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重点、难点、考点及疑点注释
1.  You’re supposed to shake hands.(P94)你们应该握手。
be supposed to用来表示根据规定或按照法律人们不得不做的事,或期待将要发生的事,与should相似,后面也是接动词原形。否定形式在be动词后加not,常表示禁止做某事。
We’re supposed to make no noise in class. 在课堂上我们不该发出噪音。
We’re supposed to start work at 8∶00 every morning.
我们应该每天早晨八点开始工作。
2. Spending time with family and friends is very important to us. (P96)与家人和朋友共度时光对我们非常重要。
Spending time with family and friends 是动名词短语,在本句中作主语。动名词(短语)作主语时,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。如果是并列的动名词(短语)作主句时,谓语动词用复数形式。
Reading in bed is not good for your eyes. 在床上看书对眼睛不好。
Reading and writing take me a lot of time. 读书写作花了我不少时间。
不定式(短语)也可作主语,两者的区别在“语法天地”中有详解。
3.  We’re the land of watches, after all! (P96)毕竟我们是手表的国度。
句中的land意为“国土”,“国家”。它还可以表示 “陆地”,与河流和海洋相对;也可以表示“土地”,可耕种的田地就叫做land。
We traveled by land until we reached the sea.我们沿陆路旅行,直到看见大海。
All the waste land in this area has been opened up.这个地区的荒地全被开垦了。
知识拓展
与“土地”,“地”相关的词语还有earth, soil和ground。
◎ earth意为“地”,“地球”,“泥土”。它着重指“大地”,区别于“天空”。
The earth moves round the sun.地球围绕太阳转。
◎ soil意为“土地”,“土壤”,尤指生长植物的土地。
The soil is very thin in the forest.森林里土层非常薄。
◎ ground意为“地”,“地面”,主要指大地表面。不论是泥地,沙地或水泥地,均可用这个词表示;也可以用来指运动场地。 (来源:英语交友 http://friends.englishcn.com)
The ground is covered with leaves in the woods.树林里的地面上落满了树叶。
4. You’re not supposed to make noise while eating noodles. (P97)吃面条的时候你不应该弄出响声来。
句中的while eating noodles是while接从句的省略形式,该句完整形式是while you are eating noodles。由while和when引导的时间状语从句,如果主语和主句的主语相同,从句中的主语和be动词常可省略。
While/When (she was)leaving the house, she was heard to make some commonplace remark to her husband.有人听到她在离开房间时同他的丈夫寒暄。
5. It’s rude to point at anyone with your chopsticks. (P97)用筷子指着别人是无礼的。
本句是主系表结构,不定式短语是真正的主语,it是形式主语。句中point意为“指”,“指向”,常构成短语point at, point to和point out。
◎point to和point at都含有“指着”的意思,两者一般可以互换。
The teacher is pointing at/to the map on the wall.老师指着墙上的地图。
◎但主语是事物时,一般用point to作谓语。point at可以分开使用,即point后直接跟名词或代词作宾语,再跟介词at表示方向,意为“把……指向”,而point to却不能分开使用。
The soldier pointed his gun at the doctor.士兵用枪指着医生。
◎point out意为“指出”,其中out是副词。如果它后面的宾语是代词,则必须把该宾语放在out之前。
Please point out the mistakes in my composition.请指出我作文中的错误。
Luckily, the man knew Mr Green and pointed him out to us.
幸好这个人认识格林先生,于是便把他指给我们看。
6. Although I still make lots of mistakes, it doesn’t bother me like it used to. (P98)虽然我还是出了不少错,但它(法语)不像以前那样让我烦恼。
(1)mistake意为“错误”,“过失”,可数名词,常指由于认识,理解或判断上的失误造成行为或看法上的错误,也指因粗心,疏忽,技术不熟练等而犯的错误。通常与make连用构成make mistakes/a mistake“出错”,“犯错误”。
Anyone can make a mistake. 人人都会犯错误。
He only made two mistakes in grammar today. 他今天只犯了两个语法错误。
(2)bother 意思是“烦扰,打扰”,常用作及物动词。
Hot weather bothers me. 炎热的天气使我烦恼。
7. I find it difficult to remember everything, but I’m gradually getting used to things, and don’t find them so strange any more. (P98)我发现将这一切全记住很难,但慢慢就对这些东西习惯了,也就不再觉得它们很怪异了。
(1)find it difficult to remember everything中的it是形式宾语,动词不定式短语是真正的宾语,形容词difficult是宾补。
I found it hard to do the work all by myself.我发现独自一人干这活很难。
I think it useful to read English in the morning. 我认为早晨读英语很有用。
(2)be used to sth/doing(sth)是中学英语学习中的重点、难点,也是中考考点。常与used to do sth和be used to do sth一起进行考查。
◎be used to是“习惯于”的意思,可用于各种时态。其中to是介词,后面接名词、代词或动词-ing形式。

She isn’t used to living in the country.她不习惯住在乡下。
We’ve been used to hard work.我们已经习惯干累活了。
◎强调界限性的状态,说明从不习惯到习惯时,常在used前面用get或become代替be。这种现象尤其常见于将来时态和完成时态中。
You will soon get used to the weather here.你很快就会习惯这里的天气的。

 
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