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A Glossary of Publishing Terms

This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears,
who were the inventors of the
pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets,
that enabled modern communication and civil progress.

"I say ... a dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than a giant himself." by Robert Burton
"If I have seen further [than other men,] it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." by Isaac Newton

- A -

AA :
The abbreviation for Author Alteration, which changes are accountable to the editor; also called author correction and client alteration. See change order, insert, sandwich, PE, proofread.

The abbreviation for Audit Bureau of Circulations; being the group formed by advertisers, agencies, and the media to audit the circulation statements of its media members and release this information to advertisers and advertising agencies. See circulation, audience, tracking. (来源:英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

abstract / abstract art :
Art that emphasizes line, color, and nonrepresentational form; also called "non-objective art". Art from which some element has been abstracted. See ASCII art, emoticon.

accent :
Prominence of a syllable, as in its differential volume, stress, pitch, elongation, or a combination thereof, to emphasize a part, word, or phrase; see syllabary, schwa, glide. Also, a mark used to distinguish meaning or to clarify pronunciation, for stress indication (apostrophe or diacritic), for vowel quality (grave, acute, breve, circumflex), or for pitch; see point, tittle, punctuation, floating accent, Unicode. Also, symbolic or derivative notation of assigned values, as with numbers or measurements. Also, a mode of tonal or inflected pronunciation characteristic of or distinctive to the speech of a particular person, group, or locality, a verbal affect; see dialect, idiolect, slide. Also, regularly recurring stress or emphasis in rhythmic verse, as dieresis, macron, anacrusis; see foot, elision, caesura, forced line, verse.

accessibility / disability access :
Materials, publications, and software adapted for use by disabled persons, or for interface with devices that enable use by disabled persons, as provided by supplemental scripting and third-party modes in voluntary compliance with governmental and interest-group guidelines. Website accessibility, as defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is enhanced by tagging all images and tables with descriptive labels, by titling all frames and sources, by using the style sheet command directly on the webpage (instead of external CSS), by using client-side protocols and programs (instead of server based entities), by using relative (instead of absolute) positioning, by making content color independent, and by making navigation consistent. A fundamental concept that web designers and other content providers must understand is: availability is not accessibility. See specialized format, large print, PDF, DAISY, crawl, MSAA, WAI, validation, sign language.

accordian-fold :
An artistic presentation of book contents, usually contained in a slipcase, in which serial pages are printed sequentially on a long strip, and continued on the reverse at the halfway point, then alternately folded to page size. Also known as "z-fold", "s-fold", or concertina-fold. See boustrophedon, French fold, foldout, parallel-fold, wrap-fold.

acid-free paper :
Archival paper that resists discoloration and disintegration due to the absence of caustic chemicals and acidic fibers during manufacture; primarily used for classic reprints and photographic essays. See paper.

acknowledgments / acknowledgments page :
A book page, usually Roman-numeral verso, recognizing authorizations, contributions, citations, constructions, and appreciations; which may include a dedication, masthead, or colophon with the copyright and other legal declarations. The British spelling is "acknowledgements". See title page, credit line, dedication, front matter, disclaimer, specialized format.

Acrobat :
The document exchange software suite from Adobe Systems. Acrobat provides a platform-independent means of creating, viewing, and printing documents. Acrobat can convert an MS-DOS, Windows, Macintosh, or UNIX document into a stable Portable Document Format (*.PDF), which can then be displayed on any other computer with a freeware version of the Acrobat reader. When others view a PDF file or printout, the document will appear in the exact layout as the author intended. This style consistency when transported is its main advantage over other formatters, such as HTML, which can generate unreliable outputs under various circumstances. See PDF, program, software.

acronym :
A word formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of the words in a name or phrase (eg: RADAR, SONAR, LORAN, CARE, MedEvac, YIPpie); being an acrostic, which may have originated as a mnemonic. Compare initialism.

addendum / addenda :
Anything to be added, or a list of additions. Also, an appendix to a book. See back matter.

ad diction :
The fractured syntax and word conversions employed in slogans and catch-phrases to attract attention to products and to persuade patronage; also called "ad speak", "biz buzz", "sales lingo", "commercial speech". Among purists, the corruptions of ad diction are a perversion of proper grammar; but among devotees, they're a vital coinage of a dynamic language. Sample colloquialisms and pleonasms include: bowlarama, check-into, check-over, check-up, cheese burger, close-down, colorwise, continue-on, fade-away, fade-out, flavorwise, fold-up, foodarama, framed-up, head-up, hide-out, jobwise, lose-out, love-in, motorcade, newscast, newswise, no-show, saleswise, scoutorama, showed-up, sit-in, smellorama, talkathon, telethon, up-until, walkathon, win-out, workathon, wraps it up. See puffery, balderdash, pap, vernacular, flackery, advertising.

additive color :
Color produced by light falling onto a surface. The additive primary colors are red, green, and blue. Compare subtractive color, subtractive primary colors; see illustration.

advance :
The furnishing of some payment or goods before an equivalent is received, as an advance on royalties, which will be amortized and is recoupable; see escalation, royalty, production advance, grant. Also, a press release, publicity, or news copy prepared before the event it describes has occurred. Also, anything made, given, or issued ahead of time, as an advance payment or an advance copy (qv).

advance copies :
The first pressrun copies of a new book or magazine sent to the preferred clients of the publisher, to production staff, to content contributors, and other select persons before regular distribution. See samples.

advance order :
Quantity reserved by publisher for wholesalers and retailers prior to production, based upon advertising of reviews; also known as "lay-down" or "pre-publication order".

advertising :
The practice of offering goods or services to the public through paid announcements in the media; which act of mercantile sponsorship supports the commercial publishing of periodicals and other broadcasts. Advertising revenue constitutes less than half the income for the average periodical. To be effective, ads must be noticed [nb: the average American is exposed to approximately 3,000 commercials each day in all media], which makes them inherently irritating. Advertising dicta opts for "more" and "sooner", rather than "just right" and "later". Ads are formulated to: attract Attention, build Interest, create Desire, compel Action (AIDA). Advertising effectiveness is often expressed as a sexual metaphor: "It's not size, but frequency and location that matters most."! References include: "Standard Directory of Advertisers", "Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies" (The Red Book), "Business Publication Advertising Source", "Standard Rate and Data Directory" (SRDS), "Newspaper Advertising Source". The American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) is a membership organization with voluntary conformity to a code of rules and procedures. See echo effect, word of mouth, card, fractional ad, tombstone, island ad, RDA, column inch, double spread, center spread, cover positions, double pyramid, rollout, bill, broadside, poster, one sheet, fly sheet, handbill, collateral, audit, tear sheet, ballyhoo, puffery, make good, reader profile, CPM, jingle, PSA, ad diction, propaganda, disinformation, advertorial, infomercial, pop-up, adware, colophon. [nb: specimen advertising magazines: "Ad Week" and "Advertising Age"; specimen no-ad magazines: "Consumer Reports" and "Ad Busters"] [nb: huckstering was reversed during WWII to embrace patriotic anti-consumerism with specialized advertising, as the slogan: "Use it up. Wear it out. Make it do, or do without!"]

