiefly of synonyms for standard words and phrases. See dialect, vernacular, colloquialism, catch-phrase, counterword, rhetorical forms, language, sociolinguistics. ["Slang is a language that rolls up its sleeves, spits on its hands, and goes to work." Carl Sandburg (1959)]

slash :
A short oblique stroke used as a divider or separator, being a diagonal, virgule, solidus; see punctuation. Also, a path (qv) delimiter for filenames and internet addresses (qqv); compare backslash. Also, the closing tag delimiter in an HTML element; see HTML tag, container tag. Also, the punctuation mark used with switches on command arguments; see parameter, subroutine.

sleazy :
A contemptible or disreputable publication characterized by sordid, vulgar, or squalid contents. See muckracker, factoid, counterfactual, screed, yellow journalism, journalism, news, balderdash. [v: billingsgate]

sleepy :
Can connote muted and subdued, as quietly restful, or dull and uninspiring, as blandly soporific; but a publication should not be prosaic, vapid, insipid, or unimaginative.

slick :
A contranym, derived from "sleek" / "smooth", meaning both remarkable and tawdry. 'Slick writing' is deft, but glib. A 'slick magazine' is showy but shallow; being all image without substance ... slicks are usually qualitatively juxtaposed to pulps, although there may be little distinguishing their contents. Thus, any book or periodical produced in large quantity on heavily-coated low-quality paper that's printed on a heat-set web press so every page can be dry varnished for maximum reflectivity. Also called "glossy" (which is also a contranym, meaning both lustrous and deceptive). Compare pulp, uncoated paper; see varnish, book paper, coated paper, art paper, gloss paper, paper coating.

slide :
see dialect, idiolect, accent.

The abbreviation for Serial Line Internet Protocol, being a communication standard that allows a computer to be directly connected to the Internet using a graphical user interface (GUI). By a dial-up connection (such as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables), SLIP may use a serial modem to link Local Area Networks (LAN) or to access the internet/WWW. SLIP does not include error detection, data compression, and modem communication elements found in the PPP protocol. See TCP/IP, internet address, URL, web server.

slipcase :
A box for a book, for a set of books, or a periodical series, that's open on one side so the spine is visible. See portfolio, jacket, accordian-fold.

slogan :
A distinctive phrase or motto, identified with a particular product, party, institution, or the like; derived from "army + cry" (sluagh-ghairm), formerly as a Scottish clan gathering call or war cry. See jingle, catchword, catch-phrase, diction, trigger term, advertising.

slot :
Formerly, the middle of the U-shaped copy desk (qv) where the editor was surrounded by copyeditors, who processed work from copywriters and deskmen for submission to the art department to setup the current issue; being the publication's operations and control center, the editorial nexus. Compare rim; see fishbowl.

slug :
A short phrase or title used to indicate the story content of a piece of copy, which label does not display with the copy; see meta tag. Also, the line of type carrying this information. Also, a line of type in one piece, as produced by a Linotype. Also, a strip of type metal, less than type-high, used for spacing; see quad, leading, nonpareil, furniture, feathering. Also, a spacing strip containing a type-high number or other character for temporary use.

slur :
To spot, stain, soil, or blot, as a spread or smear of ink; same derivation ("sloormud") as sully, slight, defile, or disparage. See hickey, picking, mottle, scum, setoff.

slush pile :
A quantity of unsolicited material, sent "over the transom" on speculation by aspiring writers, usually read by staff interns, editorial assistants, or practicum students; derived from the occasional need to patch or fill a publication with slush for "cement" or "lubrication". See filler, squib, bite, snippet, puffery, manuscript.

small-cap :
A small capital letter; a capital letter of a particular font, having the height of a lowercase letter. See OC, CAP, LC, drop-cap, majuscule.

small pica :
A 10.5 point type; see font, type.

small press :
A relatively small publisher of limited resources, and not controlled by an outside institution or entity; also called "little press" or "niche publisher". Most small presses employ fewer than a dozen people, and publish no more than four-dozen new titles each year. The bimonthly trade journal for small publishers is "Small Press", which publishes approximately 100 reviews of small press books in each issue. References include: Literary Market Place (LMP), "Directory of Literary Magazines and Presses" (CLMP), "DustBooks' Guide to Little Magazines and Small Presses", "Writer's Market" (WDS). The Small Press Center is a nonprofit cultural and educational institution dedicated to promoting awareness of small independent publishers and their contribution to society. See backlist, niche publishing, publish.

smart tag :
Slang for EPC or RFID codes (qqv); compare bar code.

The abbreviation for Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language, being a new markup language developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that enables web developers to divide multimedia content into separate files (audio, image/video, and text) that stream as individual components that present themselves seamlessly, as if they were a single multimedia entity. This separation reduces static and complexity, while increasing access and transfer. SMIL is based on the eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than defining the actual formats used to represent multimedia data, it defines the commands that specify whether and when the various multimedia components should be played, setting the parameters for simultaneity and sequence. Compare SAMI.

Abbreviation for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, being the standard TCP/IP protocol governing electronic mail transmission and reception used on the internet and other server networks. Additionally, SMTP is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. Client e-mail messages can be retrieved from host servers using either POP or IMAP. Related risks include the spreading of viruses in attached files, and distributing spam, the internet's "junk mail". SMTP is defined in RFC 821, with associated message format descriptions in RFC 822; and uses TCP/IP port 25. See e-mail.

smurf :
Causing a security breach in an online network by an overload from ICMP echo (PING) request replies. Internet broadcast addresses distribute all received messages to the hosts connected to the subnet. Each broadcast address can support up to 255 hosts, so a single PING request can be multiplied 255 times. The return address of the request itself is spoofed to the smurf attacker's victim. All the hosts receiving the PING request reply to this victim's spoof address instead of the real sender's address. A single smurf attacker sending hundreds of these PING messages per second can fill the spoof victim's T-1 (or even T-3) line with PING replies, and bring the entire internet service down. Smurfing attempts to deny service by disabling a computer or network, system or security. See virus, worm, sniffer, Trojan Horse, spoofer, deadman, malware.

Snap :
A WYSIWYG guides or rules program feature used for accurately aligning text or graphics. The effect is exercised by various non-printing guidelines, such as column or margin guides, which automatically place the text or graphics in the correct position (ie: flush to the column guide) when activated by the mouse. The feature is optional and can be toggled off. See format, master page, stylesheet. Also, the abbreviation for Specifications for Non-Heat-set Advertising and Printing (SNAP); being an industry guideline specific to #5 groundwood paper. See trade customs, trade associations.

sniffer :
A program and/or device that monitors data traveling over a network. Sniffers can be used both for legitimate network management functions, and for stealing information off a network. Unauthorized sniffers can be extremely dangerous to a network's security because they are virtually impossible to detect, and can be inserted almost anywhere. On TCP/IP networks, where they sniff packets, they're often called "packet sniffers". See cookie, tracking, adware, spyware, smurf, spoofer, virus.

snipe :
To attack a person or a person's work with petulant or snide criticism, especially anonymously or from a safe distance; derived from "position of concealment", as sniper. See critic.

snippet :
A small fragment or short passage taken from a document, book, film, or the like, as a scrap of information; an excerpt or extract. See blurb, squib, paragraph, teaser, trailer, epigraph, call-out, sidebar, filler, bite, scrap, ear.

The acronym for String Oriented Symbolic Language (qv).

sociolinguistics :
The study of the interactions between the linguistic and social variables of a dynamic language; the study of language as it functions in society, especially bearing upon cross-cultural, transnational, interracial, and other socioeconomic influences. Examines the process of "language engineering" which resolves problems with standardization and unification. See slang, colloquialism, vernacular, dialect, non-standard, standard, creole, language; compare psycholinguistics. [v: bilingualism]

soft copy :
Type and images viewed on a computer screen or monitor; also called "soft proof". See reader spread, PaperNet; compare hard copy.

soft offer :
A subscription offer that allows new or renewing subscribers to send no money up front. With soft offers, one issue will often be served, or "graced", prior to cancellation for non-payment. Also known as a "bill me" offer. See circulation, differential pricing, subscription. [nb: should be used only if capable of accurate and comprehensive invoicing]

software :
Coded programs for directing the processing of electronic data or the operation of a computer and its peripherals. Also, any material (such as audiovisual media) requiring the use of mechanical or electrical equipment (ie: hardware). Also, the documentation for such programs or materials. See bit, byte, nybble, pixel, analog, debug, bug, glitch, kludge, alpha test, beta test, vaporware, crippled, warez, adware, cookie, command line, shell, multitasking, TSR, subroutine, algorithm, macro, script, batch file, control character, parameter, meta tag, search engine, spider, plug-in, suite, interface, GUI, WYSIWYG, open-source, freeware, shareware, public domain software, shovelware, cobweb-site, feature-shock, hacker, phreak, turist, FAQ, help, trap door, firewall, deadman, honeypot, sniffer, spoofer, smurf, script kitty, cracker, steganography, virus, worm, malware; compare language, markup, program, database, graphics.

Abbreviation for Small Office / Home Office, designating both a production capacity and a contrapositive lifestyle (ie: personal versus bureaucratic, artistic versus industrial).

solecism :
A nonstandard or ungrammatical usage (eg: flammable / inflammable / non-flammable); derived from the name of a city in Cilicia where a corrupt form of Attic Greek was spoken. Also, any error, impropriety, or inconsistency. See rhetorical forms; compare neologism, compound. [nb: nonstandard / substandard words include: ain't, alot, alright, anyways, anywheres, conflicted, complected, enormity, heighth, hern (mine, thine), hisn (his'n), irregardless, mischievious, nohow (not "knowhow"), nowheres, snuck, somewheres, theirn (their'n), thunk, unflammable, you-all (y'all), yourn (your'n), youse, you-uns (you-ens)]

solid :
A color having uniformity of tone. Also, a compound word written without a hyphen; see composition. Also, printing with few open spaces, or type lines not separated by leading, as "set solid"; see minus leading, readability.

solid leading :
Text set with the default leading of the font or typeface used; leading without any additional interline spacing. Compare minus leading; see leading, alignment.

soliloquy :
A speech in a drama in which a character, alone or as if alone, discloses innermost thoughts; in prose, this style of "interior monologue" is often called a 'dialogue', to distinguish it from the verbal exchange between two characters, known as "duologue". See monologue, apostrophe, verse.

sound-bite / sound bite :
A brief but striking remark or statement excerpted from one source for insertion into another source, especially a comment extracted from an interview and broadcast in a news story. See bite, ear, snippet, blurb, squib, filler, paragraph, call-out, box, sidebar, epigraph, contents; compare sound-clip.

sound-clip / sound clip :
A short segment or brief excerpt of speech or music introduced into electronic media as a primary, complementary, or supplementary component, also called "audio-clip"; including voice mail, verbal messages, audible labels, musical cues, narrations, background melodies, instrumental or choral expositions (eg: prelude, interlude, postlude). See MIDI; compare sound-bite.

source code :
Human-readable computer program statements written in a high-level or assembly language; compare object code.

SP :
Encircled abbreviation for "spell out"; see proofreader's marks. Also, conventional abbreviation for "misspelled" or "spelling error", usually with correction interlarded.

space :
Term used to denote advertising linage (qv).

space writer :
A journalist or copywriter paid on the basis of length of copy, usually computed in column inches. See linage, feature-length, writer.

spam :
The mass distribution of unsolicited e-mail messages to large numbers of newsgroups or mailing lists, with little regard for the burden such activity places upon subscribers. Spamming is considered to be one of the worst violations of netiquette, because it forces internet users to waste valuable time scanning and deleting "junk e-mail" messages. This practice is also known as Excessive Cross-Posting (ECP) and Excessive Multi-Posting (EMP). The person sending such messages is known as a "spammer". The term purportedly derives from a song performed on "Monty Python's Flying Circus" where the word was incessantly repeated. Origin is also attributed to the University of Southern California computer lab, which analogized "junk e-mail" to the trademarked Hormel Foods product, consisting of meat that is chopped and compressed into a canned loaf (formally renamed from "Spiced Ham" in 1937). Also ascribed to an advertising editor of the "Dallas Times Herald", who suggested "throwing a can of Spam into an electric fan just to see if it will stick to any unwary passersby"; which notion is similar to "run it up the flagpole and see if anyone salutes". See flame-bait, flame, adware, pop-up, e-mail.

specialized format :
Any form of published material converted into an alternative medium (eg: braille, audio, digital text, etc) to enable accessible use solely by disabled persons, as authorized by the Vocational-Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. The exception phrase in the boilerplate prohibition ("Copying of this material in any manner, except in a specialized format, is strictly prohibited."), listed with the disclaimers and other legal notices on the acknowledgements page, is the publisher's recognition of the civil right to access public matter. As with Fair Use, this "re-publication" may entail permissions and fees. The "Chafee Amendment" (PL 104-197) to the Copyright Act (Title 17 USC, Section 121) improves acquisition time by presuming re-publication permission for recognized access service providers. See DAISY, crawl, MSAA, WAI, validation, accessibility, fair use, copyright, acknowledgements.

specialty printer :
Printer whose equipment, supplies, workflow, and marketing is targeted to a specific category of products.

specifications :
The precise and complete written description of the detailed features for a printing job; abbreviated "specs". See estimate, fixed costs, variable costs, formula pricing, unit cost, quotation, job order.

specular highlight :
Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail; also called "catchlight" and "dropout highlight". See illustration.

spider :
A program that automatically fetches webpages; also known as a crawler, so named for their stealthy creep over data. Spiders are used to feed pages to search engines for indexing. Because most webpages contain links to other websites, a spider can start almost anywhere by detecting connections and retrieving the matches. Large search engines have many spiders working in parallel. See crawler, search engine, meta tag.

