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23. The word "xenophobia" (para.2) means "__________".
(A) partiality (B) arbitrariness (C) discrimination (D) antipathy (来源:EnglishCN.com)

原文:
The Campaign Against Racism and Fascism (CARF), a London based group, tells me that there is little doubt that, with the massive upsurge of xenophobia against asylum-seekers too, the fallout is affecting anyone perceived to be foreign or different, decent attacks on black people have a ferocity that appalls police and community organizers alike.

  本题中要注意"xenophobia"一词后面的介词against以及前面的upsurge (情绪的激起,汹涌)。首先可推断出xenophobia是一种情绪,这种情绪对asylum-seekers(寻求政治避难的人)是不利的。由于这种情绪的兴起,给所有异族的或不同肤色的人带来灾难性的后果,比如对黑人的攻击异常残忍以致震惊了警方。A. partiality可联想到partial一词,指有偏袒,偏爱,显然与原文语境不符。B任意,专断,不合语意。C似乎比较接近,对...有偏见,有歧视,而且discrimination后也往往跟介词against。但是,如果我们把xenophobia剖开,phobia是指dislike, aversion(反感,厌恶),xeno是指strange, foreign, different, 而D项中pathy与feeling有关,如sympathy, empathy(美学中的移情作用),telepathy(tele远距离的,距离遥远却心心相映,即心灵感应),而anti则是我们最熟悉的前缀,意即against, oppose, 如anti-dumping, antisocial等。那么antipathy=dislike, aversion, 故答案为D。顺便说一下,fallout这个词原义是核装置引爆后的放射性尘埃污染,后果严重不堪设想。此处借代一般用语“影响”、“余波”、“后遗症”。因为形象恐怖,所以起到的修饰效果十分鲜明有力。我们平时在阅读外刊的过程中要注意积累一些形象生动的表达,包括常用修辞手法的运用实例,这样考试时才能做到游刃有余。

不拘泥于词或短语的本义,而从其引申义来考虑。

例一:2000年9月试题第23题

23. The phrase "take off (paragraph 4) means _________.
(A) transfer to another vessel  (B) cause to lose weight
(C) begin to develop markedly (D) cause to leave the ground

原文:

Over here, in Britain, Computertowns have taken off in a big way, and there are now about 40 scattered over the country. David Tebbutt thinks they are most successful when tied to a computer club.

  take off本义为(飞机)起飞或物体离开地面,选项D即为take off的本义,但是把D带到原文中解释不通,可见,出题者并不是想考我们take off的本义,而是在文中的引申义。请注意原文中紧跟take off的方式状语in a big way,后面指出已有约40个之多的Computertown散布在全国各地,后面successful一词进一步说明Computertown是朝着positive方向发展的, 所以答案明显为表示快速发展的C。

例二:2001年3月试题第11题

11. The word "wasteland" (para.1) is used to describe ________.
(A) western badlands (B) average television programs
(C) TV film studios (D) theatrical plays

原文:
When the television is good, nothing-not the theatre, not the magazines, or newspapers-nothing is better. But when television is bad, nothing is worse. I invite you to sit down in front of your television set when your station goes on the air and stay there without a book, magazine, newspaper, or anything else to distract you and keep your eyes glued to that set until the station signs off. I can assure you that you will observe a vast wasteland. You will see a procession of game shows, violence, audience-participation shows, formula comedies about totally unbelievable families, blood and thunder, mayhem, more violence, sadism, murder, Western badmen, Western goodmen, private eyes, gangster, still more violence, and cartoons. And endlessly, commercials that scream and cajole and offend. And most of all, boredom. True, you will see a few things you will enjoy. But they will be very, very few. And if you think I exaggerate, try it.

  wasteland本义为land that is desolate, barren, or ravaged,即荒地,废地。A中badland即为wasteland的本义,带到原文中等于同义替代,并没有作出解释,显然不是出题者的意图所在。而从wasteland后面的内容可以看出电视节目中充斥着暴力、血腥、谋杀、俗套的喜剧种种格调不高的内容,总之无聊透顶,所以答案不言自明,选B。

  作者采用了metaphor(暗喻)的手法,对令人失望的电视节目大加讽刺,从另一个侧面反映了西方社会精神食粮的匮乏和作者在看似调侃的语调中对电视文化流露出的失望和愤慨。顺便赏析一下阴影部分,难道你不觉得作者这样写很风趣幽默吗?我们是否在写作时也可模仿一下,比如:When money is good, nothing is better. But when money is bad, nothing is worse. If you thank I exaggerate, try it. 你觉得如何呢?

解释法。

例:2000年9月试题第29和30题

29. Breeding the hybrid offspring to fix desirable traits is called _________.
(A) naturally selecting (B) inbreeding
(C) pedigree breeding (D) pure-breeding

30. A farmer imported several fine long wool Tomney sheep from Australia to breed with his Debouittet sheep in hopes of increasing the value of the flock's wool. This is an example of _________.
(A) pure-breeding (B) crossbreeding
(C) reproducing (D) cloning

原文:
Individual specimens with the desired traits are crossbred. The hybrid offspring are then inbred to preserve and fix the desirable characteristics and eliminate unfavorable characteristics from the stock.

 
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