advertising linage :
The number of advertising pages carried by a magazine in any given period, usually includes a perspective on advertising space compared to editorial content, expressed as a ratio or percentage.

advertising specialties :
Items emblazoned with advertising, such as calendars, coffee cups, hats, matchbooks, and pencils. See premium; compare collateral.

advertorial :
A newspaper or magazine advertisement that promotes the sponsor's product in the guise of objective analysis or public information; derived as a blend of advertisement and editorial. To qualify for publication postal permits, advertisements must not appear to be editorial matter, and any ad presentation that may be confused with general interest copy must be labeled. See editorial well, PSA, infomercial, advertising.

adware :
A form of intrusive spyware that covertly monitors online computer use so as to display advertisements and solicitations in the web browser which are related to the user's interest; such adware (advertisement+software) is allegedly a form of tailored "junk mail" delivered electronically. Also, software that has advertising already embedded, requiring the user to "click through" pop-ups and dialog boxes before accessing the primary program or application. See cookie, pop-up, spam, sniffer.

aesthetics / esthetics :
The branch of philosophy analyzing the theories of taste, and the study of beauty in nature and art; derived from "sensory or intuitive perception" (aisthetiks). See tour de force, masterpiece, opus, oeuvre, ars gratia artis, l'art pour l'art, golden proportion.

afflatus :
Creative inspiration or artistic revelation; derived from "emit", as to be breathed upon by divine communication. The slang expression for this sudden insight is "brain fart". See muse, aesthetics, art, artwork, videation. [v: noetic, limen]

A4 paper :
ISO paper size 210mm X 297mm used for letterheads, forms, magazines, catalogs, laser printer and copying machine output. See paper.

afterword :
A closing statement or concluding commentary at the end of a book, treatise, or other publication. Compare foreword; see back matter.

agate :
A five-point (5.142pt) type; or a typeface sized smaller than that used for news text, especially in classified advertisements (14 agate lines = 1 column inch). Compare pearl, ruby; see fractional ad, milline, linage, font, type.

agent-sold subscriptions :
Subscriptions sold to libraries and institutions through outside agencies such as Ebsco and Faxon. On an annual basis, publishers send these agencies brief editorial descriptions plus subscription information which the agencies publish in their catalogs at no cost. Publishers can also pay for larger display ads. Librarians then purchase subscriptions through these catalogs using the agency essentially as a middleman. Many commercial magazines offer 15%-20% subscription discounts in return for the convenience of the agency's services. See subscription.

air :
White space in a layout. See apron, gutter, river.

airbrush :
A mechanical atomizer producing an adjustable spray of paint, used especially for retouching (qv) photographs and other design illustrations.

A contraction of ALGOrithmic Language, being a computer language in which information is expressed in algebraic notation, and according to the rules of Boolean algebra. See Pascal, language.

algorithm :
A set of problem-solving rules, or a finite sequence of executable steps or instructions, as designed for a computer.

alignment :
The position of text lines on a page relative to its defined margins or grid boxes; including centered, flushed, justified, columnar, and text boxes. See leading, solid leading, minus leading, kern, solid, flush, justify, feathering, ragged, straight composition, H&J, indent.

Notation for setting all designated letters, usually a title or heading, in full capitalization; also called "Cap 'n' Cap". See CAP, LC, CAP&LC, OC, small-cap, CAP&SC, C&IC, proofreader's marks.

allocation :
Quantity of a product, such as a brand of paper, that is rationed to distributors and customers until a specified date.

allonym :
An author's assumed name; the fictitious or counterfeit name under which a writing is published, as derived "other + name". Synonymous with pen name, nom de plume, pseudonym, cognomen, anonym, alias, soi-disant, nom de guerre. See samizdatchik, ghostwriter, byline, autograph, plagiarism. [cf: innominate]

allusion :
A passing reference, either direct or implied, without explicit identification or explanation, to a literary passage, work, or character, or to an historical person, place, or event; used to succinctly establish mood or setting, and to concisely convey subtle meaning to the intended audience. [eg: "from pillar to post" alludes to rushing or being tossed from one thing to another (cf: "hither and thither" or "badgered and bothered"), and may derive from architecture, horse racing, tennis, or punishment (from pillory to whipping post)]

alphabet :
Any system of letters or symbols used for writing, which represents speech sounds or language; implicitly entails phoneme, allomorph, syllable, homonym / homograph / homophone, heteronym, doublet, orthoepy, paragoge, apheresis, prothesis, syncope, metathesis, sandhi, haplology, spoonerism, anagram, acrostic, abecedari. See digraph, ligature, logo, diacritic, morpheme, syllabary, elision, punctuation, syntax, vowel, parse, pidgin, type, typology, font, rune, orthography, oxymoron, neologism, dictionary, semantics, semiotics, lexigram, pictography, ideogram, language, rhetorical forms. The earliest dated written material is c4236BC from Egypt. Sumerian pictography ca3500BC became Mesopotamian cuneiform ("wedge shaped") writing, as used by the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and others. The simple Greek alphabet (16 letters by Cadmus, and 4 letters by Palamedes) was introduced from Phoenicia. Alphabets independently invented elsewhere, as Egyptian hieroglyphics ca3,000BC, Minoan Linear-A / Mycenean Linear-B ca1200BC, Indus Valley script (at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa) ca3,000-2,400BC, Chinese (ideogram) seal script ca1,500BC, Mayan script caAD50, Ogham (Irish Ogam/Ogum) alphabetic script caAD400-1000, Irish Gaelic caAD1175, Aztec Kipu script caAD1400.