spine :
The back of a book, either covering or integrated with the binding, usually marked with the title, author, and imprint; also called "backbone". See headband, binding, key title. [nb: Scrolls and volumes were title marked with tags, tickets, or protocols, and were stowed in a variety of containers and pigeonholes; but incunabula and codex volumes were usually title marked on their front cover (because books were shelved flat, as in a bookbinder's press), or upon retaining straps (used because pages would swell with moisture, and damage the binding). When, in the Medieval era, books began to be shelved vertically, they were either placed on their spine (with their title marked on the fore-edge), or on their base with their spine inward against the back wall of the book press (with their title marked on the retaining straps). Spines were first imprinted with identifying marks when publishers subdivided folios into multiple volumes during the 16th Century. Beginning in the 17th Century, a half-title page was printed in abbreviation on one of the flyleaves so it could be cut-out and tipped over the fore-edge or pasted onto the spine for book identification on shelving.]

spiral-bound :
A book bound with a continuous plastic or wire loop that passes through holes in the edge of the material; also called coil or mechanical bind. This inexpensive method of binding is well suited for guides, manuals, and references; and has the advantage of laying flat on a table, so the reader may make "hands free" reference to its contents. Compare comb binding, lay-flat bind; see binding.

split edition :
Simultaneous publication of both hardcover and paperback editions of the same book; also called dual edition (qv). Publishers often do a small run of hardcovers to sell to libraries. See trade edition, volume rights.

spoilage :
Paper which must be recycled due to mistakes or accidents. See pre-consumer waste, broke, post-consumer waste, waste, paper.

spoofer :
A program used by a cracker to trick a computer system into thinking it is being accessed by an authorized user. IP spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers, whereby the intruder sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted port. To engage in IP spoofing, a cracker must first use a variety of techniques to find an IP address of a trusted port, and then modify the packet headers, so that it appears that the packets are coming from that port. See virus, worm, sniffer, Trojan Horse, smurf, deadman, malware.

spot color :
Any color created by printing only one ink; also known as "flat color". See fifth color, illustration.

spread :
The technique of slightly expanding or enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a trap with another image; see choke, register. Also, a two-page arrangement of copy; see reader spread, printer spread, crossover, backup, page spread, double spread, center spread.

spyware :
Any intrusive software that covertly gathers user information through the user's InterNet connection, sometimes as a hidden component of a shareware or freeware application, and transmits that information in the background to a third party. Spyware may extract personal information (eg: passwords, PINs, account designations), business or professional data (ie: medical or financial records), consumer practices or website visitations. Spyware exists as independent executable programs that have the ability to monitor keystrokes, scan files on the hard drive, snoop other applications (eg: e-mail, spreadsheet, word processor, etc), read cookies, change the default home page on the Web browser, and install other spyware programs. Licensing agreements that accompany software downloads sometimes warn the user that a spyware program will be installed along with the requested software, but the licensing agreements may not always be read completely because the notice of a spyware installation is often couched in complex and obtuse legal disclaimers. Because spyware is using memory and system resources, the applications running in the background can lead to system crashes or general system instability. See cookie, tracking, adware, pop-up, sniffer, smurf, spoofer, virus, malware.

The abbreviation for Structured Query Language (pronounced 'S Q L' or SeQueL), being a standard ISO and ANSI language used to create, maintain, and query relational databases. SQL uses regular English words for many of its commands, which makes it easy to use. It is often embedded within other programming languages. Facilities of the SQL Access Group include: SQL Link (SQLL), Interactive SQL (ISQL), SQL Server (SQLS), ANSI SQL Standard Scalable And Portable (AS3AP), SQL Module Language, SQL Enterprise Manager (SEM), Call Level Interface (CLI). See XQL, language.

squatting :
The occupation of property without permission or payment, or usurpation without right or title. A company's name or domain name may differ from their trademark, but trademarks are particular to specific products or markets. Registered and notable trademarks are protected against diminishment by blurring or tarnish, from dilution by proliferation, or by conversion to generic form. Filing an "intent to use" registration is evidence of use, but no trademark can be reserved without use, or reserved solely for profiteering resale. Deception and imitation are redressed by unfair competition provisions in the Trademark Act. Blocking web access or internet registration for established trademarks (called "cyber squatting") has been addressed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). See fair use, trademark, copyright. [cf: usufruct]

squeegee :
An implement, usually edged with rubber, used for removing excess water from surfaces, excess developer from photographic prints, or for evenly forcing paint or ink through a screen in serigraphy; also called blade. See screen printing, silkscreen.

squib :
Any short writing, usually witty or sarcastic. Also, a short news story, often used as a filler. Derived from a spluttering firecracker. See snippet, paragraph, call-out, sidebar, bite, ear, scrap, rebus, epigraph, feuilleton, boilerplate. [v: bagatelle]

The abbreviation for Server-Side Includes; which is the ability to include files from the server inside an HTML document by placing tags in the HTML file that link to those files. Using Server-Side Includes makes it unnecessary to include multiple copies of the same information in the HTML file, and makes it easier to work with frequently-updated information. Server-Side Includes are available on some HTTP servers. Also, the abbreviation for Small-Scale Integration; being the use of integrated circuits with less than 100 logic gates, as in the early third-generation computers (qv).

The abbreviation for Secure Sockets Layer, being an online encryption security level that permits commercial transactions on the World Wide Web; implementation changes filename extensions from HTML to SHTML, and works with CGI Script. Compare PGP, RSA; see firewall, proxy, password.

staff :
A group of people, such as employees or subcontractors, who perform specific functions when implementing or executing the work of an establishment. A publishing house staff may include: publisher, manager, editor (and proofreader or copywriter), art director (and photographer), advertising director (and salesmen), distribution director, comptroller (and accountant or bookkeeper), secretary (and clerk or receptionist), assistants, associates, and volunteers. See work for hire, freelance, outsource, revolving-door, headhunting, non-competition agreement.

stamp :
A die or block for impressing or imprinting a design; to impress with a mark or device, as a distinguishing feature or an indication of authenticity or approval. See emboss, deboss, die, foil, foil blocking, foil stamp.

standard :
Usage that conforms in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and the like, to what is considered to be characteristic and acceptable by most educated native speakers of a language. See semantics, semiotics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, word, vocabulary, language; compare non-standard.

standard viewing conditions :
A simulation of the color of daylight on a "normal" or bright day: a background of 60 percent neutral gray, and light that measures 5000 degrees Kelvin. See illustration.

standing head :
A headline that remains the same from one issue of a periodical to another. See constant, heading.

stanza :
An arrangement of a certain number of lines, usually four or more, sometimes having a fixed length, meter, or rhyme scheme, forming a division of a poem. Compare strophe; see foot, stave, verse. [v: rubaiyat]

staple binding :
See saddle-stitch binding, side-stitch binding.

stave :
A verse or stanza of a poem or song, especially the alliterative sound in a line of verse. Also, the set of spaced horizontal lines on which music is written; staff, score.

steganography :
The theory and techniques of hiding information by embedding concealed messages within otherwise innocuous or commonplace materials; also called "stego", as derived from "covered + writing". Unused or useless data bits in regular computer files are replaced with invisible bits of covert information. This hidden information can be plain text, cipher code, or even images, and may be inserted into text, audio, graphic, web, or e-mail files. Unlike encryption, which alters obvious signs by translating something readable into something unreadable, secret writing is not detected because it is not overt and not suspicious. Because encryption provides confidentiality but not secrecy, steganography and cryptography are often combined to augment security. Originally used in ancient Greece, where an inscribed tablet was overlaid with another message in wax, modern practice uses specialized "steganalysis" software to detect or distribute data, by injection or substitution, among the electronic noise of typical files. When data is injected, the host medium often increases noticeably in size; and when data is substituted, the host medium often degrades noticeably in quality. See digital watermark, DAISY, trap door, key, warez, virus, quantum, rune. [v: polyptych, polygraphia]

stem :
The major structural parts of a character, which are mostly straight vertical (or nearly vertical) and horizontal (or nearly horizontal) strokes. See ear, finial, crossbar, kern, serif, type, typeface, font, typography.

stencil :
A sheet, plate, or other material bearing a pierced design or cut-out pattern, as used to transfer or reproduce by paint or ink to another surface; derived from a metathetic conversion of ornamental spangle. See ties, template.

stenograph :
A character written in shorthand; see instant messaging, notation. Also, any of various typewriter-like keyboard instruments used for writing in shorthand.

step and repeat :
Pre-press technique of exposing an image in a precise multiple pattern so as to create a flat or plate. See plate.

stepped head :
A headline forming a staggered or progressive effect. See heading.

stereotype :
A printing plate, made by the process of taking a mold of composed type and casting type metal from the mold. Also, any conventional expression or unoriginal idea, as the simplified image or standardized conception of outsiders. See type. [cf: prototype, archetype]

Abbreviation for "let it stand", to retain material previously deleted; see proofreader's marks.

stipple / stippling :
A method of drawing, painting, or engraving by dots or "small touches"; and the work so created. Compare pixelated, webpox; see pointillism, mezzotint, tessellate, reticulate, illustration.

stochastic screening :
An algorithm that uses a semi-random arrangement of pixels to create the appearance of grey by varying the placement (not size) of halftone dots; also called "sub weight". Improves on the standard halftone screen by maximizing the number of grey tones that can be represented by a limited output resolution. See dithering, halftone, gray levels, illustration. [nb: stochastic: a process that involves a randomly determined sequence, any sample of which may be an element of a probability distribution]

stone age :
In computer jargon, any outmoded, outdated, or obsolete automated processing system (whether or not it still functions!), that is, everything not currently promoted as the "latest and greatest" machine; but especially refers to the early period or first-generation of computers (qv).

story :
A narrative, either true or fictitious, in prose or verse; as a fictitious tale that's shorter and less elaborate than a novel. See feature story, vignette, lay, squib, 30.

storyboard :
A panel, or series of panels, displaying sketches that graphically depict scheduled scenes, with changes of action or story line, as for a television or motion picture production. The sequence plotted on the storyboard may not follow the script but will later be assembled into the proper order. This piecemeal construction with integral links also applies to website development. Compare art board, flowchart; see cinema verite, film. [cf: tablature: to mark or score on a board]

story line :
The main plot (qv), or the succession of incidents of a novel, poem, or drama; also called "theme" or "motif". See drama, foreshadowing, denouement. [v: leitmotif]

straight composition :
Copy arranged as both flush left and right; bijustified. See alignment, justify, flush, H&J, feathering, column rule, ragged, indent.

strap :
A subheading used above the main headline in a newspaper article; also called kicker or "precede". See deck, subhead, heading; compare skyline.

stratum / strata :
A layer of material, naturally or artificially formed, often formed one upon another; derived from "cover" or "spread".

strawboard :
A thick board made from straw pulp, that's not suitable for printing, but used in bookwork, and in the making of envelopes and cartons. See paper.

stream :
A continuous succession, especially of data input, as contents flowing "on stream" to complete a project or enable operation; such as when text flows into a template around design elements and graphical objects. Compare pipeline; see read through.

streambedding :
A contraction of (main)stream + (em)bedding, as used to describe the flow of graphics data with coding inserted, as in EPS and SVG formats.

stream of consciousness / stream-of-consciousness :
A style of writing that simulates, often with non-standard syntax, the constant flow of thoughts and emotions, ideas and images, in a meld of interior monologue and exterior dialogue by one or more characters, in the juxtaposition of random sequences, inconsistent expressions, and indistinct levels of reality; being a psychodynamic referent applied to literature. Coined by William James, this style represents the same point made by Cratylus, who was the seminal proponent of universal change; believing that everything was not only mutable, but actually changed before it could be expressed or represented. Cratylus is famous for correcting the statement: you cannot step into the same river twice, made popular in America as you can never go home again, into something like a Zen retort: you can't even step into the same river once. This radical metaphysic persuaded him that words were useless, and talking was useless ... perhaps worse than useless, since in talking one has the illusion of comprehension. See literature.

streamer :
Alternate term for banner (qv). As a sensational headline, this term should be designated: screamer.

stress variation :
Typefaces with a difference in stroke and stem thicknesses, in simulation of antique (distressed) or calligraphic (brush) styles. See typeface.

strike-through :
The saturation of ink into a sheet so that it penetrates to the other side of the page, also called "soak-through"; compare opacity. Also, to mark through or over-strike copy, showing changes or corrections, as when copyediting text or revising legal documents; see copyedit, proofread.

string :
See character string, SNOBOL.

stringer :
A part-time news correspondent covering a subject or locality for a periodical; probably derived from rank or status, as a "second-stringer". See freelance, deskman, writer, journalism.

