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重点、难点、考点及疑点注释
1.  They’re used for seeing in the dark. (P69)它们被用于在黑夜里观看。
be used for表示“被用来做……”,介词for表示目的和用途,后面接名词或动词-ing形式。
Wood can be used for making paper.木材可以被用来造纸。
知识拓展
含有be used的常用短语:
◎be used as表示“被用作……”,介词as意思是“作为”的意思,其后一般接名词,强调使用的工具及手段。
This book can be used as a textbook.这本书可以当作教科书来用。
◎be used by表示“被……使用”,by后接动作的执行者。
This kind of machine is used by farmers for getting in crops.
农民们用这种机器来收割庄稼。
2.  I think the most helpful invention is the light bulb. (P70)我认为最有用的发明是灯泡。
helpful是由名词help加上-ful后缀构成的形容词,意为“有帮助的”,类似的形容词还有:
thank—thankful (感谢的,感激的)        grate—grateful(感谢的,感激的)
use—useful (有用的)        wonder—wonderful(令人惊奇的)
forget—forgetful (健忘的)         success—successful(成功的)
beauty—beautiful (美丽的)         pain—painful(疼痛的)
3.  I’d like to have a radio because I could listen to music all day. (P70)我想有一个收音机,这样我就可以整天听音乐了。
本句中的情态动词could用来表示逻辑上或理论上的可能性,而不是某种实际上将要发生或正在发生的可能性。
Anybody could make mistake.任何人都可能犯错误。
The weather here could be very cold in winter. 冬天这儿的天气很冷。
特别提示
could也表示人或动物的内在能力,有某种知识或者技能而能够做某事。
He hurt his foot and couldn’t play soccer. 他的脚受了伤,所以他不能踢足球了。 (来源:英语麦当劳-英语快餐EnglishCN.com)
4.  The potato chips were invented by mistake. (P71)土豆条的发明纯属歪打正着。
(1) potato chips是一个复合名词,其中第一个名词用作定语修饰后一个名词,这样的例子有很多,又如: alarm clock, telephone number等。
知识拓展
复合名词变复数的规则,你一定要牢记啊!
◎通常只把主体名词变为复数
school boy—school boys(男生)   apple tree—apple trees(苹果树)
vegetable sandwich—vegetable sandwiches(蔬菜三明治)
girl friend—girl friends(女朋友)
◎如果没有主体名词,在最后一个名词上用复数。
good-for-nothing—good-for-nothings(饭桶、无用的人)
three-year-old—three-year-olds(三岁的孩子)
◎由man, woman和另外一个名词构成的复合名词,两个部分都要用复数。
man teacher—men teachers(男教师)
gentleman farmer—gentlemen farmers (乡绅)
(2)by mistake 表示“错误地(因粗心、遗忘等所致)”。
Sorry, I took your bag by mistake. 对不起,我错拿了你的手提包。
短语链语
mistake ... for “错把……当作……”
5.  George Crum cooked them for a long time until they were crispy. (P71)George Crum将它们做了很长时间,直到它们变脆了。
until常用作介词或连词,用来引导介词短语或从句在句子中作时间状语。
◎在肯定句中,until与延续性、持续性动词连用,表示“直到……为止”。
I worked until late in the afternoon. 我一直干到下午很晚的时候。
◎在否定句中,until常与瞬间动词、短暂性动词连用,表示“直到……才……”,“不到……不……”。
The rain didn’t stop until midnight. 雨直到半夜才停。
I won’t leave until you promise to help me. 你不答应帮助我,我不会离开。
6.  And he sprinkled lots of salt on them so they were salty. (P71) 然后,他在上面撒很多盐,这样它们就咸了。
(1)sprinkle 是“撒、洒”的意思,常构成sprinkle A on/over B 或sprinkle B with A表示“撒(某物)于(某物的表面)”。
She sprinkled sand along the icy path. 她往结冰的路上撒了些沙子。
He sprinkled vinegar on his fish and chips. 他往鱼和土豆上洒了些醋。
(2)salt是不可数名词,其形容词是salty。在英语中,很多名词后加-y可以构成形容词,表示“充满/包含……”,其意思与原来词汇的意思相同,只是词性不同,如cloud—cloudy, hair—hairy, rose—rosy, sleep—sleepy等。
7.  Some leaves from a nearby bush fell into the water and remained there for some time. (P72)附近丛林里的一些树叶掉进了水里,并留在那里很长时间。
(1) fall into在这里是“落入、陷入”的意思。
Some ash fell into my cup. 一些灰掉进我的杯子里了。
A ripe fruit happened to fall into his hand. 一个熟了的果子碰巧掉在他手里。
(2)fall into有时也可以作“开始”解。
He fell into conversation with me. 他开始和我谈起话来。
(3)remain 表示“继续、依然、停留”,后面接名词,动词不定式。
He remained a prisoner for the rest of his life. 他的余生都在牢中度过。
It sounds a good idea, but it remains to be seen whether it will succeed.听起来这是个好注意,可是它能否成功,要等以后才能知晓。
(4)remain后面也可以接副词或介词短语。
She remains in the house all these days. 她这些天一直呆在那栋房子里。
 
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