alpha test :
The experimental testing of an early version of a software product, that may not contain all of the features that are planned for the final version, to discover programming errors and conflicts. Typically, developmental software testing is two tiered prior to completion. The first stage, called alpha testing, is often performed only by users within the organization developing the software. The second stage, called beta testing , generally involves a limited number of external users. Compare beta test, vaporware; see bug, glitch, patch, kludge, debug, tweak.

alt tag :
An alternative HTML attribute that displays the stipulated data, which may be nested or sequenced. Compare title tag; see tag, markup, validation.

amanuensis :
A person employed to transcribe what another person has dictated or written; also known as scribe, scrivener, copyist, secretary. Compare ghostwriter; see writer.

ampersand :
A character or symbol (&) for 'and'; a literal contraction of "and per se and" (the symbol of 'and' by itself stands for 'and'). See notation, punctuation.

anachronism :
To make a wrong time reference in which a person, object, or event is situated out of correct sequence or proper context, most often as an error rather than a literary device. See factoid, poetic license.

analects / analecta :
Passages or pieces selected from the writings of an author or from different authors, as excerpts, abridgements, or condensations; derived from "to gather". See compilation, digest, truncation, ellipsis, bite, snippet.

analog / analogue :
Something having analogy or being analogous to something else, as pertaining to the measurement of continuously variable data by readout displays having incremental slides or dials, instead of numerical digits. Analog computing represents data in continuously variable physical quantities, in contrast to the digital representation of data in discrete units (the binary digits 1 and 0). The digital to analog converter (DAC) is an electronic circuit that converts digital information (eg: from CD or CD-ROM) into analog information (eg: sound / audio signals). The digital to analog conversion translates digital information (1s and 0s) into analog information (eg: sound waves). An analog signal is converted to digital by sampling at regular intervals; the more frequent the samples and the more data recorded, the more closely the digital depiction represents the analog signal. Converting analog signals into digital makes it possible to preserve the data indefinitely and make many copies without qualitative deterioration. See bit, byte, quantum.

anchor :
To fix a graphical object in desktop publishing so that its position, relative to some other object, remains the same during editing or repagination. Also, a significant literary work or an appealing image that's been strategically positioned to draw readers into the publication; see violin piece, feature.

anchor tag :
The HTML attributed tag specifying a link to another location, either on the same or a different document. The anchor tag uses embedded hypertext reference patterns: <A HREF="URL">click</A>; <A HREF="URL#string">click</A>; <A NAME="string">text or image</A>; <A HREF="webpage"><IMG SRC="file">next page</A>; <A HREF="URL" TARGET="_top">go there</A>. See URL, internet address, tag, markup.

animation :
Simulating lifelike movement in images or objects; derived from "give life". Animations can be created with graphics programs, but must then be assembled with construction software specific to the format. See morph, Flash, GIF, SVG, transparent palette, flipbook, cartoon, joystick, kiosk, illustration.

anodized plate :
An electrolytically-coated offset printing plate, so treated as to reduce wear during printing.

anonymous FTP :
The feature of File Transfer Protocol (FTP) software that lets anyone without an account on a host computer log-on using the user identification "anonymous". See FTP, HTTP, TELNET.

The abbreviation for the American National Standards Institute; formerly known as the American standards Association (ASA). See ISO, ASCII.

anthology :
A collection of selected works, often in the same literary form, of the same period, or on the same subject; derived from "gathering of flowers". Also called "album". See compilation.

anticlimax :
An event, statement, conclusion, or resolution that is far less significant, powerful, or striking than expected; a weak, inglorious, or disappointing conclusion. Also, a noticeable decline or a ludicrous descent in power, quality, or dignity, from lofty ideas or expressions to banalities or commonplace remarks. Compare climax; see deus ex machina, kicker, drama, media event. [v: bathos]

antihero :
The protagonist or central character of drama and literature (qqv) who lacks ennobling qualities and traditional virtues.

anti-offset powder :
Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface of coated paper as sheets leave a press. See pounce.

antique finish :
Roughest finish offered on offset paper. See paper coating.

apex / apexes / apices :
The upper junction point in oblique character stems, the meeting of which is less than perpendicular, as in letters A / M / N / W. See font, type, typeface, typography.

The abbreviation for Application Program Interface (or Application Programming Interface). An interface between the operating system and application programs, which includes the way the application programs communicate with the operating system, and the services the operating system makes available to the programs.

apodosis :
The clause expressing the consequence or conclusion in a conditional sentence; derived from "returning", give back. Compare protasis; see rhetorical forms.

apostrophe :
The sign (') used to indicate the omission of one or more letters in a word (whether pronounced or unpronounced), to indicate the possessive case, or to indicate plurals of abbreviations and symbols, which being an eliding mark derived from "turn away"; see swung dash, elision, punctuation, compare quotation marks. Also, a digression in the form of an address to someone not present, or to a personified object or idea; see strophe, soliloquy, verse.

appendix / appendices :
Any supplementary material at the end of a text; derived from "appendage". See back matter, reference marks. end sign.

application :
Computer program used for specific tasks such as word processing, page layout, or editing photographs.

appositive :
The addition or application of a word or phrase to another, such that these usually consecutive expressions bear the same grammatical relation and referent; an adjunct word or phrase used to qualify or explain the preceding expression. See phrase, parts of speech.

appropriation :
The unauthorized use of private or proprietary property, as to expropriate; derived from "to make one's own". See plagiarism, fair use. Also, to set apart for a specific purpose or use, as a budget (qv) allocation. See sweat equity, marketing plan.

apron :
Additional white space allocated in the margins of text and illustrations when forming a foldout. See white space, margin.

aqueous coating :
Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.

archive :
Cache of documents and files saved for possible use in any subsequent design or print jobs; also called "legacy".

argus :
Any observant person or vigilant guardian, such as a meticulous editor. In both senses of the word (ie: a giant with a thousand eyes, a brilliantly marked peacock), an editor is either a writer's best asset, or merely another obstructive pettifogger. When done properly, editing will be invisible, and the editorial staff anonymous. Publishers and writers both owe deserving proofreaders and copyeditors an "Argus Award" for excellence!

array :
An ordered arrangement of data elements in one or more dimensions: a list, a table, or a multidimensional arrangement of items. A vector is a one-dimensional array; a matrix is a two-dimensional array. Multidimensional arrays are used to store tables of data, especially in scientific simulation and mathematical processing. Data items in an array are distinguished by subscripts.