String Oriented Symbolic Language :
A programming language from Bell Labs used for string processing, compiler development, and pattern matching; abbreviated "SNOBOL" (snowball). See language.

strip :
To assemble images on film for platemaking.

stripping :
The positioning of all pieces in the layout onto large sheets of paper to construct the templates. Consideration must be given to optimum utility, precise placement, color relations, and efficient pressruns. See imposition, guideline, format.

stroke :
The movement of a pen, pencil, brush, and similar writing instruments, or the resultant mark made by such a movement; see serif, stem, type, typography, alphabet. Also, a distinctive manner or effective touch in a literary composition. Also, a piece of work, a feat; see masterpiece.

strophe :
In modern poetry, any separate section or extended movement in a poem, distinguished from a stanza in that it does not follow a regularly repeated pattern; compare stanza, see monostrophe, apostrophe, prosody, verse. Also, the part of an ancient Greek choral ode sung by the chorus, and the movement (strophe / antistrophe) of the chorus while singing. Also, the first of the three series of lines forming the divisions of each section of a Pindaric ode [an ode consisting of several units, each composed of a strophe and an antistrophe of identical form followed by a contrasting epode].

stylebook :
A reference book containing the rules of usage in punctuation, grammar, typography, and the like, used by writers, editors, proofreaders, and typographers; also known as style guide or style guideline. The standard stylebooks include: "MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing", "The Chicago Manual of Style", "A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations" [Turabian], "The BlueBook" [law], "Am. Psych. Assn. Publication Manual", "The New York Public Library Writer's Guide to Style and Usage", "The Associated Press Stylebook", "The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage", "The Gregg Reference Manual", and "USGPO Style Manual".

stylesheet / style sheet :
The customary rules that a publisher observes regarding syntactic composition and document formatting, which represent particular guidelines for similar projects. By extension from these editing and layout formulations, a computer file which establishes consistent treatment of each similar item or all associated data, as by a uniform template, without coding different features separately. See CSS, XSL, JSS, widow, orphan, Snap, master page, format, punctuation, copyedit, stylebook.

stylish :
Conforming to current fashion; vogue, smart, chic, dernier cri, faddish, trendy, fancy, whimsy, craze, mania, clinquant, kitsch. See art, design, graphic design, designing on press, CRAP, Occam's Razor, slick. [v: de rigueur]

stylus :
A pointed instrument used for inscribing or embossing, including automatic machine transcription. Also, any pen-like instrument used in calligraphy or artwork; as derived from "stilus" (stake) for pointed writing instrument. See pen, writing instrument; compare puck.

subhead :
A title or heading of a subdivision, such as in a chapter, essay, or newspaper article. Also, a subordinate division of a title or heading. See cross head, deck, strap, jump head, heading.

subroutine :
A sequence of instructions inserted into a computer program, or any stipulated section of code that can be invoked; also called "module". See algorithm, macro, script, batch file, parameter, TSR, shell, control character, switch, slash, backslash.

subscript :
A letter, number, or symbol written below or printed low on a line of text; also called "inferior". Compare superscript.

subscription :
A sum of money given or pledged as a contribution, payment, investment, or the like. Also, the right to receive a periodical publication, utilize a service, attend performances, participate in functions, and the like for a prepaid sum of money; see differential pricing, soft offer, fulfillment period, expiration date, renewal rate, audit, agent-sold subscriptions. Also, the act of appending one's signature or mark to a form or document, usually denoting assent, agreement, or approval.

subsidiary rights :
The rights to publish in different formats, or to produce in different media, a derivative or convertible work that's based on an original expression of tangible intellectual property. Compare volume rights; see copyright, non-disclosure agreement, work for hire, fair use, public domain, license, plagiarism, reprint permission, serialization.

subsidy publisher :
A publisher that produces books for a fee. Like the major publishing houses, a subsidy press maintains editorial control, then publishes and distributes the book under its imprint. Authors pay all publishing costs, and usually retain copyright. Depending upon the contract, subsidy publishers may pay royalties, or give the author a fixed quantity of books in lieu of remuneration. See assisted self-publishing, self-publishing, vanity press, publishing house.

substance weight :
An alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to bond paper; also called "sub wt". See paper.

subtractive color :
Color produced by light reflected from a surface. Subtractive color includes hues in color photos, and colors created by inks on paper. See illustration.

subtractive primary colors :
Yellow, magenta and cyan. In the graphic arts, these colors are known as process colors because, along with black, they are the ink colors used in color-process printing. Compare additive colors; see illustration.

suitcase :
Slang for the complete set of printer and screen fonts supplied with a job specification as a guarantee of print accuracy. See COLD, job order.

suite :
A number of connected or related things forming a series or set, as an ensemble of integrated programs (v: Acrobat) or compatible software (v: MIME); derived as a metathetic variation of suit ("siute") meaning "to follow". See program, software.

supercalender :
A roll or set of rolls for giving a smooth high finish to paper.

supercalendered paper :
Groundwood paper calendered using alternating chrome and fiber rollers to produce a smooth, thin sheet for magazines, catalogs, and directories; abbreviated SC paper. See paper.

superscript :
A letter, number, or symbol written above or printed high on a line of text; also called "superior". Compare subscript.

surprint :
To print an image over another image, as text over a graphic, as line drawing over continuous tone; to impose an overlay onto a base depiction in the same illustration area by registered plate sequence. Also called "double print" or overprint (qv). See pre-print, screen tint, ink-trap, watermark, tip-on; compare mortise.

The abbreviation for Scaled Vector Graphics; a text-based vocabulary that interfaces with human-readable XML tags. See graphics, illustration; compare Flash.

The abbreviation for Super Video Graphics Array; being a high resolution video display standard for color monitors, defined by VESA. SVGA monitors display up to 16.7 million colors with resolutions up to 1,280 x 1,024 pixels, and are good for multimedia applications. See screen, illustration.

swash / swash letter :
A capital letter written or printed in Italics with at least one long tail or flourish added for dramatic effect. See initial, rubric, drop-cap, display type, typeface, ITAL, paraph.

swatchbook / swatch book :
A collection of specimen materials, or a manufacturer's set of production samples, showing particular characteristics; as of paper, ink, or the like. See samples.

sweat equity :
Unreimbursed labor, that increases the value of a property, or is invested to establish an enterprise. See budget, marketing plan, appropriation.

switch :
The syntactic parameters used in an argument for controlling the execution of a command or an application, which are typically punctuated with a forward-slash (/), to distinguish qualified instructions from file paths or internet addresses. See slash, subroutine, backslash. Also, a regulatory device for directing or re-directing an electric current, or for making or breaking a circuit.

The abbreviation for Specifications for Web Offset Publications; being an industry guideline. See trade customs, trade associations.

swung dash :
A punctuation mark (~) used in place of a word, or part of a word, previously spelled-out. See apostrophe, elision, dash, tilde, punctuation, notation.

The abbreviation for Super eXtended Graphics Array, being a specification that can display 1280 x 1024 resolution, or approximately 1.3 million pixels. See screen, illustration.

syllabary :
A list or catalog of syllables. Also, a set of written symbols, each representing a syllable, used in writing certain languages (eg: Japanese). See schwa, diacritic, accent, foot, glide, punctuation, orthography, Unicode, sesquipedalism. [v: pyrrhic]

symbol :
See semiotics, glyph, graphics, sign language, prose, verse, rhetorical forms.

syntax :
The patterns for formation of phrases and sentences from words, and the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language. Prescriptive and proscriptive "rules of usage" are not strictly grammar or syntax; but if idiom violates syntactic use, it is better to rephrase or rewrite than to flout either system of effective communication. See alphabet, language, punctuation, orthography, vocabulary, syllabary, morpheme, phoneme, parse, gender, pidgin. [v: inflection, suppletion] [nb: Chomskyan "transformational generative grammar"]

system tray :
A feature introduced with MS-Windows95, the system tray is normally located at the right side of the task bar, next to the clock, and contains miniature icons for ready access to system functions, such as fax, printer, modem, volume, and the like. The options and controls on these system tray icons may be accessed by a mouse right- or double-click.

- T -

tabazine :
Combination of tabloid and magazine for regional or trade distribution, usually arranged in tabloid format. See regional edition, public relations magazine, trade journal, newsletter, magapaper, zine, periodical.

table of contents :
Abbreviated "TOC"; see contents.

tabloid :
An illustrated publication dimensionally about half the size of a regular newspaper, often containing condensed or sensational articles, being a format widely used for newsletters; sometimes called a "scandal sheet". See pauper press, rag, pulp, zine, tabazine, pamphlet, booklet, magazine, chapbook, feuilleton, boilerplate, news book, poster make-up, collateral. [nb: "Whate'er men do, or say, or think, or dream, Our motley paper seizes for its theme." by Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juvenalis) in "Satire 1" as translated and embellished by Alexander Pope, used as the epigraph of the "Prospectus" in the first issue (2 April 1709) of Richard Steele's "Tatler", outlining the general principles for publication. The CounterCultural "Zarzuela" is a modern specimen of classic satire.]

tabular :
Copy set in a table format of columns and rows.

tag :
The Markup Language compliant code that is embedded within the body of a document, which allows information, such as formatting, indexing, and linking, to remain independent of application or platform; and the document is later translated into its final form by a Markup Language compatible application. See alt tag, title tag, container tag, deprecated tag, HTML tag, meta tag, SSI, attribute, markup, TIFF, validation.

tail-in :
To add other work to the end of an existing pressrun, usually as a test of color or paper for a future job. See gang, proof, die strike, samples.

tailpiece / tail-piece :
A decoration, usually a printer's ornament or a small illustration, printed in the blank space at the end of a book chapter or other subdivision; also called "tail ornament". Compare headpiece, frontispiece.

take-off :
A media imitation, derivative, or by-product, based upon a preexisting character, theme, hook, or other commercial idea; as a copy, clone, repro, spin-off, outgrowth, side-effect, counterfeit, faux, knock-off, rip-off. See dummy.

tanka :
A Japanese poem consisting of 31 syllables in five lines, with five syllables in the first and third lines, and seven in the others; derived from "short + song". See haiku, hokku.

target :
Synonymous with destination, being any file location, database, application mode, storage medium, or hardware device to which processing is directed or output; see object code. Also, an attribute of an anchor tag hyperlink on a webpage contained within a frameset, or when enabled by the underline character (_), as a reserved value controlling the display of windowed data. Compare relative link; see link, hot link, hot spot, pointer.

target ink densities :
Densities of the four process inks as recommended for various printing processes and grades of paper. See process colors, illustration.

task :
An operating system concept that refers to the combination of a program being executed, together with its housekeeping or bookkeeping information. Whenever a program is executed, accountability connections enable traces and links to support program functions. Multitasking operating systems (such as UNIX, OS/2, and Windows) are capable of running many tasks at the same time. In most operating systems, there is a direct relationship between the task and the program, but some "multithreading" operating systems allow a program to be subdivided into multiple tasks. The terms 'task' and 'process' are often used interchangeably, although some operating systems distinguish between them. See multitasking, TSR, shell.

tautology :
The needless repetition of an idea in different words, a "word salad" circumlocution (eg: beautiful calligraphy, double spread, widow woman, rooftop, advance planning, advance warning, sand dune, self confessed, pizza pie, free gift), as derived from "same + knowledge"; see rhetorical forms. Also, a logical proposition consisting entirely of valid elements, or a compound proposition containing elements which restate each other; a self-proving circular argument. See puffery, balderdash, pleonasm, prolixity.

Abbreviation for "To Be Announced", as a schedule or proposal notation; also represented as "To Be Determined" (TBD).

The abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol, which interfaces with the Internet Protocol; these protocols were developed by DARPA to enable communication between different types of computers and computer networks. The IP is a connectionless protocol which provides packet routing. TCP is connection-oriented and provides reliable communication and multiplexing. See internet address, sniffer, web server.

tear sheet :
A page, containing an advertisement from a current magazine or other publication, that's torn-out and sent to the advertiser as proof of publication. See comps, audit, advertising.

teaser :
A highlight or excerpt used to engage the audience's attention, such as call-outs or film clips; see trailer, snippet, contents. Also, an advertisement that lures customers by offering a promotional gift, premium, or bonus; see hook, blurb, cover lines.

telecon :
Contraction of TELEgraph + CONference, in which principals met at linked stations for long-distance discussion; since applied to any mode of telecommunications conference. [nb: despite similarity, telecon is not telecomm]

telex :
A two-way teletypewriter service channeled through a public telecommunications system for direct communication between subscribers at remote locations; derived from "tel(eprinter) + ex(change)". See e-mail, fax.

The contraction of Terminal Emulation protocoL NETwork, which is abbreviated "TN"; being a virtual terminal protocol that allows users of one host to log into a remote host and interact as normal terminal users of that remote host. TELNET is the main Internet terminal emulation protocol for creating a connection with a remote system, regardless of distance, availing the user of the opportunity to be on one computer and do work on another system. Originally developed for ARPAnet, TELNET runs on top of the TCP/IP protocol. In WWW publishing, TELNET is used to log into the web server, and 'set the permissions' of files and directories. Once a TELNET session has been established, commands specific to the remote host must be used. Assistance on host-specific commands can usually be obtained by typing: help, ?, or menu. TELNET is most likely to be used by program developers and anyone who has a need to use specific applications or data located at a particular host computer. TELNET risks the exposure of passwords over an open network, which may be stolen and misused. See FTP, anonymous FTP, HTTP, protocol, trap door, internet.

template :
A pattern or style arranged for a particular use, subject to modification or transposition; see format, constant, protocol, overprint, stripping, stencil, pipeline, grid, well. Also, a guide or gauge, as a keyboard reference to computer program commands; sometimes called a "cheat sheet".

tessellate :
A design or pattern formed of small blocks or elements, as a dappled or mosaic image, which may be used as a background. Compare mottle, hickey, stipple; see reticulate, wallpaper, illustration. [v: grill, stellular, vairs, miniver]

testing :
The practice of comparing the results of one offer or "creative" against another. For example, in a direct mail effort you might offer your standard half-price subscription rate to a rental list of subscribers, and compare the results of that offer with a slightly different rate offered to another similar rental list of subscribers. It's advisable to also offer your standard rate to a control group. Or, a variety of premiums could be contrasted with different series letters. Testing is a good way to determine your most effective offers, copy, and design; but market research ought to include critical analyses of competitors, and reader surveys. See coding, rollout, audit.

