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(来源:专业英语学习网站 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  1 as引导的特殊状语从句,翻译时作定语从句处理

  例1 We hope the measures to control prices, as they have been taken by the government, will succeed.


  例2 "In short, a leader of the new school contends, the scientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions."


  2 anything but根本不;nothing but只不过是;all but几乎,差一点;除……以外其余都是;but for要不是;but that +从句:若不是……

  例1 Alone in a deserted house, he was so busy with his research work that he felt anything but lonely.


  [注释]:句中anything but意为not at all。试对此:He seldom talked of anything but painting.(他除了绘画很少谈到别的事情。)此句中but作介词,意为except。

  例2 The method of scientific investigation is nothing but the expression of the necessary mode of working of the human mind; it is simply the mode by which all phenomena are reasoned about and given precise and exact explanation.


  例3 She all but fainted when she heard the news.


  [注释]:此句中all but意为nearly, almost。试对比:All but the little children thought that the trip was exciting. (除了小孩,大家都认为这次旅行是激动人心的。)此句中all but意为all except。

  例4 But for the rain we should have a pleasant journey.


  例5 He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.


  [注释]:1) but that引导的从句中谓语用陈述语气。2) but that有灵活的译法,如:Nothing would satisfy that child but that I place her on my lap. (那孩子什么都不要,只要我把她抱在怀里。)

  3 "名词,+ or +名词"结构中or后的名词是同位语,应译为"即……;或者称……"。

  例:Moreover, technology includes techniques, or ways to do things, as well as the machines that may or may not be necessary to apply them.


  4 "...,only to +动词"意为"……,结果却……"

  例:They don't have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre, the cinema or the opera, only to discover, perhaps, that the show is disappointing.


  [注释]:"...,only to +动词"表示与句子谓语动作的目的相反的结果。

  5 not nearly (=by no means, far from)远不

  例:The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we are headingsintosa crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food.


  [注释]:1) this是指上面提到的"到21世纪初世界人口将增加到60亿或70亿"。2)又例:There are not nearly enough people here to do the job. (这里的人手远远不够承担这项工作。)

  6 not so much ... as ...与其说……不如说……

  例1 Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genuis as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools.


  例2 The conveniences that Americans desire reflect not so much a leisurely lifestyle as busy lifestyle in which even minutes of time are too valuable to be wasted.


  [注释]:1) not so much as连在一起写,则意为"连……都不(肯)",如:He didn't so much as thank me for returning his money that I found. (DAI)(我把找到的钱还给他,他却连谢都不肯谢。) 2)该句型有时也可以用not so much ... but ...如:The important thing is not so much the actual population of the world, but its rate of increase.(重要的与其说是世界的实际人口量,还不如说是人口的增长率。)又如:But whether their efforts can be more effective than those of the traditional politician may depend not so much on the present?day working scientists, but on the scientists now being trained, i.e. -you.(但是,他们的努力是否能比传统的政治家的努力更有成效,与其说是取决于现在正在工作的科学家,倒不如说取决于正在被培训的科学家,也就是你们。) 3)要注意"not so much ... but ..."与"not so +形容词+ but +从句"之间的区别,后者意为"虽然……但是……",例如:The bridge was not so crowded but the bicycles could go through. (这桥上虽然很拥挤,但是自行车还能穿过去。)

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