arrow keys :
The keys on the keyboard that are used to move the cursor in the indicated directions (up, down, left, right), and may have other uses in combination with other keys; sometimes called "cursor keys" or "cursor cross". See cursor.

ars gratia artis :
Latin slogan: art for art's sake, or art for its own sake. The artwork in publishing must convey some message, from evoking mood to augmenting text, in justification of its expensive presence. See l'art pour l'art; compare tour de force, masterpiece, aesthetics. [v: aestheticism]

art :
Everything except textual copy, including styles, images, ornaments, in either radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, or asymmetry. See graphics, illustration, clipart, design, font, afflatus, aesthetics, stylish; compare artwork.

art board :
The pre-press layout backing for graphics and type; also known as "paste-up" onto pasteboard. See mechanical, artwork; compare storyboard. [cf: tablature: to mark or score on a board]

art director :
The person responsible for the selection, development, and production of all illustrative and stylistic aspects of a publication, including graphic arts and advertisements, which set the tone and mood for the reader; also called "art editor", as derived from former periodical 'art buyer'. As a visual interpreter, the art director arranges convertible design elements to represent or supplement the textual component. Compare editor.

artifact :
Anything made by humans that's intended for later or repeated use; see semiotics, glyph, ideogram, logogram, alphabet, word, lexigram, syntax, literature, scroll, banderole, incunabula, codex, manuscript, book, periodical. Also, any fragment or remnant of a man-made object belonging to an earlier era [v: archaeology, anthropology, ethnology]. Also, an artificial substance or structure; an unnatural feature. Also, a spurious observation or anomalous result.

art paper :
A smooth paper, obtained by coating one or both sides of the paper with a China clay compound. See book paper, paper, paper coating.

artwork :
The elements that constitute a mechanical (qv) paste-up, as type, proofs, and illustrations. See job order; compare art.

ascender :
The part of a lowercase letter, such as b / d / f / h / k, that rises above x-height (qv). See minuscule, baseline, typeface, font, body size, demon letters.

The abbreviation for American Standard Code for Information Interchange; being the worldwide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper- and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, and related data. Each alphanumeric character is represented as a number from 0 to 127, translated into a 7-bit binary code for the computer. ASCII is used by most computers and printers, and because of this, text-only files can be easily transferred between different kinds of computers. ASCII code also includes some control code characters to indicate backspace, line feed, and carriage return, but does not include accents and special letters not used in English. A plain-text ASCII file does not include style formatting such as bold, underline, Italics characters, or centered text. Some ASCII files contain program source code, scripts, or macros written as text. Extended ASCII has additional characters (128-255). Extended ASCII symbols may include foreign language accents, ligatures, math or graphics symbols, and so forth, but are not universal. The ANSI set of extended characters in DOS and Windows is non-standard, and Macintosh allows users to personalize the higher-ASCII definitions. Legitimate filename extensions for ASCII text include: *.TXT, *.ASC, *.DOC. See EBCDIC, Unicode, ANSI, ISO.

ASCII art :
The drawing of pictures and designs on a computer, using only ASCII alphanumeric characters. Using the HTML <PRE> tag, ASCII art can be displayed in text-based media on the web, as an alternative to graphical browsers, where other images cannot be shown. Many e-mail signatures include an ASCII art image. Compare emoticon; see illustration.

A sizes :
ISO paper sizes for standard trim sizes on products that don't involve bleeds or trimming outside the edges. See paper.

The abbreviation for Active Server Page, being a specification (*.ASP) for a dynamically created webpage that utilizes ActiveX scripting (usually VBscript or Jscript code). When a browser requests an ASP page, the web server generates a page with HTML code and sends it back to the browser. Active Server Pages are similar to CGI scripts, but they permit Visual Basic programmers to work with familiar Microsoft tools. See Cold Fusion, web server. Also, the abbreviation for Application Service Provider. Also, the abbreviation for Association of Shareware Professionals, a trade group for shareware authors, who submit programs for virus checking and CD-ROM distribution.

aspect ratio :
The ratio of width to height of a glyph, image, or object. See hint, proportional font, font, typography, typeface.

assisted self-publishing :
An author, wishing to retain copyright and maintain editorial control of their manuscript, may hire a commercial assisted self-publishing house to provide professional services throughout any part of the publishing process. See publishing house, subsidy publisher, self-publishing, vanity press.

asterisk :
A small starlike symbol (*) used in writing and printing as a reference mark (qv), or to indicate omission, ungrammatical usage, doubtful matter, or the like; see ellipsis, notation, end sign. Also, a parameter representing a search string or filename, also called "star" or "splat"; see wildcard.

athenaeum :
An institution for the promotion of literary or scientific learning, which often maintains a free-access reading room or library. See renaissance, enlightenment, literature.

The abbreviation for Adobe Type Manager, being a font utility for Macintosh and Windows platforms that enables a computer to print PostScript fonts and show PostScript screen fonts; see Display PostScript, EPS, font. Also, the abbreviation for Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and referred to as BISDN and Cell Relay, being the SONET standard for a high-bandwidth, low-delay, connection-oriented, packet-like switching and multiplexing technique that uses cells of fixed length (53-byte cells, 5-byte header and 48-byte payload) that are switched throughout a network over virtual circuits. Standardized by the ITU-T in 1988 to create a Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN). Its ability to accommodate multiple types of media (voice, video, data) and high-speed makes it a likely player for full service networks based on ADSL and VDSL. Because of the architecture, ATM has the capability to run from 45 Mbps using a DS3 to 2.5 Gbps using an OC-48. Also, used as chatroom or instant messaging shorthand meaning "At The Moment".

at sign :
A symbol (@) used to mean 'at' or 'at such' in commercial and scientific notation, with limited application in regular text; see notation. Also, a coding sign in computer software; see MIME, internet address, language. Possible derivation from a ligature of Latin 'ad' meaning "to", or the sign for Florentine "amphora", based on trade with these standardized terracotta jars as a unit of weight or volume; also known as "at mark", "at character", "commercial at symbol"; and various agnomens as vortex, whorl, whirlpool, cyclone, twiddle, a-twist, ear, arabesque, curl, snail, worm, monkey tail, elephant trunk, strudel, cinnamon roll, rollmop.

attic :
An enlarged top margin, being white space without header or headpiece. See margin, apron, white space; compare sinkage, horizon line, basement, skyline.