TeX :
Document preparation and processing software that provides complete control over typographical formatting. Devised to reproduce computational equations, it is still the premier system for producing books and articles that require complex typeset mathematical formulae. The plain TeX macro package for general-purpose typeset text processing, written by Donald E. Knuth, and LaTeX, originally written by Leslie Lamport, provide an interface between subject input and output options. After creating the copy, a WYSIWYG preview of the document can be generated in an X-window environment using the "xdvi" (TeX device independent) subroutine. Derived from text editor, with the terminal letter being the Greek letter 'chi' rather than the English letter 'X'. See LaTeX, LyX, text editor.

text :
The main body of matter in a manuscript, book, or the like, as distinguished from notes, appendixes, illustrations, and other supplemental matter; derived from "woven pattern" (textus), to weave a pattern with words. Also, the wording adopted as authentic or authoritative, or any of the various forms in which a writing exists, such as paraphrase, translation, transcription. Also, a unit of connected speech or writing that forms a cohesive whole, especially a passage selected for study. Also, type (qv), especially black letter (qv), as distinguished from margins and illustrations; see gray space.

text box :
Also called "copy block"; see box, call-out, grid box, mortise, sidebar, side note, ear, crawl, zipper sign, caption.

The standard screen-oriented editor with formatting functions supported by Sun Microsystems in their window environment. This WYSIWYG program is controlled by drop-down boxes (eg: File, View, Edit, etc) located on a menu bar at the top of the screen, and features may be selected by a mouse right-click. A scroll bar is positioned on the left of the screen. See text editor.

text editor :
A program enabling the creation, modification, and formatting of a text document or file on a computer system or workstation. Plain text files are used in programming and messaging, but may be edited for style (eg: color, font, embedded graphics, etc) and layout (eg: proportional spacing, justification, etc). There are three major types of text editor: line editor, showing one line of copy at a time (eg: UNIX "ed" and "ex"); screen-oriented or display-oriented editor (aka: "visual editor"), showing a full screen of copy at a time (eg: UNIX "Vi", "JOVE", "EMACS", "TEXTEDIT"); text formatter, embedding style guides within text files (eg: UNIX "FMT", "PR", "ROFF", "TeX"). See DTP, word processor, e-pub, web publishing.

text paper :
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use text to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether its surface has a texture or not. See paper coating.

text type :
In general, any monofont or monospaced font, which is typically displayed in a document without the letter or style formatting performed by word processors and DTP; also known as typewriter-style or teletype-style lettering. All unextended ASCII text is plain; HTML will display a monospace font with the <TT>, <CODE>, and <PRE> tags. See font, monotype, TT, EBCDIC, ASCII, Extended ASCII, Unicode, gray space.

thermography :
A technique for imitating an embossed appearance, as on stationery, by fusing colored wet ink and a colorless adhesive resin powder to the paper by heat; also called "raised printing". Compare engrave, etch; see toner.

thesaurus :
A book containing synonyms and antonyms, arranged by subject or alphabetically; first published in 1852 by Peter Mark Roget as "Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition" in a thousand categories. Also, any comprehensive reference book, such as a dictionary or encyclopedia; derived from Latin for "treasury" or "storehouse", a repository. See dictionary, gloss, vocabulary.

thesis :
A subject for a composition, or the theme for an essay; compare antithesis, see rhetorical forms. Also, a part of a metrical foot that does not bear the ictus or stress; see foot, verse. Also, the downward stroke, or the part of a metrical foot that bears the ictus [cf: arsis]; see strophe. Also, formal writing that incorporates original research on a subject, such as discourse, treatise, exposition, disquisition, tractate, exegesis, dissertation; see monograph, gray literature, DAI, hermeneutics, opus, compare desideratum. Also, a proposition stated for consideration, as one to be discussed and proved, or as one to be maintained against objections [v: Hegelian dialectic]; derived from "the act of setting down".

30 :
The end-of-story sign used in telegraphy, teletype, telex, telecom, and internet submission of news to syndicates, agents, or publishers; ostensibly derived from the Roman numeral thirty (XXX) used by telegraphers imitative of the triple asterisk end sign normally used elsewhere in publishing. Alternative derivations include thirty picas per slug on linotype machines, thirty stories per transmission, or thirty features per subscription. See end sign.

thingamajig / thingumajig :
A referent for any unknown object, tool, gadget, device, mechanism, technique, or process, or for any typical or representative specimen; also called thingamabob, thingy, thingamadoodle, whatsis, whatchamacallit / whudyacallit, doohickey, doodad, doojigger, doojiggy, gismo / gizmo, dingus, widget. See balderdash, bunkum @ solecism, euphemism, boilerplate, shovelware, suitcase. [v: artha (materialism)]

think piece :
In Journalism, an article analyzing and giving the background of a news event, often with the author's opinions and forecast for the future; also called "dope story". Compare editorial, Op-Ed, bully pulpit, expose, news.

thread :
A topical sequence of reply messages posted on a BBS or forum, which can be read entire and expanded as long as the subject attracts interest. A single forum or conference typically contains many threads covering different subjects. A new thread series can be initiated by posting a comment or question on a different subject. Archived threads can expose research defects or creative options. Also, a part of a program that can execute independently of other parts, such that multithread program designs enable concurrent execution of threaded parts.

thread sled :
The browser software linking the user to the internet news server for chatroom or newsgroup messaging. See thread, listserve, UseNet.

three-quarter binding :
A book binding in which the material used for the back extends farther over the covers than in half binding (qv). See binding.

three-quarter web :
Press using rolls 22" to 27" wide to print eight-page signatures with a flat trim size typically 17" X 22"; also called an "eight-page web". See press.

thumbnail :
Anything small, brief, or concise, such as a miniature image or biographical sketch.

ticker :
A telegraphic receiving instrument that automatically prints news, stock prices, market reports, and any other subscription information onto a paper tape. See ticker tape.

ticker tape :
The ribbon of narrow paper upon which a ticker prints news or quotations (qv). Compare caption, crawl, zipper sign.

ties :
A structural connection, originally of hair but later of silk thread, joining design elements that span large open areas of a stencil (qv) for pattern stability and consistency.

The abbreviation for Tag Image File Format, a standard file format commonly used for scanning, storage, and interchange of gray scale graphic images. See tag, graphics, illustration.

tilde :
A titulus superscription (~) placed over a consonant to indicate a palatal nasal sound, or over a vowel to indicate nasalization; see diacritic, punctuation. Also, a swung dash; see dash, apostrophe, elision.

tint :
A variety of color, especially delicate, pale, or dilute; see hue, illustration.

tint block :
A faintly colored background or uniform shade upon which an illustration is to be produced. See illustration.

tip / tipping / tip-in / tipping-in :
To insert or inset an additional page or supplemental sheet into a signature before binding, as for illustrations or corrigenda. See half-title page, integral.

tip-on :
A stock wrapper that conceals and protects the art on the cover of a periodical, usually text printed, and may be die-cut. Also, a half wrapper that lists cover lines and decks for the contents, used instead of surprints. See cover paper.

title page :
An unnumbered recto page at the beginning of a book giving the title, subtitle, author's name, place of publication, publisher's name and imprint. Compare half-title page; see heading, sinkage, protocol, spine, acknowledgments, vignette, key title, front matter.

title tag :
An alternative HTML attribute that displays the stipulated data description, which may be nested or sequenced; most often used as a context-sensitive document or object label, appearing as a "tool tip". Also, an element in an HTML heading that labels a document or page, with the description displayed in the browser title bar. Compare alt tag; see tag, markup.

tittle :
A dot or other small mark in writing or printing, used as a diacritic or punctuation. Also, any very small thing or any insignificant amount, as a particle, jot, or whit. See bang. [nb: "It was said of old Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, that she never puts dots over her i's, to save ink." by Horace Walpole]

(TK) / (T.K.) :
Authorial notation to proofreader or editor that missing words need to be filled-in to complete the composition, usually being a detail or reference; abbreviation represents "words To Kome". See fill-in, proofreader's marks, notation.

tolerance :
The permissible range of variation or deviation in the characteristics of an object or process. Also, the amount of endurance or the degree of resistance integrated into a variable process or unknown condition.

tombstone :
A boxed advertisement without artwork or illustrations, especially one announcing an issue of a stock or bond; also known as a "tombstone ad" or "boxed card"; compare card, see advertising. Also, equivalent headlines placed side by side to deliberately compete for reader attention; see heading. Also, the inadvertent horizontal alignment of similar elements, such as subheads in different articles in parallel columns appearing to be related, which detracts from their individual impact.

tonal range :
Difference between the darkest and lightest areas of copy. See quarter tones, tone compression, illustration.

tone compression :
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.

toner :
A highly concentrated organic pigment (qv); compare dye, ink. Also, either a dry powder, or a powder dispersed in an organic liquid, used in xerography (qv) to produce the final image.

tool line :
An embossed or scored decorative line, sometimes forming a border or frame, used for subtle accent, emphasis, and ornamentation. See rule, fillet, die, panel, blank.

total area coverage :
Total of the dot percentages of the process colors in the final film; also called "maximum density", "total dot density", and "total ink coverage". See illustration.

tour de force :
An exceptional achievement by an artist, author, or other creative person, that is unlikely to be equaled or surpassed by anyone; a quintessential stroke of genius, as derived from "feat of skill or strength". Also, any achievement or resolution that demonstrates unusual strength, great ingenuity, or adroit skill. Compare sine qua non; see masterpiece, argus, dandy roll, oeuvre, aesthetics, ars gratia artis, l'art pour l'art.

TR :
Abbreviation for "transpose"; see proofreader's marks.

trackball :
A type of pointing device; essentially being an upside down mouse of the mechanical or optomechanical type, complete with buttons. The unit is stationary (may even be keyboard mounted), does not need maneuver space, and the roller is directly manipulated by the user. Unlike a mouse, the trackball unit may be handheld during operation, similar to a joystick. The "Turbo Mouse", made available by Kensington Microware, is a Macintosh trackball. See pointer.

tracking :
The practice of assigning codes to all marketing materials and determining the success of your efforts by looking at net responses and rates of return; see coding, testing, white mail, audit, cookie, sniffer. Also, adjusting space between all letters to make them fit the line; see copyfit, kern, rag, RIP, tweak; compare leading.

trade associations :
Professional membership groups that promulgate informal guidelines, similar to guilds or gesellschafts; including: Graphic Arts Technical Foundation (GATF), National Association of Printers and Lithographers (NAPL), Printing Industries of America (PIA), Graphics Communications Association (GCA), Committee for Graphics Arts Technology Standards (CGATS), American Association of Publishers (AAP). See GRACOL, SWOP, SNAP, trade customs.

trade customs :
Business terms and policies codified by trade association to provide guidelines for contracts. The Printing Industry Trade Customs describe the common business practices of the printing industry. Graphic Communications Trade Customs and Business Practices have been in general use in the industry throughout the United States and Canada for more than seventy years. These trade customs and business practices were formally promulgated at an annual convention of the United Typotheise of America in 1922. They were revised and updated in 1945 and 1974, and were updated and adopted by the Graphic Arts Council of North America in 1985. A consortium of the Graphic Arts Technical Foundation (GATF), National Association of Printers and Lithographers (NAPL), and Printing Industries of America (PIA) revised them in 1994. The use of any Trade Customs must always be an independent, individual business decision. As each company drafts its own contractual provisions, it will also want to consider customers' wishes, relationships with potential customers, and other competitive issues. See GRACOL, SWOP, SNAP, trade associations.

trade edition :
An edition of a book, usually the optimal compromise between quality and cost, for distribution through general bookstores; also known as "trade binding" and "commercial edition". A well designed and manufactured softcover book is more durable than a poorly designed and cheaply made hardback book. Since printers were originally prohibited from selling directly to the public, licensed stationers would commission a few books to be bound "for the trade", but kept most works unbound until purchased ... with the binding matching previous purchases for their customer's library. There are numerous examples of historic personages reading unbound manuscripts, magazine fashion, because they did not want to wait for binding of a new book. With mass-production and the mechanization of bookbinding, publishers began offering standard and deluxe editions; which devolved into split editions, and imprints solely representing production quality. See paperback, treasure binding, volume rights.

trade journal :
A periodical devoted to disseminating news and information of interest to a specific industry or trade. Trade journals are usually published by trade associations, and may be available for reference, including: "Publishers Weekly", "Folio, the Magazine for Magazine Management", "Circulation Management Editor and Publisher", "Magazine Design and Production", "Newspapers and Technology", "Publishing and Production Executive". See gazette, organ, periodical; compare public relations magazine.

trademark :
Any symbol or term adopted for use by a manufacturer or merchant to distinguish a product or commercial line from its competitors, and registered with the patent office to assure its exclusivity; including "trade name" and "trade dress", and equivalent to branding. The registered trademark symbol is ® , and the common law symbol is ® / TM. Compare servicemark; see product mark, collective mark, imprint, brand, logo, copyright, fair use. [nb: specimens of former trademarks include: automat, carborundum, dictaphone, dumpster, escalator, fiberglas, laundromat, loafer, mailgram, nicad, pablum, peg-board, photostat, plexiglas, popsicle, realtor, scuba, sheetrock, spackle, spoof, tarmac, telegram, teletype, windbreaker; and specimens of trademarks liable to become generic include: Adrenalin, Aqua-lung, Astroturf, Band-Aid, Breathalyzer, Brillo, Formica, Frisbee / Frisbie, Fuzzbuster, Google, Gore-Tex, Hula-Hoop, Jeep, Jell-O, Kleenex, Magic Marker, Masonite, Naugahyde, Ping-Pong, Post-it, Q-Tip, Scotch tape, Social Register, Styrofoam, Technicolor, Thermopane, Ultrasuede, Vaseline, Velcro, Xerox, ZIP code]

trade secret :
A secret method, technique, process, formula, pattern, compilation, or device used to competitive advantage in a business, which exclusivity is secured by financial inducements and non-disclosure agreements. Trade secrets cannot be protected against encroachment by copyright, which eventually expires, or by patent, which is publicly disclosed during registration. Piracy of trade secrets includes deconstruction, decompiling, and other reverse engineering. See intellectual property, forbearance agreement, golden handcuffs, autograph, steganography. [v: Uniform Trade Secrets Act]

tragedy / tragedia :
A literary form, chiefly dramatic, which evokes strong emotions in the audience by presenting an often superior and noble being who demonstrates great courage and perseverance while facing and struggling against certain defeat. Aristotle defined this form as a dramatic presentation that arouses pity and fear in the audience, thus stimulating a catharsis of these emotions. The forms of tragedy have changed to reflect the beliefs, values, and conventions of the age in which they are produced. However, the fundamental tragic vision remains the same: the spectacle of an idealistic, courageous, or noble human being in conflict either with private motives, personal frailty, or individual destiny, set in a hostile milieu or indifferent universe. Derived from "goat song" (tragoidia). See pathos, conflict, drama, literature, muse.

trailer :
A short promotional film (qv) showing highlights of a forthcoming movie; see teaser, snippet. Also, the blank film at the end of a reel or strip of film, for winding off the film in a camera, projector, or motion-picture editing device; equivalent to a "leader".

tramp printer :
An itinerant pressman or traveling artificer; also called a "vagabond printer". An alternative lifestyle for a skilled union worker of the 19th Century, who traverses or voyages without destination, in the same sense as an unscheduled "tramp steamer" without a fixed route. [v: "A Race of Men:" by Robert Service]

transition :
The passage or change from one state or stage, one subject or concept to another; as a passage in writing that links one scene or topic to another.

translucent paper :
A category of paper that permits the passage of diffuse light, such as glassine, onionskin, or the like. See flyleaf, paper.

transparent palette :
By setting a clear base on a normally rectilinear graphic, the image will display as if directly placed onto the webpage background, with an irregular, eccentric, or inconsistent shape. Additionally, the border can be hidden (or made invisible by setting the parameter to zero) so a hollow box will not display on non-graphical browsers. See GIF, PNG, bitmap, palette, illustration.

trap :
See ink-trap, image-trap, dry-trap, wet-trap, knockout, spread, keyline.

trap door :
A method of bypassing a system's security, notably for repair or inspection, by utilizing some hardware or software mechanism, also called a "backdoor", which was previously integrated and intentionally concealed for this purpose by the designers. Such a service entry by a super-user [eg: UNIX access by "tech", TELNET access by "guest"] is usually undocumented, and is therefore a potential security risk. See password, escrow key, Clipper, firewall, deadman.

trapped white space :
An isolated and unused or unusable area of a layout which implies a need for shifted images, more text, or point adjustments in type or leading. Instead of bringing light or air into a layout, such trapped white space acts like a hole that needs to be filled. See white space, river, hourglass.

treasure binding :
Among codex volumes, the elaborately decorated front cover of a book, intended to represent the "wealth of knowledge" it contained. Tradecraft ornamentation on case-bound books persisted after the mechanization of the printing press, but has deteriorated from gem or jewel adornment into clinquant ostentation since industrialized mass-production has substituted intrinsic value with extrinsic commodity. See trade edition, cameo binding, binding, volume rights.

trigger term :
A word or phrase that initiates a reaction or precipitates a series of reactions, evocative language; inflammatory expressions may also be known as "hate speech" or "fighting words" [v: casus belli]. See catchword, catch-phrase, slogan, puffery, slander, libel, euphemism, expurgate, censorship, freedom of speech.

trim :
The removal of something superfluous or dispensable by, or as if by cutting, as something that is (or is intended to be) cut off or eliminated; especially the outer edges of a page of a book, magazine, or the like, before folding or binding. The permissible variations set by ISO for trim tolerance is 1.5mm for dimensions up to 150mm, 2mm for dimensions above 150mm up to 600mm, and 3mm for dimensions above 600mm; and DIN trim variations are 1mm, 1.5mm, and 2mm respectively for the same range of dimensions. The ISO standards for slightly larger formats of untrimmed raw paper are defined by the series "RA" and "SRA". See choke, creep, crop, crop marks, deckle edge, cutoff, cut flush, cast off, hairline, draw, finish, post-press, guillotine cutter.

Trojan Horse :
A nonreplicating computer subroutine planted illegally in another program to do local damage when the software is activated; most frequently concealed in anti-virus applications. This masquerading algorithm mimics the Greek sabotage in the Trojan War by concealing its destructiveness behind a benign cover. Compare virus, worm, sniffer, smurf, spoofer, deadman, malware.

trope :
Any literary or rhetorical device, as metonymy, synecdoche, irony, or other figure of speech, that consists in the use of words in other than their literal sense; see metaphor, simile, euphemism, oxymoron, rhetorical forms, word. Also, a verse or phrase formerly interpolated into a liturgical text as amplification or embellishment; see interpolation, interlinear, insert, sandwich.

truncation :
The omission of one or more unaccented syllables at the beginning or the end of a line of verse (qv); compare expletive, see foot, rhetorical forms. Also, to trim or abridge a work, as to shorten, crop, cut, abbreviate, excise, expunge, excerpt, amputate, condense; see compilation, digest, analects, crunch, expurgate, euphemism, censorship.

The abbreviation for Terminate and Stay Resident, being a subordinate computer program, with any of several ancillary functions, usually loaded (held resident) in RAM for instant activation by a hotkey combination, while another program is used. In this "context switching" form of multitasking (qv), the central processor's "attention" is turned from one programmatic task to another; rather than sequentially or alternately allocating increments of time to each task. TSRs typically include: notepad, dictionary, calculator, phone dialer, search engine, or terminal emulator. These pop-up interrupts are also known as "memory-resident programs". See hot-key, shell, multitasking, pop-up utility, subroutine, task.

TT :
An HTML container tag indicating the use of a typewriter-style font; see text type. Also, the abbreviation for TrueType, a class of Microsoft font typography, also designated "TTF", which was principally invented by Sampo Kaasila as an original design by Apple called "Royal" to compensate for Adobe Type 1 format limitations; see scalable font.

turist :
Computer slang for a net visitor or web surfer, with the implication of being a gawker, rubbernecker, or non-resident alien; alternate spelling of 'tourist'. See hacker, cracker, phreak, script kitty, software.

tusche :
A greaselike liquid used in lithography, as a medium receptive to lithographic ink; and in etching and silkscreen, as a dye resist. Derived from "to lay on color", to touch.

tweak / tweaking :
To make small, fine, or minute adjustments to something, as when personalizing program or system variables. Changing the values of software or hardware settings can retard or interfere with efficient operations. See frobnicate, debug, Alpha test, Beta test, unsharp masking, color contrast, hint, kern, leading, reglet, tracking, copyfit, rag, RIP, designing on press; compare twiddle.

twiddle / twiddling :
To make gross or large adjustments to something, or to idly play or trifle with something; as to haphazardly fiddle an outcome. Also known as "bum", "mess with", "mess around", "mess about", "fudge factor", "shotgun debugging". Compare tweak, frobnicate, debug.

two-line beaver / 2-line beaver :
Approximately a fifteen-point type; see font, type.

two-line English / 2-line English :
Approximately a twenty-five point type; see font, type.

two-line pica / 2-line pica :
Approximately a 24.4 point type; see font, type.

tympan :
A heavy treated paper or padlike device interposed in a hinged frame between the platen of a printing press and the sheet to be printed, in order to soften and equalize the pressure. See frisket, letterpress.

type :
A clay, wood, or metal block with a raised character on its surface that, when fixed into a press and coated with ink, prints an impression of the character on paper or some similar absorbent surface. Also, such pieces or blocks of typeface collectively. See font, scalable font, typeface, intaglio, gravure, foundry type, ascender, descender, baseline, x-height, aspect ratio, body size, set size, point, measure, pitch, minikin, brilliant, gem, diamond, agate, pearl, ruby, nonpareil, minion, brevier, bourgeois, long primer, elite, small pica, pica, English, two-line beaver, great primer, paragon, double pica, two-line pica, two-line English, Gothic, Roman type, black letter, text type, display type, expanded type, condensed type, expert set, cursive, minuscule, uncial, majuscule, swash, rubric, drop-cap, serif, crossbar, finial, ear, sans-serif, bowl, apex, stem, kern, Italics, digraph, ligature, notation, stereotype, cliche, matrix, logo, bullet, guillemet, dingbat, gray space, galley, chase, alphabet.

type case :
General term for a compartmented box, often portable, used for storing typefaces in a manner ready for picking, usually arranged in order by frequency of letter use, including special symbols and dingbats; also called "font box", "printer's case", and "news case". A Chinese magistrate named Wang Chen is credited with originating (ca1313) the segmented type case to separately hold 60,000 different characters. See California job case, demon letters, printer's pi. [nb: designating small letters as "lower-case" and capitals as "upper-case" derives from the original arrangement of font boxes, with majuscule situated above minuscule]

typeface :
Any design of type, including a full range of characters, as letters, numbers, and marks of punctuation, in all sizes. The general style or appearance of type: as large, broad, or narrow. Type order classifications include: sans-serif; Roman (old style, transitional, modern); Egyptian (aka: square-serif, slab-serif); text; script / cursive; occasional (aka: novelty, decorative, miscellany). See font, scalable font, type, intaglio, gravure, foundry type, ascender, descender, baseline, x-height, aspect ratio, body size, set size, point, measure, pitch, minikin, brilliant, gem, diamond, agate, pearl, ruby, nonpareil, minion, brevier, bourgeois, long primer, elite, small pica, pica, English, two-line beaver, great primer, paragon, double pica, two-line pica, two-line English, Gothic, Roman type, black letter, text type, display type, expanded type, condensed type, expert set, cursive, minuscule, uncial, majuscule, swash, rubric, drop-cap, serif, crossbar, finial, ear, sans-serif, bowl, apex, stem, kern, Italics, digraph, ligature, notation, stereotype, cliche, matrix, logo, bullet, guillemet, dingbat, gray space, galley, chase, alphabet.

type family :
The collection of typefaces that were designed together, and intended to be used together; also called "typeface family" or "family". Each of the style and weight combinations, such as regular and attributed, is called a face or typeface. See hint, font, type, legibility, readability. [nb: type form suppliers include: ZipaTone, ChartPak, Formatt, PressType]

type metal :
An alloy for making printing type, consisting chiefly of lead and antimony, and sometimes containing small quantities of tin, copper, zinc, and/or bismuth. See foundry type, hot type, hellbox, typeface, type. [cf: ley, terne, pewter, britannia]

type noise :
The incongruity or discord created by inappropriate or excessive type contrasts. The "rule of mono-typographic harmony" promotes consistency, legibility, and readability by limiting print to one type family, or to contrasts of size and attribution between no more than two type families. Scale or weight juxtapositions can energize a layout, but the style must be consistent throughout the publication. See typography.

typesetter :
A person who sets or composes type; compositor or typographer. Also, a typesetting machine. Compare phototypesetter, Imagesetter; see linotype, text editor.

typewriter :
A machine for writing in monospaced characters by manually pressing the letters of a keyboard. Invented in 1808, these "strike-on" devices originally functioned by keystrokes at the back of the sheet pressing against carbon in front of the page to create an image. Electric typewriters with film ribbons would later become 'cold type' copy producers, before displacement by DTP computers (nb: 400 double-spaced typewritten pages approximately equal 1KB). See text type, mimeograph, writing instruments. Also, former term for a typist.

typographer :
A person who sets types, and arranges the process of printing from them. See compositor.

typographical error :
An error in printed or typewritten matter, resulting from a mistake in typing, or from mechanical failure or the like; also called "typo". Derived from using the "wrong hand". See PE.

typography :
The art or process of printing with arranged type. Also, the general character or appearance of printed matter. The function of typographic style is that the visual structure must accurately represent the logical structure, so the reader will understand the author's ideas. No less than any other syntax, a logical argument or mathematical formula is a coherent grammatical unit in typographical style. See bowl, ear, finial, stem, kern, serif, crossbar, stroke, apex, aspect ratio, hint, font, typeface, type noise, legibility, readability.

typology :
The systematic study and classification of prefigurative symbols or types in literature. Also, the study and classification of languages according to structural features, without reference to their histories. See notation, alphabet. [cf: philology]

- U -

U&LC :
Notation for setting in Uppercase and LowerCase type. See down style, heading, C&IC, CAP, LC, proofreader's marks.

umbrella :
A department or section in a periodical that gathers a number of elements or encompasses a diverse assemblage. See editorial well, compilation.

uncial :
Designating, written in, or pertaining to a form of majuscule writing, having a curved or rounded shape, and used chiefly in Greek and Latin manuscripts from ca3rd - 9th century AD. See minuscule, cursive, font, typeface.

uncoated paper :
Paper that has not been coated with clay; also called "offset paper". Compare coated paper; see book paper, paper coating.

undercolor removal :
Technique of making color separations such that the amount of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink is reduced in midtone and shadow areas, while the amount of black is increased; abbreviated UCR. See process colors, illustration.

underline :
To demarcate or emphasize something with a line beneath; to underscore. In e-mail and ASCII text, this is indicated by placing an underline immediately before and after the affected word or phrase (eg: _Paradise_Lost_ ). Also, a caption beneath an illustration; see credit line, cover credit, byline. Also, the crucial character eliciting the reserved value of the target attribute in an anchor tag hyperlink; see target.

underrun :
A pressrun or production run below the quantity ordered; to receive fewer copies than requested, due to printing spoilage or printer's error, which permissible variant should be factored into the purchase order agreement. Also, an instance of costing less than anticipated, which estimate contingency should be factored into the contract.