atticism :
Concise and elegant expression, diction, or the like; derived from Attic Greek being the stylistic basis for other dialects or languages [cf: solecism]. See diction, eloquence, elocution, euphemism, rhetorical forms, language.

attribute :
Designates the properties or status of qualified data by assigning a type identifier with one or more values. Attributes can make programs "read only", directories "archive", system files "hidden", or user files "no copy". May be used as a modifier within a tag, as <TAG ATTRIB="X">.

audience :
The persons reached by distribution of a book or magazine, by a radio or television broadcast; a regular public manifesting interest and support for such media, including readers, subscribers, clients, and advertisers. About 88% of Americans purchase one or more publications each month. The best market research is a reader survey. See universe, newsstand, subscription, reader profile, tracking, pass-along, audit, sell-through rate, circulation, mass market, crossover market, niche market.

audit :
An examination of circulation data by an impartial accountant, that verifies distribution and subscription reports from the publisher, as an assurance of audience for advertisers, as so noted in the masthead. Audits are usually performed to warrant higher advertising rates for newsstand periodicals. A "visitor counter" operated by the server, which may also sample periodicity and other statistical factors, will serve as an audit for online e-mag publications.

autograph :
To write one's name in, on, or upon something, especially to sign as a memento; see show-off, signet, logo, brand, indicia. Also, something written in a person's own hand, as a manuscript or letter (qv); see manuscript, script, cursive, paraph.

- B -

backbone :
The primary connectivity mechanism of a hierarchical distributed system. All systems that have connectivity to an intermediate system on the backbone are assured of connectivity to each other. This does not prevent systems from setting up private arrangements with each other to bypass the backbone for reasons of cost, performance, or security. It's a high-speed network that connects several powerful computers. In the U.S., the backbone of the Internet is often considered the SFNet, a government funded link between a handful of supercomputer sites across the nation. See multicast backbone, I2, website, internet.

back formation :
The analogical creation of one word from another word that appears to be a derived or inflected form of the first by dropping the apparent affix or by modification (eg: typewrite, enthuse, kudo, sightsee, sleaze); as distinguished from 'retronym', being formed to identify a former type or class which has since been subcategorized or reclassified (eg: rotary telephone, electric torch, automatic transmission, male nurse). See word, vocabulary, language.

background :
The perceived foundation for depictions of foreground objects and forms; see wallpaper, tessellate, template, overprint, transparent palette. Also, multitasking computers are capable of executing several tasks, or programs, at the same time. In some multitasking systems, the process of primary activity is called the foreground process, and the others are called background processes. The foreground process is the one that accepts input from the keyboard, mouse, or other input device. Background processes cannot accept interactive input from a user, but they can access disk data, up- or download stored data, print ("print spooling") or disseminate documents, and write data to the video display. Background processes generally have a lower priority than foreground processes so that they do not interfere with interactive applications. Even MS-DOS, which is not a multitasking operating system, can perform some specialized tasks, such as printing, in the background. Operating environments, such as Macintosh and Microsoft Windows, provide a more general multitasking environment. See multitasking, TSR, shell, hot-key.

backhand :
Letters angled left, or slanted the opposite of Italics (ITAL) characters; also called "backslant".

backing :
In binding, the process of applying glue to the rounded back of a book prior to affixing a strip of gauzy fabric (ie: crash or super), and followed by a strip of brown-paper liner, before casing-in; also called "back-lining". Mesh and paper backings reinforce the glue, and holds the sewn sections together firmly. Crash may be applied to inexpensive editions without liner, or vice versa. See binding.

back issue :
Any issue of a periodical published prior to the current issue, usually shelved separately in bound volumes or converted to microform (qv); also called "back number". See volume number, periodical.

backlist :
Books published previous to the current season that are still in print. Some backlist books continue to sell in significant numbers years after publication, such as books that are used in classrooms. Others may sit in a warehouse for years, only to start selling again when the writer's reputation grows. And yet others sit in a warehouse until remaindered, sold to the author at/or below cost, or are recycled, or pulped. Many independent publishers have a commitment to keeping their books in print, while commercial publishers pulp books as a regular practice. Traditionally, the strength of a publisher's backlist is the indicator of both editorial and commercial success. The backlist records how well a press has developed a coherent program and philosophy for presenting books and authors to the public cumulatively, and it functions also as a descriptive publishing history of that press. In the past, the backlist served almost as an endowment for a publisher and signing an author was seen as a longterm investment. Today, commercial publishing is putting books out of print at a very fast rate, and their former backlists are often a rich source for independent publishers's rediscoveries of high quality books to reprint. With the advent of e-books and print-on-demand, this editorial strategy may no longer be an option for independent publishers. See frontlist, midlist, deadlist, out of print.

back matter :
Printed ancillary material, positioned at the back of a book, after the body copy, including addendum, appendix, epilogue, envoy, coda, afterword, eulogy, colophon, bibliography, endnote, glossary, index, and other related material. See end sign, pagination, concordance, erratum, corrigenda; compare front matter.

backslash :
A short oblique stroke (\) used in the path of some computer operating systems to mark the hierarchical division between a directory and a subdirectory; as introduced by MS-DOS version 2 as differentiation from switches. See slash, path, parameter, filename, pipe, internet address.

backtrack :
The back-to-back joining of two pages, printed or embossed only on their face, in order to form a single double-sided sheet; see duplex paper, paper. Also, a stochastic search performed by a computer's troubleshooting subroutine.

backup :
Printing on one side of a page that must align correctly with printing on the other side. See page spread.

balance :
The design principle, achieved through the placement of type and graphic elements, that one side of a layout must be given weight equal to the other. See layout, contrast, sequence.

balderdash :
Nonsense writing; senseless or exaggerated talk, as similar to piffle, twaddle, blather, drivel, humbug, flummery, gibberish, inanity, gobbledygook, rigmarole, flapdoodle. See euphemism, puffery, pap, ad diction, pleonasm, boilerplate, vernacular, screed, sleazy, prolixity, Greek type, rhetorical forms, language. [nb: "Jabberwocky", a poem in the book "Through the Looking Glass" by Louis Carroll (1871), coined this term for senseless or nonsense writing] [v: amphigory; cf: billingsgate, hieratic]

balloon :
A bubble of text or encircled copy in an illustration, used especially in cartoons. See caption.