Unicode :
A character set that uses 16-bits (two bytes) for each character, and therefore is able to include more characters than either EBCDIC or ASCII schemes. Unicode can have 65,536 characters, and therefore can be used to encode almost all the languages of the world. This expansion makes Unicode more suitable for foreign language character sets containing accented letters and other special marks. Unicode includes the ASCII character set within it. See ASCII, EBCDIC, ANSI, ISO.

UniPress :
The commercial version of "Gosling Emacs", a screen editor, manufactured by UniPress Software, which produces UNIX applications and development tools. See EMACS, text editor.

unit cost :
The cost of any single item in a print run, computed by dividing the total cost of the printing job by the quantity of products delivered. See estimate, fixed costs, variable costs, formula pricing, quotation, specifications.

universe :
The sum total of a magazine's potential audience -- usually devised by combining the paid circulations of similar magazines. The assumed universe for literary magazines is in the 750,000 - 1,000,000 range. This said, by marketing to this universe through traditional methods, a decent rate of return would be anything greater than 1%. Therefore, if you sent a subscription offer to the entire universe of 750,000 and your rate of return was 1%, then you would theoretically acquire 7500 subscribers. So while a "potential readership" of 750,000 to 1,000,000 sounds impressive, the true potential gains from this hypothetical universe are far more modest. See audience, reader profile, CPM, audit, list broker, circulation, mass market, crossover market, niche market.

A multi-user, multitasking, programmatic operating system, developed by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, et al, and originally licensed by AT&T's Bell Laboratories. It was originally designed for minicomputers, then revised for use on mainframes and personal computers. There are now many versions of UNIX which can be used on many different platforms. UNIX is written in the C/C++ programming language, which was also developed at AT&T; and has TCP/IP built-in. Because it allows multiple programs to run simultaneously and multiple users to access a single computer, it has been widely used by universities and businesses where many people use the same data base. It is the most commonly used operating system for Internet nodes. UNIX is available in several related forms, including: AIX (Advanced Interactive Executive by IBM); A/UX (Apple Macintosh graphical version); BSD-UNIX (Berkeley Software Distribution); MACH (Carnegie Mellon Univ version using "NeXT"); POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface); System V (AT&T version); XENIX (MS version); X-Window System (MIT developed GUI for UNIX); and UseNet (UNIX www via UNIX to UNIX Copy [uucp]). An open computing environment, based on UNIX System V, was promoted by UNIX International (UI) until all proprietary rights were purchased by Novell in 1993. Since its development in 1984, the Free Software Foundation has freely distributed a replacement for UNIX called "GNU's Not UNIX!" (GNU), a recursive acronym. Variants of the GNU OS, using the command-line Linux kernel, are now widely distributed with GNU/Linux system applications. See C shell, filename, POSIX, internet.

unsharp masking :
The technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear in better focus; also called "peaking" and "edge enhancement". See resolution, tweak, illustration.

up :
A term indicating that multiple copies of the identical image should be printed in one impression on a single sheet (eg: "two up" = print same image twice on each sheet). See illustration.

Universal Product Code; a bar code that allows your publication to be identified and processed in the retail marketplace. No magazine or book should be without a UPC. Most distributors and retail managers won't even consider taking on a magazine without a UPC on the front cover; and bulk mail will not be processed without a bar code on the address label. To order a UPC, call the UPC authorizing agent at (212) 996-6000 or the Uniform Code Council. Fees for the codes vary, but should be no more than $50. UPCs can be printed directly onto a magazine cover, or preprinted labels can be purchased and applied separately. See bar code, EAN Bookland bar code, EPC, RFID, ISBN, ISSN, LCN, Dewey decimal system, book categorization.

The abbreviation for Uniform/Universal Resource Locator, being the object specific address of an external webpage, or the internal location of a relative link. Protocol indicators include: http:, ftp:, gopher:, news:, mailto:. See domain name, anchor tag, link, homepage, internet address, TCP/IP, SLIP, website.

Universal Standard Bus; see bus, computer, hardware.

usegroup / user group :
See UseNet, newsgroup, forum, chatroom, instant messaging, listserve, BBS, blog, zine.

UseNet :
A worldwide Bulletin Board System (BBS) that can be accessed through the Internet or other online services for the exchange of current information. Messages and news articles are posted, and users respond by e-mail. The UseNet entails thousands of forums, called newsgroups, covering every interest group, including: comp (computers), sci (science), news (current events), misc (miscellaneous), rec (sports / hobbies), soc (social), alt (alternative), and talk (discussions). Graduate students at Duke University and the University of North Carolina started the UseNet in 1979 using the UUCP communications protocol. The term "UseNet" was coined by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1982 from the extant "General Access UNIX Network" at Duke University. Sometimes called the "User's Network"; UseNet news employs the NNTP protocol. See thread, listserve, UNIX [uucp], forum, blog; compare PaperNet.

UV coating :
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. See paper coating.

The abbreviation for Ultra eXtended Graphics Array, being a specification that can display 1600 x 1200 resolution, or approximately 1.9 million pixels. See screen, illustration.

- V -

validation :
A document or website survey that checks for code accuracy and conformity with HTML / CSS standards for access by different browsers. A validation survey will generate a report or markup of errors and irregularities; or a "no problems" certification (sometimes an accreditation icon that can be posted). Most validators now prompt for the inclusion of disability access features, such as ALT tags or NOFRAMES alternatives. See tag, markup, WAI.

valley :
The depression formed by folding sheets for sizing or binding. See gutter, signature.

value :
The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color; also called brightness, lightness, shade, and tone. Compare hue, chroma; see solid, illustration.

vanity press :
A subsidy publisher that produces books with the author paying all costs, including advertising, distribution, and shipping. As with other publishers, vanity presses normally do not permit author discretion, other than paper color and binding style. The author retains copyright. The royalty portion of sales disbursed by other publishers is non-existent, but the author retains all income (less expenses) from all book sales. The phrase "lemon squeezer" was coined by H.L. Mencken to describe this vanity "press" that extorts money for printing bad books. See self-publishing, assisted self-publishing, subsidy publisher, publishing house.

vaporware :
A computer software product that is announced and promoted while it is still being developed, but may never be marketed.

variable costs :
Costs that change depending on how many pieces are produced. Compare fixed costs; see unit cost, estimate, quotation, specifications.

varnish :
Liquid coating applied to stock for protection and appearance; applied "in-line" (wet) in same pass with ink, or "dry" in separate pass over printed matter. See laminate, lacquer, ink, trap, paper coating.

The abbreviation for Virtual Address eXtension, being a family of 32-bit computers from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) which use the VMS operating system. The first VAX models were released in 1977, including mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers. See VMS.

The abbreviation for VAX Million Instructions Per Second, being a unit of measurement of computer performance; also called VAX Unit of Performance (VUP). One VUP equals the performance of a Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX 11/780. This is also equivalent to one SPECmark.

VBscript / VBScript :
Short for Visual Basic Scripting Edition, a scripting language developed by Microsoft, and supported by the Internet Explorer (IE) web browser. Similar to JavaScript, VBscript is based on the Visual Basic programming language, but is much simpler. It enables Web authors to include interactive controls, such as buttons and scrollbars, on their webpages. See language.

vector graphics :
Graphic images represented in the computer as instructions to draw lines, Bezier curves, or objects, rather than as rasters or bitmaps; also called "object-oriented graphics" and "geometric graphics". See graphics, illustration.

vellum :
A textured off-white paper that has been treated to resemble the original animal skins (ie: calfskin, lambskin, kidskin, etc) prepared for writing, and used for manuscripts and other documents. See parchment, paper.

vellum finish :
An imitative effect, being a somewhat rough or toothy finish of paper. See paper coating.

venture :
A small company, usually new or renewed, that recognizes an unmet or inadequately met market need, and provides a distinctive solution in a competitive manner, which is sufficiently compelling to clients or customers to return a profit on the investment of creativity, energy, time, and resources. See venture capital, entrepreneurship, scalable.

venture capital :
Funds available for investment in a new enterprise or for a profit-making business; also called "equity capital", "risk capital", or "seed money". See business angel, benefactor, entrepreneurship, budget, marketing plan.

verbal :
Of, consisting of, or pertaining to words, usually spoken instead of written, usually literal or verbatim instead of figurative or proximate; see orality. Also, pertaining to, derived from, or functioning as a verb, such as gerund, infinitive, participle, or adjective; see parts of speech.

vernacular :
Expression or writing in the common or conventional language indigenous to a population; being the plain language, native patois, mother tongue, or regional dialect of ordinary people. This holistic form of communication is "vulgar" in the sense of being prosaic, colloquial, customary, or unsophisticated. Standard regional references include: "Dictionary of American Regional English" (DARE); "Word Geography"; "Linguistic Atlas of New England"; and "Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Mid-West". Also, any distinctive language that identifies a class, profession, or other group, such as parlance, jargon, idiom, argot, lingo, cant, slang, or the like; as contrasted with multilingual diversity. See polyglot, lingua franca, pidgin, pig Latin, creole, mannerism, counterword, euphemism, ad diction, balderdash, language, sociolinguistics, orality, literature. [v: demotic, catachresis, haplograph; cf: hieratic, calque, proclitic, enclitic]

verse :
A poem or a piece of poetry, as a line or stanza, of a particular type of metrical composition (eg: poesy, stave, stich, hemistich, monostich, distich, tristich, tetrastich, pentastich, hexastich, heptastich, telestich, epithalamion, prothalamion, soliloquy, apostrophe, couplet, rondel/-et, iambic/-s, rondeau, sestina / sextain, sirvente/-s, virelay / virelai, quatrain, allegory, sonnet, romaunt, epic {invocation, canto, rhapsody}, epos, ode, palinode, elegy, monody, threnody, dirge, lyric/-s, madrigal, epode, lay, ballad, rune, triolet, villanelle, ballade, envoy, haiku, tanka, hokku, idyll, georgic, eclogue, cento, acrostic, limerick, doggerel, jingle). See foot, meter, scansion, stave, strophe, blank verse, free verse, accent, forced line, prosody, poetry, caesura, orality.

verso / versos :
A left-hand or even-numbered page of an open book or manuscript; the reverse of a leaf. Title and contents pages are always recto, while frontispiece and acknowledgment pages are usually verso. Compare recto. [cf: sinister]

The abbreviation for Video Electronics Standards Association; being an organization which sets standards for video and multimedia in PCs. VESA established the Super VGA (SVGA) standard and the VESA Local Bus. The membership of VESA is comprised of PC vendors. See illustration.

Vi :
Contraction of Visual, being a UNIX screen-oriented editor that was written by Bill Joy, who later became a founder of Sun Microsystems. Vi is related to the "ex" UNIX line editor, and they share many commands. The program may be invoked by either "vi" or "vedit" at the UNIX prompt, which operates in either command or insert mode. A text formatter, such as "FMT" or "PR", can be run within this program. See text editor.

videation :
The visualization of unseen objects or scenes; a "mind picture" or "mind's eye view". A neologism for a mental construct of unmanifested images, which may be abstract, interpretive, representational, distorted, or exaggerated. Compare imagery. [cf: fantasy, phantasm, mirage, haptic, limen/liminal]

videotex :
A telecommunications information transmission and retrieval system that provides interactive access to databases and electronic commerce; derived from "see + terms".

vignette :
A decorative design or small illustration, as used on the title page to introduce a book, or to separate sections and chapters; derived "little vine", from decorative designs depicting branches, leaves, grapes, or other naturalistic motifs. Also, an engraving, drawing, photograph, or the like that is shaded off gradually at the edges, leaving no definite line at the border; see ornament, rule, tool line, dingbat. Also, a gracefully short literary sketch, or a brief appealing scene or quietly touching episode in a play, movie, or other dramatization; see story, sketch.

violin piece :
A leading story that sets the tone, mood, flavor, or color in a thematic issue of a periodical. See feature story, anchor.

virtual :
Anything temporarily simulated or apparently extended by computer software, such as a virtual disk in RAM, virtual image, virtual memory, virtual host/administrator; as distinguished from something actual or real. Among computer scientists, it distinguishes something that is merely conceptual from something that has physical substance; an imaginary set of memory area locations is not the same as the real physical memory composed of transistors. In the same sense, the insubstantial mind is a virtual brain; and the incorporeal spirit is a virtual body.

virtual server :
A server, such as a VLAN, that shares computer resources with other similar servers. A virtual server is distinguished from a dedicated server, which runs only server software. Virtual web servers are a very popular way of providing low-cost web hosting services. Instead of requiring a separate computer for each server, dozens of virtual servers can co-reside on the same computer. In most cases, performance is not affected and each web site behaves as if it is being served by a dedicated server. However, if too many virtual servers reside on the same computer, or if one virtual server monopolizes resources, web pages will be delivered more slowly. See bandwidth, web server.

virus :
A segment of self-replicating code that's been illegally planted into a computer program, most often to damage a system, to corrupt a database, or to shut down a network. Countermeasures began in 1987 when a virus infected ARPANET. Anti-virus ("virucide") software attempts to inoculate applications, and firewalls attempt to immunize computers, but the only viable protection against epidemic infection is quarantine; and multiple backups are the only viable precaution against plague. See worm, sniffer, Trojan Horse, smurf, spoofer, deadman, malware, steganography.

Visual BASIC :
A visual programming environment from Microsoft, used for developing Windows applications. Visual BASIC makes it possible to develop practical programs very quickly. The programmer designs windows graphically, then drags program elements, represented by icons, from the Visual BASIC Toolbox, and writes BASIC code for each element. Visual BASIC is event-driven; procedures are called automatically when the end user chooses menu items, clicks the mouse, moves objects on the screen, or interacts in other approved ways. See GUI, language, program, software.