ballpoint :
A pen in which the penpoint is a fine ball bearing that rotates against a supply of semisolid ink in a cartridge; also called "ballpoint pen", and sometimes known as "biro", as a generic extension of the trademarked brandname. See pen, writing instrument. [nb: In 1888, John Loud patented the idea for a rolling ball-bearing tip that dispensed ink from a reservoir by gravity that would be used for marking leather. None of the hundreds of subsequent ballpoint pen patents were successful until the 1935 prototypes by Hungarians Ladislas and Georg Biro; who patented a functional version during June 1943 in Paris that was used by WW2 Allied aircrews. In 1944, the Biro ballpoint was improved with "capillary action" ink flow and a textured ball-bearing for smoother application. Biro ballpoint manufacturing rights were acquired by Eberhard Faber Company and Eversharp Company; but Milton Reynolds copied the Biro ballpoint for successful marketing through "Gimbels" department store in 1945. A French manufacturer of penholders and pen cases, named Marcel Bich, paid Biro a patent royalty and analyzed competing pens. In 1952, the "Ballpoint Bic" (also barrel marked "Biro") was introduced as a better pen at a lower price with substantial advertising by Bich. An independent effort by Patrick J. Frawley Jr, with an improved ink formula from Fran Seech, founded the Frawley Pen Company in 1949 to produce the "PaperMate" ballpoint pen. By the following year, Frawley innovated the "PaperMate" with a retractable penpoint and non-smearing ink.]

ballyhoo :
Blatant and insistent advertising or publicity, as vigorous hawking; a brouhaha, hullabaloo, clamor, hue, outcry, turmoil, or tumult. See advertising, puffery, pap, news; compare crier, balderdash.

band :
A line or separation in the presentation of an image; see drop out. Also, a strip or stripe of color; see illustration. Also, a track or channel, as audio segment or computer memory.

banderole / banderol :
A narrow scroll (qv), usually bearing an inscription. See cartouche, artifact.

bandwidth :
The amount of data that can be sent through a network connection, which is typically expressed in terms of the network speed (eg: 1 Mbps / 1 megabit-per-second). A greater bandwidth indicates the ability to transmit a greater amount of data over a given period of time. When several devices divide the network's data transmission capacity, the resultant "shared bandwidth" speed availability is reduced by the number of devices actively using the network. The logical entities that control the flow of multimedia packets between endpoints are called "bandwidth gates". Also, the range of transmission frequencies a network can use, which is expressed as the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies (ie: Hertz or cycles per second) of a transmission channel. See web server, virtual server, website, internet.

bang :
Printer's, compositor's, and computer programmer's slang for the exclamation point (qv). See interrobang, tittle.

bank :
A lightweight writing paper. See paper.

banner :
A large bold-faced headline, often placed near the top of the page. Also, a prominent band, bar, or streamer of advertising copy. See streamer, screamer, broadside, leaflet, handbill, black space, puffery, copywriter; compare RDA.

barbarian :
A person belonging to a culture different from one's own, usually regarded as primitive or uncivilized due to their ignorance of or nonconformity with classical standards; any outsider or non-native, especially a philistine. Derived from the discordant sound of foreign languages, originally non-Greek and later non-Roman. [v: heathen, jingoism, xenophobia]

bar code / barcode :
A series of contiguous lines, varying in height (as postal codes) or in width (as in product codes), for scanning by optical character readers, with applications to price, inventory, stock or part identification. See coding, UPC, EAN Bookland bar code, EPC, smart tag.

base artwork :
Artwork requiring additional components, such as halftones or line drawings, before the reproduction stage.

baseline :
The reference line upon which x-height and capital letters sit, and below which descenders fall. See cap line, mean line, x-line, x-height, ascender, descender, body size, expanded type, set size, font, typeface, baseline lock. Also, a basic standard or specific value serving as a comparison or control.

baseline lock :
Consistent typographic alignment of all body copy (eg: column, caption, call-out, text box, heading, etc) to the same baseline (qv), regardless of font, point size, or leading; also called "locked to baseline". A baseline lock ties the text to the grid structure, but does not affect illustrations.

basement :
The lower portion or bottom half of the sheet on the front-page of a newspaper (qv); being the area "below the fold" reserved for less important stories. See foot, attic.

The abbreviation for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, being a high-level programming language that uses English words, punctuation marks, and algebraic notation. See language.

basic size :
The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate basis weight (qv) in the U.S. and Canada, irrespective of the wide variety of commercial sizes produced for different types. The standardized basic size of bond/writing paper is 17" X 22", of text/book paper is 25" X 38", of cover stock is 20" X 26", and of Bristol board is 22.5" X 28.5". Compare ISO sizes; see CWT, paper.

basis weight :
In the U.S. and Canada, the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size (qv) [eg: 20# bond = 60# offset]; also called the "ream weight" and "substance weight" (sub wt). In countries using ISO paper sizes, the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper; also called grammage and "ream weight". See CWT, paper.

batch file :
A computer text subroutine that contains operating system commands and parameters for sequential execution; also called "batch program" or "batch processing". Keyword such as CALL and SET, IF and GOTO, PAUSE and CHOICE, FOR and ECHO, supplement the commands, switches, and parameters. Despite the fact that their file extensions make them discrete, a microprocessor (eg: command.com) will always run a [SAME].COM file before a [SAME].EXE file, and both before a [SAME].BAT file; so a batch file with a name already used by another executable file will never run, regardless of its contents. See script, macro.

bathos :
An anticlimax, as insincere sentimentality, or a ludicrous descent from the exalted or lofty to the commonplace. Also, triteness or triviality in style; derived "depth". Compare pathos; see melodrama, comedy, revue, drama.

baud rate :
The unit of measure representing the speed of signaling or data transfer, equal to the number of pulses or bits per second, also called "baud"; eponymous derivation after J.M.E. Baudot. See modem.

The abbreviation for Bulletin Board System, being a computer system equipped with one or more modems that serves as an information and message-passing center for dial-up users. See kiosk, forum, newsgroup, UseNet, honeypot, banner.

bed :
The flat surface in a printing press on which the form of type is laid; compare platen, see press. Also, a foundation, base, underlayment, or fundamental.

belles-lettres :
Literature that is polished, elegant, and often inconsequential in subject or scope. [v: belletristic, billet-doux]

Ben Day / benday :
An eponymous technique used in photoengraving to produce shading, texture, or tone by means of a patterned screen. See illustration. [cf: Zipatone]

benefactor :
A person who makes a bequest or endowment, as to an institution or non-profit organization; a philanthropic patron of the arts who funds, wholly or in part, some literary magazines and small presses. Also known as a "sponsor" or "backer". See business angel, white knight, grant, venture capital, entrepreneurship, budget.

bento storage / bento container :
A data storage and specification method developed by Apple Computer in 1993 for the efficient grouping of several types of data (eg: audio-video, database, graphics, publication, text) on a related topic into a single resource capsule or container, which can be moved as a unit. The term refers to a compartmentalized lunchbox (Japanese "bento"). See RAM, ROM, flash memory.