The abbreviation for Virtual Memory System, being the Digital Equipment Corporation's multi-user, multitasking operating system for the VAX series of computers. See virtual memory, VAX, program, software.

The abbreviation for Volatile Organic Compounds, being the base petroleum substance vehicles used for many printing inks and commercial dyes.

vocabulary :
The words and phrases of a language, especially when arranged in a list, glossary, or lexis; see dictionary, thesaurus, syntax. Also, any collection of signs or symbols constituting a means or system of nonverbal communication; see sign language, semiotics. Also, the set of forms, techniques, or other means of expression available to an artist or characteristic of an art form; see gloss, writing system. [v: acronym, agnomen, anatonym, anomia, antonomasia, antonym, back formation, blend, calque, clip, cognomen, compound, contraction, contranym, cryptonym, double entendre, echolalia, eponym, haplograph, heteronym, homonym, hypocorism, hyponym, innominate, metonym, misnomer, mot juste, neologism, nomenclature, onomastics, oronym, paronym, perseveration, pluralia pantum, polysemy, retronym, suppletion, synonym, taxonomy, toponym] [nb: "dyslexicon" as compound neologism from dys(functional) + lexicon for an impaired vocabulary (not from 'dyslexia')]

VoiceXML :
A markup language standard based on XML and developed by the VoiceXML Forum (formed by AT&T, IBM, Lucent Technologies, and Motorola). VoiceXML was developed to provide voice access to websites over the telephone. See VoxML, markup.

volume :
A book, especially as a separately bound portion of a larger work, or as one of a series of works. Also, a set of issues of a periodical, often covering one year. Also, a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper, as a scroll; derived from a "roll of sheets". Compare protocol, spine; see incunabula, codex.

volume number :
Books, such as multi-volume reference works, are normally numbered on their spine and title page. All the issues of a periodical published during a specific calendar year, or during a publishing cycle, are usually bound together in a single volume; which volumes are numbered sequentially from the first year that the title appeared. See back issue, periodical, book, contents, masthead.

volume rights :
The rights, usually negotiated with a publisher by an author or the author's agent, to publish a work in volume form, including hardcover, paperback, book club, and textbook editions. Volume rights also include publication of the work in its entirety in a single issue of a periodical, and any full or partial reprint in an anthology. Compare subsidiary rights; see copyright, non-disclosure agreement, work for hire, fair use, license, public domain, plagiarism, reprint permission, serialization.

vowel :
A speech sound produced without occluding, diverting, or obstructing the flow of air from the lungs, and usually constituting the sound of greatest sonority in a syllable; derived from "vocal". Also, a letter or other symbol representing a vowel sound. Compare schwa, consonant; see breve, macron, alphabet. [nb: vowels were introduced to the ancient Greek alphabet (ca750BC), transforming ideographs into a phonetic language]

VoxML :
A Voice [Latin "vox"] Markup Language developed by Motorola with technical contributions by AT&T, IBM, and Lucent Technologies, as a voice-based interface to websites, and for enabling users to request data by speaking over the telephone. Requested data is delivered as common synthesized speech. Compatible with and similar in syntax to HTML, it can also be integrated into a website, so that an internet link could talk. See VoiceXML, markup.

The abbreviation for Virtual Reality Modeling Language, being a three-dimensional graphics language that produces a hyperspace "world" (*.wrl) on the Internet. After downloading a VRML webpage, its content can be viewed, rotated, and manipulated with simulations launched from within a VRML enabled browser. The first VRML viewer was WebSpace from SGI, whose Open Inventor graphics library was the basis for developing VRML. WebFX, WorldView, and Fountain are other Windows viewers, and Whurlwind and Voyager are Mac viewers. VRML, pronounced "ver-mal", is also known as "Virtual Reality Markup Language". See language, graphics.

The abbreviation for Very Small Aperture Terminal, being an earthbound station used in satellite communications of data, voice and video signals, excluding broadcast television (v: DSS). A VSAT consists of two parts, a transceiver that is placed outdoors in direct line of sight to the satellite and a device that is placed indoors to interface the transceiver with the end user's communications device, such as a PC. The transceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky. The satellite sends and receives signals from a ground station computer that acts as a hub for the system. Each end user is interconnected with the hub station via the satellite, forming a star topology. The hub controls the entire operation of the network. For one end user to communicate with another, each transmission has to first go to the hub station that then retransmits it via the satellite to the other end-user's terminal. VSAT can handle up to 56 Kbps. See WAN, GEO, LEO, MEO, DSS, broadcast, webcast.

vulgate :
Any commonly used version of a work; the accepted text, as the Latin translation of the Bible. See edition, polyglot.

- W -

wafer :
A thin adhesive disk, sometimes decorated or ornamented, as used for sealing self-mailer replies or publications.

The abbreviation for the Web Accessibility Initiative, being the set of coding guidelines and programming protocols that have been promulgated by W3C and NISO since 1997 for developing and publishing web content that enables disability access. The WAI promotes development of: tools, technology, guidelines, education, research and development. See specialized format, validation, MSAA, accessibility.

wallpaper :
A picture or pattern displayed as a background on a webpage or desktop GUI arrangements, as selected by the user from stock art integral to programs or systems, or created by a developer from original designs. Characters and graphics display on this screen or canvas. Some programs and devices allow users to control the color or shading of this background. Wallpaper for a webpage is set as background at the <BODY> tag. See tessellate, template, cartoon, background, illustration.

wall walk :
The final layout of proofs, arranged as reader spreads on an office wall, so a complete issue can be examined as the staff "walks the wall" for any last minute adjustments. This form of presentation not only offers unusual continuity, but also shows how some designs "carry" beyond reading range, and how others display distracting patterns (eg: white rivers, bijustified uniformity, etc). See proof, imposition, layout, reader spread.

The abbreviation for Wide Area Network, being a network in which computers are connected to each other over a long distance, using telephone common carrier lines and satellite communications. The jump between a Local Area Network and a WAN is made through a device called a bridge or a router. See LAN, MAN, PAN, intranet, Ethernet, internet, VSAT, website, WATTS.

warez :
Unlicensed or pirated software, with the copy protection or registration deactivated, that's illegally distributed via BBS or UseNet newsgroups. See software, steganography, sniffer, Trojan Horse, worm, smurf, spoofer, deadman, virus, malware.

wash up :
To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens, and other press components.

waste :
Paper which must be recycled as a result of normal preparation, printing, or bindery operations; see pre-consumer waste, broke, post-consumer waste, spoilage. Also, anything ruined by use, inadequately used, unproductively used, or unused, also called "trash" or "junk"; see bitbucket, boneyard.

wasteland :
An historic period or locality that is intellectually barren or spiritually bankrupt, with particular reference to broadcast media of the modern era; derived from an unproductive or devastated area. See broadcast, webcast, infomercial, advertorial, medium, intelligentsia, literati, litterateur, immortals.

watermark :
A translucent logo in bond paper created during manufacture. Compare screen tint, show-off, digital watermark; see dandy roll, illustration.

The abbreviation for Wide Area Telephone and Telegraph System; see WAN.

webcast :
To disseminate productions or presentations by means of the internet; coinage derived from "world wide web" joined with "broadcast"(qv), as related to 'telecast' ("far + throw"), 'narrowcast', and 'newscast'. See medium, multicast backbone, VSAT, web publishing, e-pub, blog, zine, DTP, bully pulpit, wasteland.

webmaster :
The person who manages or hosts a website, usually the site developer or designer, usually contacted through an anonymous e-mail address linked to the homepage; also known as "steward", "administrator", "majordomo" or "chatelaine".

webpage :
An electronic text file in HTML, which may also contain JavaScript code or other commands, forming a document for the World Wide Web. Accessing a Web document requires typing the address or URL of the homepage into your Web browser. The homepage is the default HTML document for a website which contains hypertext links to other HTML documents that can be stored on any server in the world. See page, markup.

web pox :
Derisive slang for the techno-pointillism created by systematic dithering on a restricted palette, when low-yield graphics output attempts to emulate high-yield graphics input. Good website design is contingent upon adequate reception. See color balance, color correct, color build, color gamut, color map.

web press :
A printing press into which paper is continuously and automatically fed from rolls, with the output cut into sheets after printing. Also called "reel-fed press"; derived from 'web' as a large roll of paper. Compare sheet-fed press; see press.

web publishing :
See webcast, e-pub, DTP, multicast backbone, website, webpage, selective binding, text editor, word processor.

web ring :
A cooperative interactive listing of related links by non-competitive or service-oriented websites for the benefit of the user seeking information or resources; also called "web loop". Differs from simple referrals in that the links are reciprocal, and a central or hub directory is maintained by the host or sponsor.

web server :
A computer that hosts two or more websites on the internet, with access protocols for multiple user interface. Server programs that enable interpretation and response to browser inquiries include: Apache (all platforms); iPlanet [formerly Netscape] (Windows and UNIX); Microsoft Internet Information Server (Windows). See Internet Access Provider, Internet Service Provider, browser, IP, TCP/IP, SLIP, bandwidth, LAN, MAN, WAN, ASP, Cold Fusion, cookie, honeypot; compare virtual server.

website / web-site :
A location on the Internet containing HTML documents that can be viewed by using a browser. This web location, identified on a server by a discrete host name, and managed by a company or organization, contains a group of similar webpages connected by hyperlinks. A website may include text, graphics, audio, video, and hyperlinks to other webpages. See www, portal, homepage, URL, GII, TCP/IP, bandwidth, internet address, frames, bitload, mirror, feature-shock, cobweb-site. [nb: the internet address of every print publication should appear on the front or back cover, in the masthead, in the acknowledgements, on the table of contents, and in the running foot or running head]

weight :
The relative darkness of the characters in the various typefaces within a type family. Weight is indicated by relative terms such as thin, light, bold, extra-bold, and black. See font.

well :
Any container or receptacle, as a layout area framed to receive a stream of copy or other input. See editorial well, feature well, double pyramid, poster make-up; compare frame.

wet-trap :
To print all colors and laminates in a single pressrun, as contrasted with multiple pressruns (dry-trap); also known as "in-line printing". See trap, illustration.

WF :
Abbreviation for "wrong font", to be set in proper type; see proofreader's marks.

white knight :
A hero who comes to the rescue of a beleaguered entity or cause, as a benefactor (qv) or company that intercedes for another concern. See business angel.

white mail :
Orders for subscriptions with no known origin or source (ie: a letter or email requesting a subscription from an individual who has not previously subscribed and doesn't mention why s/he is interested in subscribing now). Considered to be a good indicator of a magazine's word-of-mouth popularity (or, in its absence, a lack thereof). See reply coupon, tracking.

white point :
Reference point, defining the lightest area in an image. See illustration; compare black point.

white space :
The designation for the unprinted area of a printed piece or graphical display, regardless of stock or coat color; being the necessary background for contrast with the foreground text or images, but also used stylistically. Term includes marginal allocations and sectional divisions (v: column rule), as white space should constitute at least half of the area of a published page in a book, and at least a third of the area of a published page in a magazine that's not wholly pictorial or advertising. Compare gray space, black space; see air, apron, gutter, river, hourglass, trapped white space, attic, sinkage.

wholesaler :
A company that sells or resells large quantities of new publications to bookstores, libraries, and other types of retail outlets. Wholesalers do not actively create a demand for publications. Since distributors work on behalf of publishers, the distributors will probably be selling to the major wholesalers, such as Ingram and Baker and Taylor. All independent literary publishers should be carried by Small Press Distribution, the only not-for-profit book wholesaler, which specializes in literary titles. See distributor.

widow :
The short last line of a paragraph, especially an abbreviated or brief one, or one consisting of only a single word. Also, in written composition or word processing, the last line of a paragraph when it is carried over to the top of the following page. Compare orphan; see copyedit, stylesheet, stylebook, word processor, DTP, text editor.

wildcard / wild card :
Anything having unknown or unpredictable qualities, but with the potential of decisive application; especially a symbol that can substitute for any variable character or string. In DOS and UNIX, the question mark (?) can be used to represent any single character, and the asterisk (*) can represent any group of characters. Many operating systems support the use of wildcards in search parameters and filename requests.

Winchester disk :
A hard disk permanently mounted into a hermetically sealed unit (called a "disk cartridge") that is housed within either a computer's central processing unit (CPU) or in an external disk drive case; derived from the IBM prototype featuring 30 millisecond access to 30 megabytes of data, which "30/30" feature was similar to a .30-30 caliber rifle. Removable harddrives ("disk caddy") have evolved into alternative environments, data security mode, and supplemental storage devices, such as Castlewood "Orb" and Iomega "JAZ". See disc, hardware. [v: Bernoulli box]

window :
In applications and graphical interfaces, a specially delineated portion of the screen environment that can contain its own document or message. Each window can act independently, as if it were a virtual display device. In window-based programs, the screen may be divided into several windows or panes, each of which has its own boundaries and can contain a different document, or another view into the same document. Each window might also contain its own menu or other controls, and the user might be able to resize individual windows at will. Some programs allow windows to be opened side-by-side (tile) on the screen; and others allow open windows to overlap (cascade) one another. The Macintosh Finder, Microsoft Windows (c1985), and the OS/2 Presentation Manager are all examples of windowing environments. See GUI, box, program.

wingding :
See dingbat, Pi fonts, ornament, glyph.

wire :
The woven wire mesh over which the wet pulp (furnish) is spread in a papermaking machine (fourdrinier). See text paper, deckle.

wire side :
The side of the paper that rests against the fourdrinier wire during papermaking; usually considered to be the "bottom side" or "back side". Compare felt side; see deckle, paper.

with the grain :
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used. See grain direction, grain long / short paper, cross grain, cracking, paper.

The abbreviation for Windows Metafile Format, being a file format (*.WMF) used to exchange graphics information, as both vector and bitmap images, between Microsoft Windows applications. The Enhanced Windows Metafile (*.EMF) format is an enhancement. See graphics, metafile, illustration.

word :
A single unit of language that functions as a principal carrier of meaning; being a discrete element of verbal or textual expression. Consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their written representation, a word is typically the smallest linguistic unit capable of independent use. A word is separated from other words by spaces (in writing) or pauses (in speaking), and is often distinguished by pronunciation (as verb from noun, declaration from query). See alphabet, language, morpheme, phoneme, syntax, diction, clip, blend, contraction, compound word, oronym, keyword, headword, headless-word, etymology, vocabulary, semiotics, syllabary, rhetorical forms, trope, orality, lexigram, neologism, mot juste, misnomer, ghost word, counterword, polysemy, sesquipedalism.

word class :
A group of words, all of which are members of the same form class or part of speech (qqv).

word of mouth / word-of-mouth :
Direct oral communication, especially personal endorsement of a product, as the recommendation of a book or magazine ... the most potent form of sales catalyst. See echo effect, advertising, marketing plan.

word processor / wp :
A computer program designed for text management, including editing and printing; the most common application of computer software. A "dedicated word processor" is a single function computer, entirely devoted to a text program. See exception dictionary, widow, orphan, punctuation, preview, text editor, DTP, e-pub, web publishing.

work and back / work 'n' back :
Alternative name for sheetwise (qv) printing.

work and tumble / work 'n' tumble :
To print a sheet on both front and back so that a different combination of images is printed using a different set of plates by employing opposite gripper edges (qv). Compare perfecting, sheetwise.

work and turn / work 'n' turn :
To print a sheet on both front and back so that the same combination of images is printed using the same set of plates by employing the same gripper edges (qv). Compare perfecting, sheetwise.

work for hire :
Creative work purchased by an employer or contracted by a client for which the creator has been fully compensated, and for which the creator agrees to assign or transfer all copyrights and subsidiary rights with the finished or released product. See copyright, non-disclosure agreement, subsidiary rights, volume rights, fair use, public domain, plagiarism, kill fee, outsource, freelance.

working film :
Intermediate film that will be copied to make final film after all corrections are made; also called "buildups". See plate-ready film, illustration.

working the corners :
Slang reference to the detailed attention given to every aspect of promoting and developing market resources for a publication.

workstation / work station :
An office area assigned to one person, accommodating a computer terminal connected to a mainframe, a micro- or minicomputer connected to a data-processing network, or other electronic equipment. Also, a powerful microcomputer, often with a high-resolution display, used for computer-aided design, electronic publishing, or other graphics-intensive processing. See e-pub, DTP, web publishing, webcast.

worm :
Something that penetrates, consumes slowly, or injures insidiously; especially a self-replicating computer code or algorithm planted illegally into a software program, usually an internet download, so as to destroy data, reformat allocations, or disorganize systems. A worm is an expansive virus that cannot attach itself to other programs. See virus, sniffer, Trojan Horse, smurf, spoofer, deadman, malware. Also, an abbreviation for "write once, read many" designating optical disc or CD-R technology; see CD, COLD.

wove finish :
A somewhat smooth or slightly patterned finish on bond paper. See paper coating.

wrap-fold :
To nest or contain the panels of a brochure or leaflet so that interior copy will only be exposed when completely opened; also called "barrel-fold" and "e-fold". See French fold, foldout, accordian-fold, concertina-fold, parallel-fold.

wrapper :
Slang for cover, especially self-cover.

wright :
A skilled or constructive worker, such as a 'playwright'; being a metathetic derivation of "work". See dramaturgy, writer.

writer :
A person who composes thoughts into literary forms, such as prose or poetry, especially as an occupation or profession; including: author, litterateur, inditer, novelist, essayist, correspondent, columnist, journalist, reporter, newswriter, newspaperman, gazetteer, scandalmonger, stringer, sportswriter, deskman, copywriter, rewriter, space writer, reviewer, critic, wright, scriptwriter, screenwriter, playwright, dramatist, librettist, bard, poet, troubadour, trouv妑e, lyricist, songwriter, wordsmith, word merchant, glossator, glossographer, ghostwriter, scribbler, scrawler, hack, Grub Street writer, penny-a-liner, epigone, plagiarist, graffitist, scribe, scrivener, amanuensis, copyist, transcriber / transcriptionist, penman, calligrapher. See allonym, poet laureate, muse, intelligentsia, literati, immortals, mogigraphia, sesquipedalism.

writing instrument :
Any tool or implement used to depict letterforms or glyphs as a means of expression or communication; especially pen, pencil, chalk, charcoal, crayon, brush, stylus, typewriter, stenograph, printer.

writing paper :
Paper that is especially suitable for writing on in ink; also called "communication paper" or "stationery". See body stock, bank, flimsy, monarch, letter-size, offset, legal-size, foolscap, paper; compare bond paper.

writing system :
The collection of scripts and orthography required to represent any given human language in visual media; compartmentalized into alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic. See glyph, alphabet, vocabulary, gloss, syllabary, language; compare orality.

wrong reading :
An image that is backwards when compared to the original; also called "flopped" and "reverse reading". Compare right reading; see illustration.

The abbreviation for the World Wide Web, being an Internet client-server hypertext-distributed information-retrieval system which originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics Laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland, and the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (DARPANet). See internet address, internet, website.

The acronym for What You See Is What You Get; which refers to the ability of a computer program to present a page image in graphical layout, so it appears during composition on the screen the way it will actually printout later. Before advanced computer technology made WYSIWYG possible, a typesetter formatting a page would see only unformatted lines of coding with generic type on the screen, so numerous proof prints were required to test the setup. With the introduction of WYSIWYG by Aldus, the encoding process was concealed, with the result that machine markup concealed technical method from the result-oriented designer. Compare preview; see GUI, Snap, WYSIWYM, WYSIWYN, xdvi @ LaTeX / TeX, X-Window @ UNIX.

The acronym for What You See Is What You Mean; which is the output generated for a document by a style-enhanced program that automatically sets display and arrangement particulars based upon established guidelines, so the document author only needs to compose the contents of the work. See LyX, Interleaf, CSS.

The acronym for What You See Is What You Need; which is the output generated for a document or other object by an authoring tool prompting for pertinent markup or proffering valid options that the designer may select. See WYSIWYM, WYSIWYG, GUI.

- X -

xerography :
A copying process in which areas on a sheet of paper, corresponding to those on the original, are sensitized by static electricity, and then sprinkled with black or colored resin that adheres and is fused to the paper; derived from "dry + draw". Also called "electrostatic copy". See reprography, photocopy, quick printing, demand printing.

The abbreviation for eXtended Graphics Array, being a specification that can display from 640 x 480 to 1024 x 768 pixels in a non-interlaced resolution of 65,536 simultaneous colors. XGA is a high-resolution graphics standard introduced by IBM in 1990 to replace the 8514/A video standard, which only generated 256 colors at the same resolutions. See screen, illustration.

x-height :
The standard height of the main body of a letter, excluding the ascenders and descenders. See baseline, x-line, body size, font, typeface.

The abbreviation for eXtensible HyperText Markup Language, which combines HTML 4.0 and XML 1.0 into a single format for the Internet. See markup.

x-line :
An imaginary line at x-height running parallel with the baseline (qv); also called mean line. Compare cap line.

The abbreviation for eXtensible Markup Language, being an open standard for describing data from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). XML is used for defining data elements on a webpage and business exchange documents. It uses a tag structure similar to HTML; however, whereas HTML defines how elements are displayed, XML defines what those elements contain. HTML uses predefined tags, but XML allows tags to be defined by the developer of the webpage. Thus, virtually any data items can be identified, allowing webpages to function like database records. By providing a common method for identifying data, XML supports business transactions, and is expected to become the dominant format for electronic data interchange. Since its introduction, XML has been hyped tremendously as the panacea to e-commerce, but it's only the first step. The human-readable XML attributes and tags (ie: XLink, XPointer, XPath) provide a simple data format, but the intelligent defining of these tags and common adherance to their usage will determine their value. For example, Commercial XML (or CXML) from Ariba and Common Business Library (or CBL) from Commerce One are among the earliest XML vocabularies for business data. DSML is a set of XML tags that defines the items in a directory. XML tags are defined in an XML schema, which defines content type as well as name. XML tags can also be described in the original SGML DTD format, since XML is a subject of SGML language. There are several websites that provide repositories for publishing and reviewing XML schemas. Unlike HTML, which uses a rather loose coding style and which is tolerant of coding errors, XML pages have to be well formed, which means they must comply with rigid rules. See markup, CSS, XSL, SVG, videotex.

The abbreviation for eXtensible Query Language; being a search protocol and query language that uses XML as a data model, and is very similar to XSL Patterns. XQL expressions are easily parsed, easily typed, and can be used in a variety of software environments - as part of an URL, in XML or HTML attributes, in programming language strings, and so forth. XQL has already been implemented in web browsers, document repositories, XML middleware, Perl libraries, and command-line utilities. See SQL, XSL, XML, language.

The abbreviation for XML Schema Definition; which is an XML-based language for describing grammar or a class of documents. Schemas specify the structure of XML documents and the data type of each element or attribute of the XML document. A schema is similar to a DTD, but much more flexible; it can define structured types, constraints on legal values, legal formats of messages, type inheritance, and so on.

The abbreviation for eXtensible Style Language (or eXtensible Stylesheet Language). A language used to create stylesheets for XML, similar to CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) that are used for HTML. In XML, content and presentation are separate. XML tags do not indicate how they should be displayed. An XML document has to be formatted before it can be read, and the formatting is usually accomplished with stylesheets. Stylesheets consist of formatting rules for how particular XML tags affect the display of a document on a computer screen or a printed page. In XML, different stylesheets can be applied to the same data to hide or display different parts of a document for different users. XSL is more robust and involved than CSS. XSL has had a long and tumultuous development process, so it is still a working draft. Because it is complex and not yet fully useful, XSL isn't currently the best alternative for formatting your XML documents, but it may be in the future.

xylography :
The art of engraving on wood, or printing from such engravings; also called "woodcut" or "woodblock". See block print, chiaroscuro, scratchboard, foundry type, hot type, letterpress.

- Y -

The world's first international news and entertainment magazine, subtitled "the voice of the enlisted man"; being staffed by and published for U.S. Army enlisted men and non-commissioned officers, as endorsed by Chief of Staff George C. Marshall. Printed (1942-46) rotogravure 24-page 11" X 14" saddlestitch format that sold for five-cents a copy; featuring articles, letters, stories, poems, cartoons, photos, and a full-page pin-up picture. Although edited and censored for wartime distribution, it was considered a necessary "safety valve" against combat tensions and the "party line" of officialdom; hence some images and expressions from "Yank" were used by the enemy to demonstrate American decadence. YANK often shared resources with "Stars and Stripes" newspaper (17 April 1942 as weekly, 2 November 1942 as daily), but they weren't in competition ... YANK published more features and less news in 21 theater editions. The most popular feature in YANK was the "Sad Sack" comic strip by George Baker; just as "GI Joe" (featuring the Willie and Joe characters) cartoon by Bill Mauldin was the most popular item in "Stars and Stripes". See magazine, periodical, cartoon.

yellow journalism :
Published reporting that emphasizes sensational or lurid details, often by distorting the facts; directly derived from the Hearst and Pulitzer press's "Yellow Kid" competition, but indicative of prior manipulations. See expose, muckraker, sleazy, screed, news book, news. [v: billingsgate] [nb: During an internecine editorial dispute, the "New York Evening Post" characterized the competing "New York World" as a 'yellow dog', and received the retort: in the accusation of yellow journalism, our response is the same as any dog to a Post.]

The abbreviation for Yet One-other Document Language, which is a tools package that implements a pre-document language conversion into several output formats, chiefly LaTeX and HTML. It resembles SGML but is designed to be more transparent, easier to use, and extensible with respect to new commands or output formats. YODL supports conditional parsing of the input, makes logical or component document-splitting easier, defines counters for chapters and sections, and file searches similar to C programs. YODL may be FTP downloaded, either as source code or as a Linux binary. See language.

- Z -

zeroing :
To calibrate the base value scale, as of a densitometer.

(00) / (#00) :
Authorial notation to proofreader or editor that missing numerals need to be filled-in to complete the composition, usually being a detail or reference; abbreviation represents any number set or numeric arrangement without words. See fill-in, proofreader's marks, notation.

zincography :
The art or process of producing a printing surface in relief on a zinc plate by acid etching. See etch, engrave.

zine :
An extension of the low-budget specialty pulp magazines of the Depression era, the "fanzine" (fan + [maga]zine) first appeared during the 1940's as an amateur publication supporting popular topics, such as sports, music, and science fiction. With the development of DTP and e-publishing, these newsletters have expanded their range and developed sophistication. Small partisan groups of adepts and aficionados are inexpensively served by exchange forums, sometimes in multimedia "webzine" formats. See pauper press, pulp, rag, tabloid, tabazine, magapaper, newsletter, e-mag, periodical, webcast, blog.

zipper sign :
The illuminated text stream of continuously moving headlines shown scrolling on the sides of the Times Tower on Times Square in New York City, operated from 1928 through 1963, and intermittently since; see caption, crawl, ticker tape, text box.

z-path :
The logical scanning progression, and the most common viewing direction used by readers, beginning at the optical center (qv) and descending across the body to the foot of the page. See sequence, readability.

zygomorphy :
Bilateral symmetry; also "zygomorphism". See art.
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