Benton pantograph :
A mechanical tracing device developed by Morris Fuller Benton which could modify a letterform design for optical scaling considerations. Many different adjustments on various design parameters (ie: stroke width, x-height, advance width, ascender height, cap height, etc) could be automatically "dialed in" during the tracing procedure. See pantograph, hint.

BeOS :
The Be Operating System was designed by Jean-Louis Gasse of Be Incorporated for interface with Intel Pentium and PowerPC chips in microcomputers. The operating system has complete multithreading, a 64-bit file system, object-oriented design, native internet appliance (BeIA) services, and Unicode-compliancy. BeOS is the first new operating system with a graphical user interface (GUI) design since 1986; and it is currently the only operating system with a graphical user interface which can run on both Intel/IBM PC-compatible and Macintosh hardware. Be Inc. was purchased in mid-2001 by Palm Computing, the pioneering manufacturer of handheld Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) products. See program, software.

bestseller :
A book that, among those of its class, sells very well at any given time, as any impressive or influential work with popular appeal and financial success; also called "blockbuster". See instant book, book. [nb: "The worth of a book is to be measured by what you can carry away from it." by James Bryce]

beta test :
The final test of a computer product prior to commercial release. The beta version is normally sent to test sites outside the company for real-world exposure. After debugging the beta test results, the final product will be manufactured and released to the general public. Compare alpha test, vaporware; see patch, glitch, kludge, debug, tweak.

Bezier curve / B倆ier curve :
A mathematically formulated curve made from a line that is set-up to connect two anchor or end-points, with the line shape influenced by the torquing of intermediate tangent or control points. In computer drawing programs, curves are made by moving on-screen "handles" to adjust the curve's shape. A Bezier curve so formed will automatically scale proportionately. The similarity of this process to a mechanical spline warrants it also being called "Bezier spline"; eponymous derivation after French mathematician Pierre B倆ier. See vector graphics.

BF :
Abbreviation for "set in boldface type"; see proofreader's marks. [nb: the SGML "bold" tag was replaced in HTML by "strong"]

bible paper :
Very thin, opaque paper used for products such as bibles and dictionaries; also called "India paper". See paper.

bibliography :
A complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle, as authorship, subject, or printer. Also, a list of source materials that are used or consulted in the preparation of a work, or that are referred to in the text. Also, the discipline that deals with the physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other printed matter. See book categorization, back matter, reference marks.

bibliopole :
A bookseller, especially a dealer in used or rare books, with a bibliophilic, bibliomaniacal, and bibliolatristic clientele; also called "bibliopolist", as derived from "book + agent".

bildungsroman :
A novel dealing with the education and development of its protagonist; see literature.

bill :
A written or printed public notice or advertisement; see handbill, leaflet, fly sheet, broadside, poster, advertising. Also, any written statement of particulars, as of legislation, transactions, or the like. Also, the program or schedule of an entertainment or production to be presented, as a "playbill" or other menu.

Acronym for Berkeley Internet Name Daemon; being an open-source domain name server conversion. See DNS, domain name.

bindery :
A place where printed matter is bound; a binding shop, bibliopegy. See bookbindery, trim, finish, post-press.

bind-in :
An attachment or enclosure, as a supplement or advertisement, that is secured into the publication's binding, usually for later removal; also called "stitch-in". See blow-in card.

binding :
The method and/or mechanism by which the contents and covers of a publication are stabilized and secured; see quarter binding, half binding, three-quarter binding, perfect binding, burst binding, lay-flat bind, spiral-bound, coil binding, comb binding, paperback, case binding, hardcover, split edition, saddle-stitch binding, side-stitch binding, screw-and-post bind, fan, selective binding, spine, headband, guard, backing, crash; compare quire, gather, imposition, nested, fold lines, signature, sheet, flyleaf, loose-leaf, end sheet, endpaper, tip, fascicle, overhang, cut flush, cover paper, accordian-fold, concertina-fold, boustrophedon, jacket, volume, trade edition, cameo binding, treasure binding, bindery, bookbindery, nipping, bookbinder's press.

binding edge :
The inside edge of the magazine page, containing the fold and the stitches.

bit :
A single, basic unit of computer information, valued at either 0 or 1, to signal binary alternatives; as derived from "binary + digit". Compare pixel, analog, quantum; see byte.

bitbucket / bit-bucket :
Alliterative slang for the hypothetical location where software is discarded, as a trash can or recycle bin; also called "digital disposal". See boneyard, waste. [nb: "dump" as a data download or place of storage is an inappropriate substitute for this reference]

bite :
A short excerpt, fragment, clip, or bit; as a visual bite from film, or word bites from poems. Compare sound-bite; see ear, snippet, blurb, squib, filler, paragraph, call-out, box, sidebar, epigraph, contents. Also, the amount of margin or border required for a gripper edge (qv).

bitload / bit load :
The delay or confinement of data download, as a bandwidth bottleneck on the "worldwide wait", usually caused by excessive file size and superfluous graphics. Ordinary webpages should be no larger than 150KB, and no single image larger than 50KB. The use of partitions and thumbnails will alleviate transfer overloading. See website.

bitmap / bit-map :
Computer image consisting of pixels or halftone dots. See bitmap graphics.

bitmap graphics / bit-map graphics :
A way of displaying images on a computer screen in which each picture is represented as an array of little squares called pixels. Each pixel is stored in a specific location in memory, and corresponds to one or more bits. The number of bits per pixel determines the number of colors or shades of gray that can be displayed. Bitmap graphics can be created and edited in paint programs or photo editing programs, and can be stored in a number of file formats. Depending on file format, bitmap graphics can sometimes be imported into word processing, page layout, or spreadsheet programs, or incorporated in World Wide Web pages. Bitmapped graphics are not compressed for storage, and are the same as raster format. The bitmap graphics format was developed by Microsoft. See vector graphics, graphics, illustration.

black letter :
A heavy-faced type, in a style like that of the earliest printed books, and of early European hand lettering; also called text and Gothic. See typeface.

black patch :
Material used to mask the window area on a negative image of the artwork prior to stripping-in a halftone. See illustration.

black point :
Reference point, defining the darkest area in an image. See illustration; compare white point.

black space :
The designation for rules and borders, banners and headings, regardless of ink color or decorative density; also called "black matter". Compare white space, gray space; see fillet, tool line, ornament.

blad :
An advanced book information promotional, which usually includes the book's cover, the jacket flap copy, the table of contents, the book's specifications, the book's publication date, with some sample pages placed inside the cover. These are excellent promotional previews for expensive four-color books, and can be sent well ahead of distribution. See advance, press kit.

blade :
A straight edge used for applying or spreading ink during screen printing; see squeegee, serigraphy. Also, a cutting edge used to divide sheets and trim pages; see guillotine cutter.

blade coating :
Method of coating paper that ensures a relatively thick covering and level surface, as compared to film coating; also called "knife coating". Gloss, dull, and matte papers are blade coated. See paper coating.

blank :
Blank pages, as unmarked by printing; see flyleaf. Also, to stamp, press, punch, or cut out of flat stock, as with a die; see emboss.

blanket :
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that receives the inked image from the plate, and transfers it to the surface to be printed by the impression cylinder. See doubling.

blanket cylinder :
The cylinder by which the inked litho plate transfers the image to the paper. The cylinder is covered with a rubber blanket (qv), which prevents contact wear of the litho plate from the paper and impression cylinder.

blanket sheet :
An oversized sheet of newsprint for broadsides and newsletters; derived from "large coverage", figuratively applied in the same manner as 'blanket proposal'. See sheet.

blank verse :
In prosody, unrhymed verse. In English, the term usually means unrhymed iambic pentameter. In classical prosody, rhyme was not used at all; with the introduction of rhyme in the Middle Ages, blank verse disappeared. It was reintroduced in the 16th century, and in England became the standard medium of dramatic poetry, and frequently of epic poetry. Shakespeare's plays, for example, are written mostly in blank verse. Compare free verse; see verse.

bleed :
Printing that extends beyond the crop marks, or runs-off the edges of a page in one or more directions; this process requires printing on larger paper and trimming to size.

blend :
To intermingle smoothly and inseparably, as with colors. Also, a word made by putting together parts of other words (eg: motel, guesstimate, advertorial, insinuendo); compare clip, contraction, compound, glide [v: agglutination]. Also, a sequence or cluster of two or more consonant sounds within a syllable.

blind emboss :
A raised impression made without using ink or foil. See emboss.

block-in :
To sketch the primary motif or main areas of an image prior to the design. See line drawing, scamp, sketch, thumbnail.

block print :
A design printed by means of one or more blocks of wood or metal; also known as "woodcut" or "woodblock", but formally called xylography. Relief printing originated in Third Century China, and later evolved into movable type in both China and Korea. See chiaroscuro, scratchboard, foundry type, hot type, letterpress.

blog :
An online diary or journal, usually on a limited subject (eg: quotes, technology, diet, lifestyle, politics, war, etc) with contributed e-mails and related links; also known as "weblog", as derived from "web+log". Originating with the "What's New?" section of Mosaic, now includes "Gardian Unlimited", "Drudge Report", "Radio UserLand", and others. "Bloggers" contribute to the "blogisphere" by "blogging" ... an informal and ephemeral knowledge management database. Although some blogs are autonomous domains, the typical blog is a publicly-accessible webpage on a host net. Compare chatroom, instant messaging, webcast, zine, thread, UseNet, newsgroup, forum.

blow-in cards :
Subscription devices, usually standard size postcards, which are either inserted or bound into a magazine. The card/envelope should have a business reply mechanism and should allow individuals to charge-or be billed for-the subscription. Magazines that do not have the capacity to invoice should select envelopes which allow for the easy return of personal checks. Blow-ins/bind-ins are used predominantly to convert single-copy buyers into subscribers, since a subscription list is a better predictor of quantity; but promotional sales often have very low renewal rates. Although the rate of return is very low for blow-ins/bind-ins, any subscribers garnered by this low cost recruitment are considered to be surplus when compared to the extremely high cost of direct mail solicitation (often not recouped until after three years of subscription). See reply coupon, courtesy envelope, self-mailer, premium.

blow-up :
Slang for an enlargement, most frequently of a graphic image or photograph. See graphics, illustration.

blue law :
Any prohibitive or puritanical law regulating personal conduct or forbids public acts, especially on the Sabbath or other holy days; such as the Communication Decency Act and Comstock laws. See censorship, expurgate, curiosa, pornography. [cf: blue movie]

blueline :
A generic term for pre-press proofs made from a variety of materials having similar appearances, where all colors show as blue images on white paper; such proofs may also be called white print, blueprint, brownline, position proof, silverprint, Dylux, and VanDyke. This printer's mock-up is used to detect errors and make corrections. See proof.

blue-pencil :
To alter, edit, or delete with (or as if with) a blue colored pencil. See red-pencil, proofread.

blurb :
A brief advertisement, notice, endorsement, or excerpted review, as on a book jacket, expressing praise or approbation; coined by F.G. Burgess (ca1910), and also called "cover blurb" or "advance endorsement". See cover lines, banner, teaser, hook, plug, puffery, snippet, call-out, bite, balderdash.

board paper :
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover, or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays, and postcards; also called "paperboard" or "board". See paper.

body copy :
The contents of the main section of the document, article, or book; compare body text, see gray space, back matter. Also, the principal typeface used throughout the majority of the publication, excluding heads and subheads; see type, font. [nb: coloring text can be an effective stylistic motif, as long as the copy is clear and readable; but coloring individual words and phrases in the body copy (rather than using font attributes) will probably not register accurately when printed, so will detract from the design intent]

body language :
Nonverbal communication through the use of postures, poses, facial expressions, gestures, and other subconscious or unconscious expressions; formally known as "kinesics". See mannerism, sign language, language.

body size :
The standard unit of type size, normally given in points; being the height of the type measured from the top of the tallest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender. See ascender, descender, x-height, baseline, cap line, minuscule, set size, expanded type, font, typeface.

body stock :
Category of paper used in writing, printing, and photocopying on which the text or main part of a publication is produced, as compared to cover stock. Also called "communication paper" and writing paper. See paper.

body text